DONE INTO ENGLISH BY
ARTHUR GEORGE WARNER, M.A.
EDMOND WARNER, B.A.
"The homes that are the dwellings of to-day
Will sink 'neath shower and sunshine to decay,
But storm and rain shall never mar what I
Have built the palace of my poetry. "
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. L">
DRYDEN HOUSE, GERRARD STREET, W.
The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved
Printed by BALLANTYNK, HANSON & Co.
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh
NOTE ON PRONUNCIATION 5
THE KAIANIAN DYNASTY (continued)
PART I. THE COMING OF ZARDUHSHT AND THE WAR
1. How Firdausi saw Dakiki in a Dream ... 30
2. How Luhrasp went to Balkh and how Gushtasp sat
upon the Throne 31
3. How Zarduhsht appeared and how Gushtasp ac-
cepted his Evangel 33
4. How Gushtasp refused to Arjasp the Tribute for Iran 35
5. How Arjasp wrote a Letter to Gushtasp . . 37
6. How Arjasp sent Envoys to Gushtasp ... 40
7. How Zarir made Answer to Arjasp ... 42
8. How the Envoys returned to Arjasp with the Letter
of Gushtasp ..... 43
9. How Gushtasp assembled his Troops ... 47
10. How Jamasp foretold the Issue of the Battle to
Gushtasp ........ 48
n. How Gushtasp and Arjasp arrayed their Hosts . 54
12. The Beginning of the Battle between the Iranians
and Turanians, and how Ardshir, Shiru, and
Shidasp were slain ...... 56
13. How Girami, Jamasp's Son, and Nivzar were slain . 58
14. How Zarir, the Brother of Gushtasp, was slain by
15. How Asfandiyar heard of the Slaying of Zarir . 65
16. How Asfandiyar went to battle with Arjasp . . 66
17. How Nastur and Asfandiyar slew Bidirafsh . . 69
1 8. How Arjasp fled from the Battle . . . 71
19. How the Turkmans received Quarter from As-
PART I. THE COMING OF ZARDUHSHT AND THE WAR WITH
20. How Gushtasp returned to Balkh .... 74
21. How Gushtasp sent Asfandiyar to all the Provinces,
and how the Folk received from him the good
22. How Gurazm spake Evil of Asfandiyar ... 78
23. How Jamasp came to Asfandiyar .... 80
24. How Gushtasp imprisoned Asfandiyar ... 82
25. How Gushtasp went to Sistan and how Arjasp
arrayed his Host the second Time ... 85
26. The Words of Dakiki being ended, Firdausi
resumeth, praising Shah Mahmud and criticis-
ing Dakiki ... ..... 87
27. How the Host of Arjasp marched to Balkh and
how Luhnisp was slain ..... 89
28. How Gushtasp heard of the Slaying of Luhrasp
and led his Army toward Balkh 93
29. How Gushtasp was put to Flight by Arjasp . . 96
30. How Jamasp visited Asfandiyar .... 98
31. How Asfandiyar saw his Brother Farshidward . 103
32. How Asfandiyar came to the Mountain to Gushtasp 106
33. How Gushtasp sent Asfandiyar the second Time to
fight Arjasp . . . . . . .114
PART II. THE STORY OF THE SEVEN STAGES
1. The Praise of Mahmud the great King . . .118
THE SEVEN STAGES OF ASFANDIYAR
2. The First Stage. How Asfandiyar slew two Wolves 119
3. The Second Stage. How Asfandiyar slew two Lions 124
4. The Third Stage. How Asfandiyar slew a Dragon 125
5. The Fourth Stage. How Asfandiyar slew a Witch 128
6. The Fifth Stage. How Asfandiyar slew the
7. The Sixth Stage. How Asfandiyar passed through
the Snow ........ 134
8. The Seventh Stage. How Asfandiyar crossed the
River and slew Gurgsar . . . . 139
9. How Asfandiyar went to the Brazen Hold in the
Guise of a Merchant . . . . . .143
10. How the Sisters of Asfandiyar recognised him . 147
PART II. THE STORY OF THE SKVEN- STAGES (continued)
11. How Bishutan assaulted the Brazen Hold . .150
12. How Asfandiyar slew Arjasp 152
13. How Asfandiyar slew Kuhram . . . 155
14. How Asfandiyar wrote a Letter to Gushtasp and
his Answer 1 59
15. How Asfandiyar returned to Gushtasp . . . 161
PART III. THE STORY OF ASFANDIYAR'S FIGHT WITH RUSTAM
1. How Asfandiyar ambitioned the Throne and how
Gushtasp took Counsel with the Astrologers . 167
2. How Asfandiyar demanded the Kingdom from his
3. How Gushtasp answered his Son . . . .172
4. How Katayun counselled Asfandiyar . . .175
5. How Asfandiyar led a Host to Zabul . . .177
6. How Asfandiyar sent Bahman to Rustam . . 179
7. How Bahman came to Zal . . . . .182
8. How Bahman gave the Message to Rustam . . 1 84
9. How Rustam made Answer to Asfandiyar . .187
10. How Bahman returned 190
11. The Meeting of Rustam and Asfandiyar . . 192
12. How Asfandiyar summoned not Rustam to the
1 3. How Asfandiyar excused himself for not summoning
Rustam to the Feast 198
14. How Asfandiyar spake Shame of the Race of
Rustam ........ 200
1 5. How Rustarn answered Asfandiyar, praising his own
Race and his Deeds 202
1 6. How Asfandiyar boasted of his Ancestry . . 204
17. How Rustam vaunted his Valour .... 207
1 8. How Rustam drank Wine with Asfandiyar . .210
19. How Rustam returned to his Palace . . .215
20. How Zal counselled Rustam 218
21. How Rustam fought with Asfandiyar . . . 222
22. How the Sons of Asfandiyar were slain by Zawara
and Faramarz ....... 225
23. How Rustam fled to the Heights .... 229
24. How Rustam took Counsel with his Kin . . 234
25. How the Simurgh succoured Rustam . . . 235
26. How Rustam went back to fight Asfandiyar . . 240
PART III. THE STORY OF ASFANDIYAR'S FIGHT WITH
27. How Rustam shot Asfandiyar in the Eyes with an
Arrow ........ 243
28. How Asfandiyar told his last Wishes to Rustam . 247
29. How Bishiitan bare the Coffin of Asfandiyar to
30. How Rustam sent Bahman back to Iran . .256
PART IV. THE STORY OF RUSTAM AND SHAGHAD
1. The Prelude 261
2. How Rustam went to Kabul on behalf of his Brother
3. How the King of Kabul dug Pits in the Hunting-
ground and how Rustam and Zawara fell therein 268
4. How Rustam slew Shaghad and died . . .271
5. How Zal received News of the Slaying of Rustam
and Zawara, and how Faramarz brought their
Coffins and set them in the Charnel-house . 273
6. How Faramarz led an Army to avenge Rustam and
slew the King of Kabul 276
7. How Riidaba lost her Wits through Mourning for
8. How Gushtasp gave the Kingdom to Bahman and
BAHMAN, SON OF ASFANDIYAR
1. How Bahman sought Revenge for the Death of
Asfandiyar ....... 283
2. How Bahman put Zal in Bonds . . . .285
3. How Faramarz fought with Bahman and was put
to Death 287
4. How Bahman released Zal and returned to Iran . 288
5. How Bahman married his own daughter Humai
and appointed his Successor .... 290
1. How Humai cast away her son Darab on the River
Farat in an Ark 294
2. How the Launderer brought up Da'nib . . . 296
3. How Diirab questioned the Launderer's Wife about
his Parentage, and how he fought against the
Rumans ........ 300
4. How Rashnawad learned the Case of Darab . . 302
5. How Darab fought against the Host of Rum . . 305
6. How Humai recognised her Son .... 307
7. How Humai seated Darab upon the Throne . . 309
C. Macau's edition of the Shahnama.
L. Lumsden's do.
P. Mohl's do.
T. Tihran do.
V. Vullers' do.
BGDF. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
By Edward Gibbon. Edited by J. B. Bury, M.A.
BLHP. A Literary History of Persia. By Edward G. Browne,
DZA. Professor Darmesteter's Trans, of the Zandavasta in the
Sacred Books of the East. References to Parts l and
GYZ. Geiger : Das Yatkar-i Zarlran und sein Verhaltniss zum
Suhname. Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-philolo-
gischen und historischen Classe der k. b. Akademie der
Wissenschaften zu Miinchen. 1890. Bd. II. Heft I.
HEP. Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion
of the Parsis. By Martin Haug, Ph.D. Edited and
enlarged by E. W. West, Ph.D.
HLP. The Legend of Perseus. By E. S. Hartland.
HRVP. Veterum Persarum . . . Religionis Historia. Ed. 2nd.
By Thomas Hyde.
JZ. Zoroaster. By A. V. Williams Jackson.
MHP. History of Persia. By Sir John Malcolm, G.C.B.
MM. Ma<,;oudi : Les Prairies d'Or. Texte et Traduction par C.
Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de Courteille.
1 The second edition of Fart I. is referred to unless otherwise
NIN. Das Iranische Nationalepos von Theodor Noldeke.
NT. Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden.
Aus der Arabischen Chronik des Tabari iibersetzt und
mit ausfiihrlichen Erlauterungen und Erganzungen
versehn von Th. Noldeke.
RK. The Koran : Translated from the Arabic. By J. M.
Rodwell. Second edition.
RP. Records of the Past. First Series.
SM. History of the Early Kings of Persia. . . . Translated
from the original Persian of Mirkhond . . . By David
STD. The Dabistan . . . translated ... by David Shea and
WLS. In the Land of the Lion and Sun. . . . By C. J.
WPR. The Pcirsi Religion. By John Wilson.
WPT. Dr. E. W. West's Trans, of the Pahlavi Texts in the Sacred
Books of the East. Reference to Parts and pages.
ZT. Chronique de Abou-Djafar-Mo'hammed-Ben-Djarir-Ben-
Yezid Tabari. Traduite sur la version Persane d'Abou-
'Ali Mo 'hammed Bel'ami par M. Hermann Zotenberg.
a as in " water."
i as in " pique."
u as in "rude."
a as in " servant."
i as in " sin."
u as in " foot."
ai as i in " time."
au as on in " cloud."
y is always hard as in " give."
kh as ch in the German " buch."
sh as z in "azure."
THE KAIANIAN DYNASTY
HE REIGNED ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY
The advent of Zarduhsht is described. Gushtasp is converted,
and war ensues between him and the Turanian king Arjasp.
Gusht;isp is helped out of many straits by his valiant son, Asfan-
diyar, who is incited to exertion by the promise of the kingship.
Gushtasp, however, always finds fresh excuses for delaying his
own abdication, and at length, being much pressed by Asfandiyar,
sends him to bring Rustam in chains to court, with tragic results
to all parties concerned. Gushtasp bestows the kingship on
Bahman, the son of Asfandiyar, and dies.
The reign of Gushtasp falls naturally into four Parts. It is
not, however, so divided, as indicated by the independent num-
bering of the couplets of each Part, either in the Vullers-Landauer
text, from which our translation is made, or in that of Mohl. In
Macan's edition the couplets are not numbered. The division
into Parts is a convenient arrangement. We have adopted it
in the present instance, and propose to do so in future cases when
the reign is long and the subject-matter lends itself to such
To the student of the Shahnama the reign is one of much interest
for many reasons. It contains a fine example of poetic justice,
inasmuch as Gushtasp, having embittered the life of his own
father, 1 now finds himself, owing to rash promises, 2 placed in
a similar quandary with regard to his own son, Asfandiyar.
There is the question, too, as to the position that he occupies
1 See Vol. iv. p. 318 seq. 2 See pp. 66, 97, 107, 114.
io THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
from the standpoint of history. We have the account of the
advent of Zarduhsht (Zoroaster), his preaching and the conse-
quent conversion of Gushtasp, and, what renders this still more
interesting, not in Firdausi's own words but in those of his con-
temporary Dakiki, whose untimely death gave Firdausi the great
opportunity of his life one of which he was prompt to avail
himself. Here, too, for the first time, we are enabled to compare
the Shahnama with an extant Pahlavi version of the same subject-
matter, and can see for ourselves how closely Dakiki followed his
authorities, just as later on we shall be enabled to compare
Firdausi's own work with a similar extant Pahlavi version, when
we come to the Ashkiinian dynasty and the account therein given
of the rise to power of Ardshir Papakiin, the founder of the
Sasanian dynasty. Here, too, the great champion of priestly tradi-
tion Asfandiyiir is introduced and brought face to face with
the great hero of popular tradition Rustam. In this reign, too,
the long life of the latter hero comes to an end, and Firdausi
tells us whence he obtained the information that enabled him
to include his account of that end in the poem. We have also
in his continuation of Dakiki what we may regard, not, indeed,
as the earliest of his literary efforts, but the earliest in intentional
connexion with the Shahnama. It is interesting, too, to compare
the styles of the two poets, though that is rather for the student
of the original than for the reader of the translation.
For Gushtasp, see Vol. ii. p. 9. We may, however, add a few
words on the way in which some of the more salient features of
the historical epoch associated with the names of Cyrus and
Darius Hystaspis are indicated in the legendary accounts of Kai
Khusrau, Luhrasp, and Gushtasp. The Achsemenids, as is well
known, ruled in a double collateral line an elder and a younger.
With the death of Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, the elder line
came to an end. The rightful heir, so to speak, was the head
of the younger line Hystaspes a man, as later events showed,
not lacking in vitality and courage, for as Governor of Parthia
he maintained the cause of his house energetically during the
troublous times that followed the accession of his more famous
son, Darius I., to the throne. Why Hystaspes stood aside in
favour of his son it is difficult to see, but the facts, if we leave
out of account the reign of Cambyses, seem clearly reproduced
in legendary form in the Shahnama. Kai Khusrau, before his
passing, appointed a distant, little-known Kaianian collateral
Luhrasp to succeed him, but Luhrasp was overshadowed com-
pletely by his more famous son, Gushtasp, in whose favour
ultimately he retired. In a time of stress later on, however, he is
represented as fighting gallantly. Again, the period ushered in
by the death of Cambyses was one of great religious and political
disturbance. Magism became very prominent in the person of
the false Smerdis, and, whatever interpretation we put upon the
statement in the Bihistfin inscription, that he destroyed the
temples of the gods and that Darius restored them, 1 it is evident
that some grave religious question was at stake. Further, the
accession of Darius was the signal for a series of revolts extending
over several years and involving nearly the whole empire. It was
only after a most desperate struggle that the genius of Darius
triumphed. Among his other enemies, he had to contend against
the northern foe the Scythians and later on led a famous expe-
dition against them to the banks of the Danube. These three
features of his reign the religious question, civil war, and wars
with the Scythians are all indicated in a legendary form in the
reign of Gushtasp. The religious question is very prominent, the
civil war is represented by the fact that the leaders on both sides
have Persian names, 8 while the wars themselves are waged against
a northern foe. Again, the information that we possess seems -to
indicate that Darius was the Constantino the Great of his time,
and changed his religion in the course of his reign 3 just as
Gushtasp is represented as doing in the Shahnama. Zarduhsht
"came" to Darius in a spiritual sense just as he came in the
flesh, traditionally, to Gushtasp. Lastly, Darius married the
widow of Cambyses Atossa. There is no trace of this in the
Shahnama, where Gushtasp is represented as marrying Caesar's
daughter, Katiiyun, but it is worth mentioning with a view of
connecting him with Darius Hystaspis that, as West has sug-
gested, 4 the name of Gushtasp's wife in the Zandavasta Hutaosa
bears a striking resemblance to that of Darius' wife.
Many of the chief characters of this reign appear in the Zanda-
vasta, with the exception of Zal and his descendants, who were
either not known to, or were ignored by, its compilers. Luhrasp
appears as Aurva-aspa, but is mentioned merely as the father of
Gushtasp, who appears as Vistaspa, had one of its Books the
Vi.stasp-sast named after him. It dealt with his conversion by
Zarduhsht (Zoroaster) and his subsequent war with Arjasp. It
is partly extant. 5 Gushtasp has the distinction of appearing in
the Gathas the oldest part, as generally is held, of the Zanda-
vasta. Elsewhere in it he is represented as praying that he may
1 See Vol. i. p. 58. 2 Id. ii. 9.
3 Id. i. 59. 4 WPT, v. 71, note.
b DZA, i. xxxvi, ii. 324 seq.
12 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSf
overcome and put to flight Arjasp and others. 1 His triumph over
them also is recorded. 2
Zarir, Gushtasp's brother, appears as Zairi-vairi, and is repre-
sented as offering up sacrifices that he may overcome Arjasp. 3
Asfandiyar, the most famous of Gushtasp's sons, appears as
Spento-data. 4 He is not nearly so much in evidence as one would
expect in view of the important place that he occupies in later
tradition, where he becomes a sort of Zoroastrian Khalid, spreading
the Faith with fire and sword. The chief credit is given to Gush-
Bishutan, Asfandiyar's brother, appears as Pesho-tanu, and is
described as exempt, like Kai Khusrau, from sickness and death. 5
Gurazm, probably another brother, though the Shahnama leaves
the exact relationship indefinite, appears as "the holy Kavarazem." 6
In the Shahnama, however, he has an evil reputation as the
slanderer of Asfandiyar, who in consequence is imprisoned by
Humai, Asfandiyar's sister, appears as Huma. 7
Nastur, Zarir's son, seems to be the same as " the holy Basta-
vairi." 8 If so, we should read Bastur for Nastur.
Jamasp, Gushtasp's chief minister, is mentioned in the Gathas
as well as elsewhere in the Zandavasta. He married one of
Zarduhsht's daughters, 9 wrote down the Zandavasta, 10 and suc-
ceeded the Prophet as high priest of Iran. 11 Further mention
will be made of him, Gushtasp, Asfandiyar, and Bishutan below.
Arish, who is merely referred to, appears in the Zandavasta as
Erekhsha khshviwi-ishush, and in Pahlavi as Arish Shivatir, i.v.
11 Arish of the swift arrow." He was a famous Iranian archer, and
after a war, not mentioned in the Shahnama, between Minuchihr
and Afnisiyab, was deputed to settle the frontier between Iran
and Tiiran, by shooting an arrow from the top of Mount Dama-
wand, the boundary to be wherever the arrow fell. He shot
accordingly. The arrow flew eastward from dawn till noon, and
then dropped on the banks of the Jihun (Oxus). 12
In the Zandavasta, as we have seen already, the foes of the
Iranians, e.g. Zahhak 13 and Afrasiyab, 14 offer sacrifices and pray for
boons in just the same way as the Iranians themselves do, and to
the same divine beings. Similarly we find Arjasp and his brother
Andariman, who appear in the Zandavasta as Are</a-aspa and
1 DZA, ii. 79, 117.
2 Id. 306.
3 Id. 80.
4 Id. 207.
5 Id. 329.
6 Id. 207.
7 Id. 224.
8 Id. 207 and note.
9 JZ, 21.
30 Id. 117.
11 Id. 136.
12 DZA, ii. 95 and note.
13 Vol. i. p. 142.
14 Id. iv. 137.
Vajidaremaini respectively, praying for victory over Gushtasp and
Zarir. 1 It should be mentioned, however, that Arjasp is not
called a Turanian, as Afr;isiy;ib is, 2 but a Hvyaona.. 3 Who the
Hvy&onas were is a disputed point. Their name has suggested
both the Hiong-Nu of Chinese records, who may or may not have
been the Huns, 4 and the Chionitse of Ammianus Marcellinus, who
refers to their political relations with the S;is;inian Shah Sapor II.
in the middle of the fourth century A.D. 3 The identification of
the -fiTtyaonas the Khyons of the Pahlavi Texts and of the
Yatkar-i-Zariran 6 with the Chionitse is a very probable one, and
bears out the view adopted in this work that the legends of the
Shahnama originated, and its chief scene of action lay, at least
during most of the mythical period, \^st of the Caspian. 7 The
Chionitse are associated with the Gelani or people of Gilan, by
Ammianus Marcellinus, 8 and Gushtasp is represented in the
Zandavasta as praying behind the river Daitya for victory over
them. 9 It is certain that the Daitya, which has been identified
with the Aras, 10 the Kur, and the Safid Rud, 11 is to be looked for
to the west of the Caspian. It is true that in another passage
Gushtasp is represented as praying by Lake Frazdanava for
victory over Arjasp and other foes, 12 and that in the Pahlavi
Texts this lake is described as being in Sagastan (Sistan), 13 but
the tendency at present seems to be in favour of identifying it
with the Armenian river Hrazdan, 14 which will bring it into line
with the other passages. It is only natural that the Chionitse
should leave their traces in Persian tradition, as they came on the
scene at the epoch when the Zandavasta was being compiled. 15
They are not mentioned by name in the Shahnama, but in Dakiki's
portion a peculiar word, "Paighu," not found elsewhere in the poem,
or at all events not in the texts used in the present translation,
is occasionally employed with reference to the northern enemy.
Zarduhsht or Zardusht, as the name is varyingly spelt in
the Shahnama, but more familiarly known to western readers as
Zoroaster, naturally dominates the Zandavasta, of which he is the
traditional author. His name therein appears as Zarathushtra,
and many scholars have exercised their ingenuity as to its meaning.
Perhaps the best interpretation divides the word into " zar " and
1 DZA, ii. 80. 2 E.g., id. 114. 3 Id. 117.
4 BGDF, iii. 493. 5 Bk. xvi. c. 9, xvii. 5, xviii. 6 scq.
8 See p. 24.
7 See Vol. i. pp. 16 seq., 71, ii. p. 336, iv. p. 136.
8 Bk. xvii. c. 5. 9 DZA, ii. 117, 280. 10 Id. i. 4, note.
11 JZ, 197 and note. 12 DZA, ii. 79. 13 WPT, i. 86.
14 JZ, 211 and note, 220, 221. 15 See VoL i. p. 63.
14 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
"ushtra." The reader may be reminded, that Sam, on recover-
ing his outcast son, gave him the name of Zal-i-zar or Zal the old. 1
"TJshtra" is the ancient form of the modern "ushtar," camel.
Zarathushtra therefore seems to mean " Old Camel," or " He whose
camels are old." For reasons sufficiently weighty at the time
when the Shahnama was written, the account given of him in that
poem is of the briefest, and it is proposed therefore to amplify
it from other traditional sources. According to these he was
born in B.C. 660 the year of the accession of Shah Gushtasp.*
His father's name was Pourushaspa, 3 his mother's Dughdhova. 4
His father's home seems to have been situated in a valley 5 on
the upper bank of the river Dareja, 8 best identified with the
modern Daryai Hud, also known as the Kara su, or " Blackwater,"
which flows from Mount Savalan, northward to the Aras. 7 His
mother, Dughdhova, seems to have been a native of the city or
district of Rai, near Tihran. 8 Being the highly favoured among
women as the destined mother of the Prophet, the divine Glory
rested on her in a visible form from her birth. The demons, in-
stinctively aware that it would not be to their interests to ignore
this portent, smote the district where she lived with three
plagues excessive cold, pestilence, and oppressive enemies and
then suggested to the inhabitants that the girl was a witch, and
therefore the cause of the trouble. Pourushaspa did his best to
defend his daughter, affirming that such a radiance as proceeded
from her was too brilliant to be accounted for on the score of
witchcraft, but, owing to the pertinacity of the demons, the inter-
ference of the Karap and Kavig of the district, and the secret
purpose of Providence to confound the wicked by their own
devices, the girl was sent away to the house of her future father-
in-law, thus directly bringing about the very result that the
demons were most anxious to avoid. 9 The Karaps and Kavigs, so
called in the Pahlavi Texts, appear in the Zandavasta as Karpans
and Kavis. The Karaps seem to have been the orthodox witch-
doctors, or medicine-men, of a time when the separation, still in-
complete, of the crafts of the priest, the leech, and the witch, not
even had begun, and naturally they are held up to execration by
the later orthodox Zoroastrian clergy. The Kavigs, equally repro-
bated, perhaps represented the lay official element. 10 The village
to which the maligned maiden was exiled was the home of a
family or clan called, from their eponymous ancestor, " Spitamas."
Zarduhsht thus became known to future times as Zarathushtra
1 Vol. i. p. 248. 2 WPT, v., xxix. 3 DZA, i. 211.
4 WPT, iii. 302. 5 Id. v. 21. DZA, i. 211.
7 Id. xlix. ; ist. ed. JZ, 194. 8 Id. 192.
9 WPT, v. 18 aeq. 10 Id. 19, note.
Spitama. Urmuzd, it should be stated, had begun, in consultation
with the ameshaspentas, to make arrangements for his birth 5970
years before it occurred. 1 The procedure involved being some-
what complex, 2 it will suffice to say that the maiden Dugh-
dhova was in due course espoused to Pourushaspa, 3 that for three
days before the Prophet came into the world the village was all
luminous with the divine Glory to the great terror of the inhabi-
tants, 4 and that the babe was born laughing, to the discomfiture of
the seven midwives that were in attendance. 5 Dughdhova was
fifteen years old when her son was born, and from that moment
the divine Glory, which had encompassed her from her birth,
passed to him. 6 The situation seems to have been altogether too
much for Pourushaspa, who appears to have felt and acted just as
Sam did on the occasion of the birth of Zal. 7 Especially, he was
perturbed at the laughter of the babe at birth, and was only too
eager to be rid of his uncanny offspring. Accordingly, he called
in the most famous medicine-man of the district, by name Duras-
robo, who at once attempted to lay violent hands upon the babe,
but they became so twisted that he never could feed himself
again. 8 He, however, so wrought upon the father that the latter
tried several times to put the child to death. He made a pyre
of wood and laid Zarduhsht thereon ; placed him on a narrow
path and drove cattle along it ; set him beside a pool and brought
horses to water there ; but all his endeavours proved fruitless.
The fire would not burn the babe, while the foremost ox and horse
stood over him till the rest of the herds had passed. The child
was then left in the den of a wolf, whose cubs just before had been
slaughtered, but on each occasion the babe was recovered unhurt
by the devoted mother, who indignantly informed her spouse that
he was worse than the wolf ! 9 Durasr6b6 then brought upon the
scene a malignant disciple of his own named Brarfrok-resh, a sort
of Balaam, who, though willing to injure Zarduhsht, yet was im-
pelled to proclaim his future greatness. These two and the father
still collogued, but all their plans were frustrated and their argu-
ments refuted by the growing child. At length Durasrobo came to
a bad end, 10 but Bnu/rok-resh lived to be the slayer of the Prophet. 11
Zarduhsht had four brothers, two elder, of course by another wife
of his father's, and two younger. 12 When he was fifteen years old,
he and his brothers asked their father to bestow portions upon
them, and he did so. Part of what was divided consisted of
1 WPT, v., xxviii. 2 /rf. J7> 18,21; JZ, 24. 3 WPT, v. 25.
4 Id. 30. 5 Id. 35. 6 JZ, 24.
7 See Vol. i. p. 239 seq. 8 WPT, v. 36. 9 Id. 36 aeg.
10 Id. 40 aeq. 1] Id. 126. ia Id. 144.
1 6 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
raiment, and from this Zarduhsht selected and assumed the girdle
a symbolical act like that of the assumption of the sacred cord
by the twice-born in India. At the age of twenty he left his
parents' house without their permission, and began the years of
preparation that was to end in divine illumination later on. Of
this period little is recorded except that he went about doing
good, helping the weak and aged, and in times of scarcity giving
his father's fodder to feed other men's cattle, which were so hungry
that, as the original record puts it, they constantly ate off each
other's tails. 1 He is said also to have abandoned worldly desires,
but this did not prevent his marrying, partly, as it would seem,
to please his parents. He showed, however, his good sense by
asking to see the face of the proposed bride before espousing her.
Also he attended the assembly of the wise, and asked them ques-
tions. 2 On the day Dai pa Mihr of the month Ardibihisht, or,
in our prosaic modern equivalent, on May 5th, B.C. 630, when he
was thirty years old, the Revelation came to him. The ame-
shaspenta Vohu Manau (Vohuman, Bahman) 3 met him in the
neighbourhood, probably, of the Safid Rud, or White River, in
Azarbaijan, 4 and bore him to the presence of Urmuzd and to
the other five ameshaspentas. When Zarduhsht arrived within
twenty-four feet of them, he ceased to see his own shadow on the
ground owing to the universally diffused radiance that proceeded
from them. In the conference with Urmuzd that ensued, Zar-
duhsht was informed that the three perfections of the embodied
world were good thoughts, good words, and good deeds ; that to
recognise the ameshaspentas as such, i.e. as immortal benefactors,
was good ; that to behold them was better ; and that to obey them
was best of all. He was instructed also in the doctrine of
Dualism. The vision occurred thrice on that day, and Zarduhsht
underwent three ordeals walking on fire, having molten metal
poured on his chest and holding it in his hand, and being wounded
with a knife and healed by the passing of hands over the place,
so that in time to come the faithful also might be enabled to
endure the like for the glory of the good religion. 5 Inspired
by this revelation, Zarduhsht began his missionary labours,
1 Cf., "the animals were so hungry that they bit one another's
tails. . . . One horse had actually not a hair left on his tail." Sven
Hedin, Trans- Himalaya, p. 160.
2 WPT, v. 151 seq. 3 See Vol. iii. p. 271. 4 JZ, 41, 197.
5 WPT, v. 154 seq. In the reign of SMpur, son of Urmuzd (Sapor II.
A.D. 309-379), the saintly Adarb;td, son of Mahraspand, underwent the
ordeal of having molten metal poured upon his breast and came out
of it triumphant. DZA, i., xlvi. ; WPT, iii. 171, and iwte.
attempting in the first instance to convert the assembled Kavigs
and Karaps. He appealed to them to accept the religion of
Urmuzd, to forego demon-worship, and to adopt the principle of
next of kin marriages. With regard to this last article, it is diffi-
cult to rise superior to inherited taboos and not feel a certain
sympathy with Zarduhsht's hearers when we read that at this
point they rushed upon him and strove to put him to death. 1
We may, however, acquit Zarduhsht, or at least the Zarathushtra
of the Guthas, of ever having advocated such a doctrine, first on
the general principle that it never would have occurred to one
who not yet had made a single disciple, it being a device far more
suitable to a Faith in extremis, and secondly, because it is not
advocated in the Gathas themselves. Next of kin marriages, of
course, occurred in ancient times between exalted, almost divine,
personages regarded as being above the customary taboos, but
such marriages were not peculiar to Zoroastrians. 2 Other at-
tempts of Zarduhsht to spread his evangel are recorded, in the
course of which he is said to have journeyed as far east as Sistan,*
but all proved fruitless. It was not till ten years after his receipt
of the Revelation that he made his first convert his cousin
Maidhyo-maungha, the son of Arasti, who was Pourushaspa's
brother. 4 During these ten years Zarduhsht appears to have
returned from time to time to his own home, apparently for the
winter months, and to have received at such seasons a series of
further Revelations from each of the six ameshaspentas in turn. 5
Time, however, was slipping by ; ten years had passed, only one
convert had been made, and in despair the Prophet again appealed
to Urmuzd, received the complete Revelation, the sacred formula
wherewith to smite the fiends the formula known as the Ahuna
Vairya, beginning, " The will of the Lord is the law of righteous-
ness," and was warned that he would be assailed by the demons. 6
The warning was needed. He was attacked at the moment of his
greatest spiritual exaltation. The demon Buiti made the first
assault, but was repulsed. Next came the evil counterpart of the
arneshaspenta Vohu Manau Akem Manau ("Bad thought") 7
with his malignant riddles ; but Zarduhsht pelted him with stones.
Lastly, Ahriman came on the scene in person. All that was
required of the Prophet was that he should worship as his mother
worshipped a very subtle form of temptation. Let him but
renounce the good religion, and the sovereignty of the whole
world should be his ; but Zarduhsht refused, chanted the Ahuna
Vairya, and foiled the tempter. 8 Another trial, against which
1 WPT, v. 50. 2 See on the whole subject WPT, ii. 389.
3 Id. v. 57. 4 Id. v. 163 ; DZA, ii. 203. 5 WPT, v. 159 seq.
6 JZ, 51. ' Cf. Vol. iii. p. 271. 8 DZA, i. 209 seq.
VOL. V. B
1 8 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Uvmuzd had warned him, was still to come. One of the medicine-
men of the old religion assumed the form of the female ame-
shaspenta Sapandarmad, and accosted him. Now Zarduhsht had
had opportunities of seeing the true Sapandarmad, and knew that
she was in all respects well formed and lovely while her imper-
sonator would be fair in front but hideous behind. He therefore
bade the temptress turn herself round. After protesting vainly,
she did so ; her falsity became evident, and the phantasm was
annihilated. 1 Inspired by Urmuzd, Zarduhsht now determined on
a bold step that of attempting to convert Shah Gushtasp to
the Faith. The " terrible conflict," as tradition calls it, that
ensued lasted two years, 2 for the Evangelist was opposed des-
perately by the medicine-men whom he found in possession at
that monarch's court. 3 We may lay the scene at Balkh. The
first interview between Zarduhsht and Gushtasp seems to have
taken place on the riding-ground. At first, as the expression
11 terrible conflict " implies, the Prophet came off badly. The
king, it is true, was inclined to give ear to him, but his
opponents, fearful lest he should prevail with Gushtasp, induced
the latter to imprison him and leave him to starve to death. 4
At this moment, however, Providence intervened with regard to
a transaction, the account of which exists only in fragments and
allusions in the older authorities. Here, therefore, we have to
turn for a consecutive narrative to the Zartusht-nama, a poetical
version of the life of the Prophet, written by one of the faithful,
Zartusht Bahram Pazhdu by name, apparently at Rai, near
Tihran, and finished on August I2th, A.D. I278. 6 We learn from
this that Zarduhsht's opponents, worsted by him in argument
at a three days' conference held before the king, concealed abomi-
nations in his house and then accused him of sorcery. Gushtasp
ordered search to be made, the incriminating articles were found,
and Zarduhsht was cast into prison. Now, while he was lan-
guishing there, a mysterious and unprecedented event occurred.
The legs of the king's favourite black horse were drawn up
into the animal's body, and king, court, and people were all in
consternation. Zarduhsht heard of the matter through the
keeper of the prison, and offered to heal the steed on four con-
ditions. Gushtasp accepted them seriatim, and, as he did so, Zar-
duhsht drew forth from the body of the horse its four legs one
by one. The conditions were, that Gushtasp should acknowledge
1 WPT, v. 62. 2 Id. 73. 3 Id. 64. 4 Id. 64 seq.
6 Id. xx. seq., where a summary is given of the work, the whole of
which, translated by Eastwick, is to be found in Wilson's "Pdrsi Re-
ligion," referred to as WPR.
Zarduhsht to be a true prophet ; that Asfandiyar should become
the champion of the true religion ; that Zarduhsht should have
facilities for converting the queen ; and that his false accusers
should be punished. It need hardly be added that with the re-
storation of the fourth leg the steed became as well as ever. 1 We
learn from the same authority that Gushtasp, eager perhaps to
avail himself to the utmost of such a unique opportunity, made
in his turn four requests of Zarduhsht. These were, that the
king's future doom should be revealed to him ; that he should
become invulnerable ; that he should know both the past and the
future ; and that he should be undying till the Resurrection.
Zarduhsht said that he would pray that these boons should be
granted, but that the king must be content to ask only one of the
four, whichever he preferred, for himself, and leave the other three
for others. Gushtasp agreed to this ; Zarduhsht withdrew to his
own abode, and spent the night in prayer. The next morning
a great marvel happened. Four heavenly messengers, two of
them being ameshaspentas, sent by Urmuzd, arrived at court and
exhorted Gushtasp to be firm in the Faith proclaimed to him
by Zarduhsht, to cherish that Prophet, and to obey him in all
things. The king swooned on his throne, but on his recovery
promised full obedience to the divine injunctions, and the angelic
band departed. Zarduhsht then prepared to perform the Darun.
In the present day this is a ceremony held on behalf of some
particular person, who is mentioned by name in the course of it,
at the end of which the ceremonial wafer-bread the Darun is
broken into pieces and partaken of first by the celebrant and the
other priests present, and then by the rest of the congregation.*
Zarduhsht, however, on the occasion of which we write, prepared
four things wine, perfumes, milk, and a pomegranate. Gushtasp
drank of the wine and slept. In his sleep he had a vision of
Paradise, and saw his own place therein the boon that he had
desired. Bishutan drank of the milk, and became immortal.
Jamasp smelt of the perfumes, and immediately became possessed
of all knowledge. Asfandiyar ate of the pomegranate, became
invulnerable, and thus acquired the title of "the brazen-bodied." 3
From this point, as easily may be imagined, the cause of the good
religion began to prosper; but the serious opposition known as
" The War of the Religion " was still to come, and this we shall
find set forth in the Shahnama itself. 4
1 WPR, 499 seq. 2 HEP, 396, 407. 3 WPR, 509 seq.
4 The reader that desires farther information about the Prophet
of Iran should consult Professor A. V. Williams Jackson's " Zoroaster,"
referred to in the notes as JZ.
THE COMING OF ZARDUHSHT AND THE WAR
Firdausi describes how Dakiki appeared to him in a dream, and
begged that the thousand couplets which he (Dakiki) had composed
might be incorporated in the Shahnama. Firdausi accordingly gives
Dakiki's couplets. They deal with the advent of Zarduhsht
(Zoroaster), the conversion of Gushtasp, the religious war with
Turan, which ensued, the defeat of Arjasp, king of Turan, by
Asfandiyar, Gushtasp's heroic son, the differences that arise
between Asfandiyar and his father, the temporary disgrace and
imprisonment of the former, and Arj asp's preparations for a
fresh campaign. At the conclusion of Dakiki's couplets, Firdausi
proceeds to criticise them, and then takes up the thread of the
story himself. Arjasp again invades Iran, storms Balkh, slays
Luhnisp and Zarduhsht, and carries off Asfandiyar's sisters.
Gushtasp is forced to appeal for assistance to Asfandiyar, who at
first refuses, but finally assents, in order to avenge his brother
Farshidward, who has been slain in battle by the Ttminians, and
on the understanding that his father will resign the throne in his
favour. Arjasp is defeated, but Gushtasp refuses to carry out his
part of the bargain till Asfandiyar has rescued his sisters from
126. This passage, with the exception of the preface in i
and the postscript in 26, which were written by Firdausi and will
be referred to later, is by another poet Dakiki of whose life, as
Professor Noldeke says, 1 we know very little, and nothing with
certainty. The name Dakiki, like Firdausi, is a mere nom deplume.
1 NIN. 16.
He appears, however, to have flourished during the reign of the
Samanid ruler, Mansur I. (A.D. 961-976), to whom and to his
successor, Nuh II. (A.D. 976-997), he wrote eulogies still extant. 1
Doubtlessly he was a Persian by birth, and, if we can trust his
own statement, a Zoroastrian as well. 2 He had a considerable
reputation, not undeserved, as a poet in his own day, 3 and died>
murdered by one of his own slaves, early, it would appear,* in
the reign of Nuh II. The similarity of the work of Dakiki and
Firdausi is remarkable. They use the same metre and pretty
much the same vocabulary, have a similar style, and affect the same
figures of speech. In fact, it might be maintained that in most of
the above respects Firdausi carefully copied his predecessor ; but
the better opinion seems to be that the features above mentioned
were the common property of the poets of the time, and would be
used by them as a matter of course when dealing with similar
subject-matter. Still it is possible to detect differences and
discrepancies in the work of the two poets. With regard to the
former, for instance, Professor Noldeke points out that the
presentation is more formal in Dakiki's hands. When a new hero
enters, and when he falls, the account is given in the same manner,
almost in the same words, and is not varied as Firdausi knew how
to vary such things ; and further, that the treatment of the
subject-matter is less adroit, Gushtasp, for instance, being repre-
sented as twice on the point of joining in the fray and each time
easily dissuaded from so doing. 5 Again, Dakiki uses certain words 6
that apparently, though this is stated with all reserve, Firdausi
does not. With regard to the discrepancies, an attentive reader
even of the present translation might note some. For instance,
when, in the reign of Kai Khusrau, we heard last of the political
relations between Iran and Turan, the latter, left kingless by the
destruction of Afrasiyab and all his house, was represented as
being in a state of complete subjection to the former. Then
comes the reign of Luhrasp, in which we hear nothing on the sub-
ject, after which, at the beginning of that of Gushtasp, an entirely
new political situation is sprung upon us. 7 Iran is represented
1 They may be found translated, with others of Dakiki's short poems,
in BLHP, i. 461.
2 Id. 459. See too Vol. i. p. 69. 3 BLHP, i. 460, ii. 127.
4 See Vol. i. p. 28. 5 NIN, 17. See pp. 64, 68.
6 E.g. "Paighu" = Turkman, and " tigin " = brave.
7 Can it be that a legend now lost dealt with the fortunes of some
viceroy, appointed by Kai Khusrau to administer Turan, and the
descendants of such viceroy ? He or they in the days of Luhntsp may
have obtained the predominance and been handed down by tradition
22 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSf
as tributary to Ttiran, and the latter is under the rule of a power-
ful king. This was all right from Dakiki's point of view, because he
started on that assumption, but it is hard to believe that Firdausi,
looking before and after as he must have done, would have ren-
dered no explanation of, or made no reference to, the new state of
affairs if he had been the author of this part of the poem. Again, in
Dakiki, who doubtlessly follows his authorities, Asfandiyar marries
his sister Humai. Firdausi ignores this, and deliberately prefers
to make a fine scene of his own less convincing in consequence.
Gushtasp, having imprisoned Asfandiyar owing to the charge made
against him by the envious Gurazm, is defeated and hardly pressed
by Arjasp. He sends Jamasp to persuade Asfandiyar to forget
his ill-treatment and furnish much needed help. Jamasp urges
various pleas, and among them the captivity among the Turkmans
of Asfandiyar's sisters Humai and Bih Afrid but the resentful
captive remains obdurate till Jamasp falls back upon the case of
Farshidward, who is represented as being the only member of
Asfandiyar's family that felt concern for him in his disgrace. The
plea of the captivity of Humai his wife as well as sister was
ready at hand to be put into Jamasp's mouth had Firdausi so
desired, but he refrained, and in this portion of the Shahnama
represented the brother and sister as being wholly indifferent to
each other. Again, the formal introduction of Rustam, 1 after all
that has gone before, might strike the reader as somewhat curious.
If the fact of Dakiki's authorship had been unknown, it is not
impossible that some critic might have based a theory of difference
of authorship on some such considerations as those mentioned
above ; but it would have been sufficient to reply that Firdausi's
own style is not uniform throughout the Shahnama, 1 and that the
passage in question reads like a first draft, which, owing to some
accident or oversight, had been left unrevised. This is precisely
what it is, and for the best of reasons in Dakiki's case, inasmuch as
" death approaching unexpectedly
Imposed its gloomy helmet on his head,"
as Firdausi put it on another occasion. 3 Lack of opportunity
for revision, too, is the best answer to Firdausi's somewhat severe
criticisms of his predecessor's work. 4 Why, then, did he insert it ?
as " Arjasp." This would account for the Iranian character of that
word, and explain and justify the outbreak of the War of the
1 See p. 85. - <?/. Vol. iii. p. 285. 3 Id. L 109.
* See p. 87.
Several reasons may be given. First, by so doing he paid off
his debt : *
" He was my pioneer, and he alone." l
Secondly, it got Firdausi himself out of a difficulty. The
epoch of the advent of Zarduhsht was a dangerous one to
treat in those days of fanaticism. The dead poet was beyond
the reach of offended Muhammadan orthodoxy, so his work, the
insertion of which was justified on the plea of a dream a portent
not lightly to be disregarded in those days was substituted for
what the living poet would have had to write or leave a serious
omission in the poem. Thirdly, Firdausi's real opinion of Dakiki's
literary ability was in all probability higher than he thought it
politic to accentuate in close proximity to such a dangerous topic.
When he wrote the Prelude to the Sh;ihn;ima he expressed himself
much more favourably. Fourthly, Dakiki's alleged inferiority
might serve as a foil. If his feeble strain won him honour and
emolument from the great, whose praises he sang, how much more,
should the fluent and refined work of his successor gain substantial
recognition. 2 Lastly, the ostensible reason after all may have been
the real one. To have a vivid dream is not uncommon ; to act upon
it is rarer no doubt ; but instances have been known, and Firdausi's
case may be one in point ; at all events, he says so. Like other great
poets he was, we may assume, highly strung ; and Dakiki's death, its
tragic suddenness, and the vista that it opened, cannot fail to have
impressed him. Be this as it may, he adopted Dakiki's literary
orphan, but, having provided permanently for it, did not allow it to
interfere further with his own poetical progeny. Without dis-
paraging Dakiki, we may congratulate ourselves, on the whole, upon
the course that events took. Whatever he may have been, he was
not a Firdausi. Apart altogether from the literary side of the
question, there must have been a regularity of life, a steadfastness
of purpose, and a moral elevation in the latter's case which seem
to have been only too lacking in the former's. Had Dakiki's life
been prolonged for a season, he might, unintentionally of course,
have played the part of the dog in the manger, obstructing
Firdausi without having the needful qualities or opportunities for
the accomplishment of a task of such magnitude himself. The two
poets, however, par nobile fratrum as they were in genius and in
enthusiasm, had one other excellent point in common. They
followed their authorities in all essential particulars, and did not
24 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSt
invent on their own account. So far as Dakiki is concerned, this
will be shown in what follows. *
The Shahnama may be described as a great river the outcome
of many tributaries. The greatest of these undoubtedly is the
prose compilation of ancient legend known as the Bastan-nama, or
Khudai-nama, of which some account has been given already. 1
This in its turn had its affluents, some of which we may conceive of
as passing into it in their primitive form while others entered it in
an already mingled stream. Some affluents again wholly merged
and thus lost their independent existence entirely, while others
only partially did so and thus preserved their own identity. Of
these latter again one at least passed out of sight for a time only
to reappear in a somewhat altered but still recognisable form
later on. In the interval, however, between its disappearance
and reappearance, it is evident that its contents became tinged
with that of other sources. The result, as we now possess it, is a
little Pahlavi Text known as the Yatkar-i-Zariran. This gives us
a very good notion of what the original affluent must have con-
tained, and as it deals with the same matters as are dealt with by
Dakiki in 2-19, we are in a position to check his work. It should
be understood clearly that the Yatkar-i-Zariran was not the actual
authority followed by him, but stands collaterally related to the
version of the original affluent which, mingled with the Bastan-
naina, passed, after further vicissitudes and centuries later, into
his hands. The following is a summary of the main points of
resemblance and difference between the Yatkar-i-Zariran and
Dakiki, the former being referred to as Z and the latter as D.
First, for the resemblance. Most of the names appear in both,
the only difference being that in Z we have some of them in the
Pahlavi, and in D all of them in the modern Persian, form. Thus
in Z we have Vishtasp and in D Gushtasp, in Z Spand-dat and in
D Asfandiyar, in Z Garamik-kart and in D Girami. In both,
Arjasp hears that Gushtasp has adopted the Faith of Zarduhsht,
and sends envoys to bid him recant or take the consequences.
The envoys' names are Vidrafsh and Nam-khast, son of Hazar,
in Z ; Bidirafsh and Namkhast, son of Hazaran, in D. In both,
Zarir, the captain of the Iranian host, obtains Gushtasp's per-
mission to answer Arjasp's letter, and does so, accepting the
arbitrament of war ; the envoys return to Arjasp, and the monarchs
prepare for battle. In both, Gushtasp calls upon Jamasp, his
chief minister, to foretell the issue of the coming fight ; under
protest Jamasp does so, and the king is so perturbed that he
1 Vol. i. p. 66 seq.
announces his intention of not allowing his nearest and dearest
to go upon the battlefield ; but when Jamasp points out the ills
which in that event will befall Iran, he resigns himself to the
inevitable. In both, Arjasp and Gushtasp take up their posts of
survey, and the fight begins ; Zarir displays great valour; Arjiisp
in alarm offers his daughter's hand and high office to any one who
will fight Zarir ; Bidiraf sh volunteers, and kills Zarir from behind.
In both, Gushtasp on the hill-top forebodes the death of Zarir, and
offers his daughter Humai in marriage to any one that will avenge
him ; Zarir's son (Bastvar in Z, Nastur in D) 1 obtains a steed
from the master of the horse, goes forth to the battlefield, finds
his father lying dead, laments over him, fights and returns to
Gushtasp, who equips and sends him forth again. In both, he
fights so bravely that Arjasp compares him to Zarir, dispatches
Bidirafsh to encounter him, and Bidirafsh is slain. In both,
Asfandiy;ir and Nastur totally defeat the enemy, and Arjasp gets
back to his own realm. 4
In addition to these general points of resemblance, there are'
others in matters of detail, as where, both in Z and D, Girumi is
represented as fighting while holding the royal standard between
his teeth, but these need not detain us. It remains to point out
the difference. In Z Arjasp is the ruler of the Khyons ; 2 in D
of the Turkmans and of Chin. In D the war begins with Gush-
tasp's refusal, prompted by Zarduhsht, to continue the payment
of tribute to Arjasp. This is not in Z. Except for the mention
of the death of Zarir, and the defeat of Arjasp by Asfandiyar,,
Jamasp's prophecy differs in Z and D. In Z Zarir begins the
battle ; in D there is fighting for two weeks, during which several
of Gushtasp's sons distinguish themselves, and are slain, before
Zarir takes the field. In D Asfandiyur hears of Zarir's death.
He also hears his father swearing to surrender the crown to him
if the Turkmans are defeated an important addition, and the
keynote of the whole reign. In D it is Asfandiyar, and not
Nastur, that kills Bidirafsh. In Z all the Khyons are slain with
the exception of Arjasp himself, whom Spand-dat takes prisoner,
mutilates, and sends back on a docked ass to Turan. In D
Asfandiyar makes a great slaughter, puts Arjasp to flight, arid
gives quarter to the rest of the Turkman host. In general,
we may say, Z is on a much smaller scale than D, by whom
letters, speeches, and descriptions of battles are given at much
greater length. The differences in matters of detail also are
important and suggestive. For instance, in Z Jamasp, after
Cf. p. 12. 2 Seep. 13.
prophesying that Zarir will be killed by Vidrafsh, adds that
Nam-khast will slay Pat-khusrau, another brother, and Frashokart,
a son, of Gushttisp's, and further, that twenty-two of his other
sons and brothers will perish. In the account of the actual
fighting, however, only the death of Zarir is recorded. In D,
though all reference to Pat-khusrau and Frashokart is omitted,
Jamdsp's prophecy is considerably expanded. He tells of the
prowess and death of three of Gushtasp's sons Ardshir, Shidasp,
and Nivzar and of his own son Girami, who does not die in Z,
as well as of the success of Zarir's son Nastiir, before dealing
with Zarir himself. All these heroes are mentioned again in the
description of the fight, and mostly at greater length than in the
prophecy; while the exploits of another of Gushtasp's sons Shiru
are commemorated between those of Ardshir and Shidasp. It
seems, therefore, that fragments of another legend, and those not
the same fragments, must have found their way by different routes
both into Z and D. That legend must have been one comme-
morating collectively and in detail the prowess of the Iranian
heroes, especially those of the royal house, in the War of the
Religion. This is the more likely because in the circumstances
they would be regarded as martyrs and confessors of the Faith.
In addition to a collective commemoration, some of the more
important of these heroes must have had their own separate
nama or legend. Even if Z were not extant, we should be
justified in assuming the existence of such a ntima in Zarir's
case, and this must have had at least two branches a Love-
story and a Death-story. The account given of him in the
Shahnama, and elsewhere under the name of Zariadres, 1 is suf-
ficient to show this. In later times he became overshadowed
partly by Gushtasp and partly by Asfandiyar. The Love-story
from which he was ousted by Gushtasp will be found in the reign
of Luhrasp. 2 As regards the Death-story, even in Z we find
Spand-dat already dominant, and in D he is still more so. He
and Jamasp are associated with Zarir in the reply to A rj asp's
letter, the promise of bestowing the kingship upon him is made
by Gushtasp, and it is he, and not Nastiir, who avenges Zarir.
To account for this predominance, therefore, we must assume still
another source an Asfandiyar-nama, or, as it would be called
in Pahlavi, a Spand-dat-nama with at least three branches, all
represented in their latest forms in the Shahnama. To sum up
and illustrate what has been said above, a diagram is appended,
1 See Vol. iv. p. 314. 2 H. and 329 scq.
which, however, in view of the ravages wrought by time, must
be regarded as somewhat theoretical. 1
Zarir nama Other individual Spand.-dit-nimai
DiCmas of Iranian
heroes in the War
of the Religion
War of the Seven Fight with
Religion Stages Rustam
3. ForZarduhsht (Zoroaster) seep. 13 seq. Whether the plant-
ing of a cypress at Kishmar by him was an actual fact, or whether
it is an instance of a people being misled by one of their own
metaphors, it is impossible to say. To plant a tree to comme-
morate some important event is not unusual. Metaphorically to
plant a tree, in the sense of instituting some new custom or
1 See on the Yatkar-i-Zariran generally, GYZ, without the help of
which the latter portion of this note could not have been written.
28 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
making a new departure in policy, etc., is common enough in the
Shahnama. We have an instance at the beginning of this section.
At all events, the Cypress of Kishmar rivals Gushtasp's Black
Horse ' in fame, and, after living for some fourteen centuries and
a half, is said to have been cut down by the orders of the Khalifa
Mutawakkal (A.D. 846-860). The following is the account of it
given in the Dabistan : " The professors of the excellent faith
and the Moslem historians agree, that in ... Kashmar ... a
dependency of Naishapur, there was formerly a cypress planted by
Zardusht for king Gushtasp, the like of which was never seen
before or since, for beauty, height, or straightness : mention of
this tree having been made at the court of Mutawakkal when
he was engaged in building the Sarman rai, or Samarah palace
in the Jaafriyah, the Khalif felt a great desire to behold it : and
as it was not in his power to go to Khorasan, he wrote to Abdullah
Tdhir Zavalimin, ' possessor of happiness,' to have the tree cut
down, fastened on rollers, and sent to Baghdad. When intelli-
gence of this came to the people of the district and the inhabi-
tants of Khorasan, they assembled at the foot of the tree, im-
ploring for mercy with tears and lamentations, and exhibiting
a scene of general desolation. The professors of the excellent
faith offered the governor fifty thousand dinars to spare the tree,
but the offer was refused. When the cypress was felled, it
caused great detriment to the buildings and water-courses of the
country ; the birds of different kinds which had built their nests
on it issued forth in such countless myriads as to darken the
air, screaming out in agony with various tones of distress : the
very oxen, sheep, and other animals which reposed under its
sheltering shade, commenced such piteous moans of woe that it
was impossible to listen to them. The expense of conveying the
trunk to Baghdad was five hundred thousand dinars ; the very
branches loaded one thousand and three hundred camels. When
the tree had reached one station from the Jaafriah quarter, on
that same night, Mutawakkal the Abasside was cut in pieces
by his own guards, so that he never beheld the tree." 2 According
to other accounts, Zarduhsht brought down two cypress-shoots
from Paradise, one of which he planted at Kishmar and the other
in the neighbourhood of Tus. 3 The statement in the text that
Gushtasp raised over the Cypress of Kishmar a lofty palace has
been interpreted to mean that he built himself a summer-house
among its boughs, or rather that Zarduhsht built it for him : " in
hujus Arboris summitate erexit Aestivarium." * In villages in
1 See p. 18. 2 STD, i. 306 seq. 3 HRVP, p. 332. * Id. 324.
Persia at the present day a semi-sacred character is attached to
some of the large trees, which have platforms built round them
where the villagers sit and smoke in the evenings. 1
8. The Kuhram mentioned here and in 1 1 is no doubt
the same person, though variously described as the brother and
son of Arjasp. Firdausi makes him the latter. A Kuhram and
an Andariman. appear among the Turanian heroes as far back
as the reign of Kai Kaiis, 2 and are among those slain in " The
Battle of the Twelve Rukhs." 3 Probably the same legendary
characters are intended throughout. Death is no bar to the
reappearance of a hero in the Shahnama. 4
11-19, 2 7~3 2 - The War of the Religion between Gushtasp
and Arjasp is divided into two campaigns, separated by a con-
siderable interval, during part of which Asfandiyar was a prisoner
in the stronghold of Gumbadan. In the first campaign the fight-
ing consisted of a series of engagements extending over two weeks,
and in the end the Iranians were completely victorious, but we
have no very definite information as to where it took place. In
the Yatkar-i-Zariran the Iranian reply to Arjasp's ultimatum
proposes the neighbourhood of Marv as the meeting-ground,
" where there is no high mountain, nor any deep ravine, but
where on the plateau of the steppe horses and the valiant men-at-
arms can move freely." 5 The Shahnama, in partial accord to this,
makes Gushtasp advance to' the Jihun (Oxus), 6 but we do not hear
of the river being crossed by either host. In the second campaign
Arjasp, taking advantage of Gushtasp's absence in Sistan, suddenly
invaded Iran. Several distinct battles were fought. In the first,
outside the walls of Balkh, Luhnisp, the ex-Shah, was defeated
and slain, and the city stormed. In the second, Gushtasp was
defeated and beleaguered on a mountain, and in the third he was
rescued from his dangerous position by Asfandiydr. It would
seem from the Shahnama 7 that the second and third battles were,
like the first, fought in the neighbourhood of Balkh, but other
tradition points to a different locality. According to this view,
we must imagine the opposing hosts encountering in the region
about Nishapur, Arjasp advancing westward from Balkh and
Gushtasp northward from Sistan. The scene of the conflict there-
fore would lie about and between the Binalud and Jagatai ranges,
some part of which was known in old times as "the Ridge of
Gushtasp " ; and there is a tradition that when the Iranians were
hard pressed they were helped by a land-slip from one of the
1 WLS, p. 364. 2 Vol. ii. pp. 264, 349. 3 Id. iv. 104, 105.
4 Id. ii. 119. 5 GYZ, p. 50. 6 p. 48.
7 See p. 94.
30 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
adjacent mountains which received in consequence the name of
" Madofryaf " or " Come-to-help." l
$21. The Gloom, or Land of Darkness, here referred to, will
be met with again in the next volume under the reign of Sikandar
(Alexander the Great), who entered it in quest of the Water
24. The stronghold of Gumbadan, in which Asfandiyar was
imprisoned, appears to have been situated on a mountain which
became known in consequence as Mount Spento-diita in the Zan-
davasta 2 and as Mount Spendyarf in the Pahlavi Texts. 3 It seems,
moreover, to be identical with Mount Sipand the scene of one
of Rustam's youthful exploits* and with Mount Sapad which
comes into prominence in the story of Fariid. 5 Mount Spe?ito-
data has been located in the neighbourhood of the Bar Mountains
to the north-west of Nishapur. 6 This is, of course, inconsistent
with Malcolm's identification of the stronghold on Mount Sipand
with the " White Castle," of which he gives a description already
quoted. 7 According to Mirkhond Asfandiyar was confined in the
fortress of Girdkuh in the district of Rudbar. 8 This was situated
in the neighbourhood of Kasvvin, and in later times was one of
the strongholds of 'Umar Khayyam's contemporary and fellow-
student, Hasan Sabbah, better known as " The Old Man of the
Mountain," to whom we are indebted for the vogue of the word
How Firdausi saw Dakiki in a Dream
V. 1495 Thus was it that one night the poet dreamed :
He held a cup of wine whose fragrance seemed
Rosewater-like. Dakiki from his stead
Appeared and, speaking of that wine-cup, said
Thus to Firdausi : " Quaff not save thou choose
The fashion of the days of Kai Kaus,
For he that is the monarch of thy choice,
In whom crown, throne, and fortune all rejoice,
Mahmud, the king of kings and conqueror,
1 JZ, p. 216. 2 DZA, ii. 289.
3 WPT, i. pp. 34, 39. 4 Vol. i. p. 330.
'> Id. iii. pp. 52, 54, 58, etc. ; N1N, 30, and note. 6 JZ, p. 215.
7 Vol. i. p. 236. 8 SM, p. 290 and note.
Who giveth all a portion of his store,
Shall from today for fourscore years and five
Behold his travail wane, his treasury thrive,
Shall lead to Chin hereafter his array,
And every chief shall ope for him the way.
He will not need to speak an angry word,
All crowns will come to him with one accord.
If o'er this story thou hast somewhat striven
Now all that thou didst wish to thee is given.
I too told somewhat of this history,
And if thou findest it be kind to me.
I sang a thousand couplets of Gushtasp,
Before rny day was done, and of Arjasp,
And if my work shall reach the king of kings y. i 49 6
My soul will soar o'er sublunary things."
So now the verses that he wrote I give,
For he is gathered to the dust ; I live.
Hoio Luhrasp went to Balkh and Jioio Gushtasp sat
upon the Throne
Now when Luhrasp, descending from the throne
Resigned it to Gushtasp, he made him ready
To go to Naubahar in cherished Balkh,
Because he had become God's votary,
And men then held that fane in reverence,
Just as the Arabs reverence Mecca now.
He reached the fane, the Shah, that man of God,
Dismounted there, and there at last he died.
He shut the portal of that glorious fane,
And let no alien enter it, assumed
The woollen raiment of a devotee
The garniture wherein to worship wisdom
Put oft* his armlets, let his hair grow long,
32 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And set himself to serve the all-just Judge.
Upstanding in His presence thirty years,
Such is the way that men should serve the Lord,
He offered supplication to the sun,
According to the custom of Jamshid.
Gushtasp, succeeding to his father's throne,
His Grace, and fortune, donned his father's gift,
The crown, fit ornament of noble men.
" I am," he said, " a Shah that serveth God,
And holy God hath given me this crown
That I might keep the wolves apart the flock,
v. 1497 Toward God's way will we stretch forth our hands,
And to the noble straiten not the world,
But, as hath been the custom of the Shahs,
Convert ill-doers to the Faith of God."
He spread abroad his justice in such wise
That wolf and sheep drank of the stream together.
At length Nahid, illustrious Caesar's daughter,
She whom the noble Shah named Katayun,
Bare him two sons, each like the moon in splendour,
One, famous, glorious Asfandiyar,
A warlike prince and doughty cavalier,
The other, Bishutan, the valiant swordsman,
A famous prince, a shatterer of hosts.
The new Shah, when acknowledged by the world,
Was fain to be another Faridun.
All other kings paid tribute, and the heart
Of every liege was well disposed to him,
Save King Arjasp, the ruler of Tiiran,
Who had the divs for servants and admitted
No claim for tribute, would not hear advice,
And since he would not hear w r as doomed to chains.
He took too tribute from the Shah each year,
But why should one pay tribute to his peer ?
Zardulisht appeared and hoiv Gushtasp accepted
Thus passed a while, and then a Tree appeared
On earth within the palace of Gushtasp,
And grew up to the roof a Tree whose roots
Spread far and wide, a Tree with many branches,
Its leafage precept and its fruitage wisdom :
How shall one die who eateth of such fruit ?
A Tree right fortunate and named Zarduhsht
The slayer of malignant Ahriman.
Thus said he to the monarch of the world :
" I am a prophet and thy guide to God."
He brought a censer, filled with fire, and said : y. 1498
" This have I brought with me from Paradise.
The Maker of the world said : ' Take thou this,
And look upon the heaven and the earth,
Because I made them not of dust and water :
Behold herein how I created them.
See now if any one could do this thing,
Save I that am the Ruler of the world ?
If thou acknowledgest My handiwork
Thou must acknowledge Me to be the Lord.'
Receive His good religion from the speaker,
And learn from him His usage and the way.
See that thou do as he directeth thee,
Choose wisdom, recognise this world as vile,
And learn the system of the good religion,
For kingship is not well when Faith is lacking."
When that good Shah had heard of that good Faith,
And had accepted it and its good customs,
His valiant brother, glorious Zari'r,
Who used to vanquish mighty elephants ;
The Shah, his father, now grown old at Balkh,
VOL. v. c
34 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
To whose heart worldly things were bitterness ;
The mighty chiefs from all the provinces,
The wise physicians and the men of war,
All gathered to the monarch of the earth,
Assumed the cincture and received the Faith.
Then was the Grace of God made manifest,
For evil left the hearts of evil men,
The charnels were fulfilled with light divine,
And seeds were freed from all impurity.
Then mounting to his throne high-born Gushtasp
Dispatched his troops throughout the provinces,
Distributed archmages through the world,
And set up Fanes of Fire. He first established
v. 1499 The Fire of Mihr Barzin ; consider well
The system that the realm received from him.
Zarduhsht then planted him a noble cypress
Before the portal of the Fane of Fire,
And wrote upon that noble, straight-stemmed tree :
" Gushtasp is convert to the good religion " ;
Thus did he make" the noble cypress witness
That wisdom was disseminating justice.
When in this manner many years had passed
The cypress-tree increased in height and girth,
Until that noble tree had grown so great
That e'en a lasso would not compass it.
When it had sent aloft full many a bough
Gushtasp raised over it a goodly palace,
Whereof the height and breadth were forty cubits ;
He used no clay or water in the building.
When he had reared the palace of pure gold,
With silvern earth and dust of ambergris,
He painted there a picture of Jamshid,
Engaged in worshipping the sun and moon,
Commanded too a picture to be drawn
Of Faridun armed with the ox-head mace,
And limned there all the potentates. Consider
If other ever had such puissance.
When that famed hall of gold had grown thus goodly
He had its walls inlaid with precious stones,
And set an iron rampart round about.
The king of earth made it his home. He sent
This message through the realm : " In all the world
What equalleth the cypress of Kishmar ?
God sent it down to me from Paradise,
And said : ' Ascend to Paradise therefrom/
Now hearken, all of you, this rede of mine :
Go to the cypress of Kishmar afoot ;
Adopt ye all the pathway of Zarduhsht,
And, turning from the images of Chin,
Gird round your loins the cincture in the Grace
And greatness of the monarch of Iran.
Heed not the usance of your predecessors, v I500
Trust in the shadow of this cypress-tree,
And fix your gaze upon the Shrine of Fire,
As bidden by the Prophet of the Truth."
He spread abroad his words throughout the world
Among the men of name and potentates,
And at his bidding all that wore the crown
Turned them toward the cypress of Kishmar ;
This holy shrine a paradise was found
Wherein Zarduhsht the Div in fetters bound.
How Gushtdsp refused to Arjdsp the Tribute for Iran
Time passed. The monarch's star was blessed.
The old, said to the ruler of the world :
" 'Tis not accordant to our Faith for thee
To pay a tribute to the prince of Chin,
Nor consonant with custom and religion.
36 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Moreover I can not assent thereto,
For no one of our Shahs in days of yore
Hath yielded tax and tribute to the Turkmans,
Who all were impotent against Iran."
Gushtasp assented, saying : " I will order
No tribute to be paid."
A valiant div,
On hearing this, went to the king of Chin,
And said to him : " O monarch of the world !
Throughout it all the people great and small
Agree in executing thy commands,
And not one cometh forth against thy spearpoint
V. 1501 Excepting Shah Gushtasp, son of Luhrasp,
Who leadeth out a host against the Turkmans,
Hath made his hostile purpose clear, and wrought
His devilry against a king like thee.
More than a hundred thousand cavaliers
Are mine, and I will bring them if thou wilt.
Go to then, let us follow up his doings ;
See that thou fear not to contend with him."
Arjasp, when he had heard the div speak thus,
Descended from the royal Turkman throne,
And, having summoned all the priests, announced
What he had heard to them. " Know ye," said he,
" That God's Grace and pure Faith have left Iran,
Where some old dotard hath appeared who claimeth
To be a prophet, and his words are these :
' I have come down from heaven, I have come down
From Him who is the Master of the world.
I have beheld the Lord in Paradise,
And all the Zandavasta is His writing ;
I saw, moreover, Ahriman in Hell,
But dared not venture near ; the Lord then sent me
To teach the monarch of the earth the Faith.'
The chief among the nobles of Iran,
The most illustrious son of Shah Luhrasp,
He whom the Iranians call Gushtasp, hath bound
The cincture round his loins, as hath withal
His brother, that courageous cavalier,
The general of 1 ran, Zarir by name.
All gather to Zarduhsht to be instructed, v. 1502
And are befooled by that old sorcerer.
All have with one consent embraced his Faith :
His cult and ritual fulfil the world.
By such fond methods and buffoonery
Hath he become a prophet in Iran.
Needs must I write a letter to that rebel,
Give him great gifts, for gifts unasked are pleasant,
And say to him : ' Abandon this ill course,
Be awed before the God of Paradise,
Put far from thee that ancient miscreant,
And hold a feast according to our customs.'
If then he will accept of our advice
Our bonds will not prove galling to his feet ;
If he reject it and revive old feuds
We will assemble our disbanded troops,
And, mustering a goodly host, invade
Iran in consequence of these his doings,
And, fearing not the pains and his resistance,
Will bring him to contempt, before us drive,
Put him in chains, and gibbet him alive."
How Arjdsp wrote a Letter to Gushtdsp
The warriors of Chin agreed thereto,
And chose, moreover, from themselves two envoys,
The one a mighty man hight Bidirafsh, 1
Advanced in years, a warlock stout of heart,
The other named Namkhast 2 a sorcerer V. 1503
t a banner. 2 i.e. Covetous of honour.
38 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS
Whose thoughts were ever bent upon destruction.
The monarch wrote a fair and goodly letter
To that illustrious sovereign and convert :
" First, I have written in the World-lord's name,
Who knoweth what is manifest and hidden,
This royal letter, worthy of a king.
To brave Gushtasp, the monarch of the earth,
The worshipful and worthy of the state,
The elect, the eldest son of Shah Luhrasp,
Lord of the world and warden of the throne,
This from Arjasp, prince of the mighty men
Of Chin, a world-subduing cavalier,
And chosen hero."
In that royal letter
He wrote fair greetings in the Turkman l script :
" O famed son of the monarch of the world,
Who brightenest the throne of king of kings !
Fresh be thy head, thy soul and body hale,
Thy royal loins tight-girded. I have heard
That thou hast taken to disastrous courses,
And turned bright day to darkness for thyself.
A cozening old man hath come to thee,
Hath filled thy heart with terrors and alarms,
And with his talk of Hell and Paradise
Hath sown the seeds of folly in thy heart.
Thou hast accepted him and his religion,
Hast glorified his doctrine and his rites,
Hast flung aside the customs of the Shahs
The mighty of the world, thy predecessors
And wrecked the Faith professed by paladins.
Why dost thou disregard the past and future ?
Thou art the son of him on whom of all
The folk the glorious Shah 2 bestowed the crown,
And he chose thee among his choicest ones
In preference to the offspring of Jamshid,
1 Paighu. 2 Kai Khusrau.
So that, like Kai Khusrau the man of vengeance V. 1504
Thou wast more glorious than the other Kaians.
Thou hadst, famed monarch ! royal might and lustre,
Grace, power, and magnificence, with standards,
Vast armies, elephants caparisoned,
And treasuries fulfilled with goodly havings,
While every chief was well disposed toward thee,
And thou didst shine resplendent in the world
Ardibihisht with Sol in Aries.
God gave to thee the kingship of the earth,
And all thy chieftains stood before thee. Thou
Didst err, ungratefully, despite His care,
While even after He had made thee Shah
An ancient sorcerer misled thee. When
The news arrived I saw the stars by day !
Now have I written thee a friendly letter,
For I am both thy friend and good ally.
When thou hast read it make complete ablution,
And countenance no longer that impostor ;
Put off the cincture that is round thy loins,
And quaff with joy the sparkling wine once more.
Cast not aside the usage of the Shahs,
The mighty of the world, thy predecessors.
Now if thou wilt accept this goodly counsel
Thy life shall not be injured by the Turkmans,
Their territory, with Kashan and Chin,
Shall be to thee e'en as Iran itself,
I will bestow on thee the boundless treasures
That I have gotten me by mine own toils,
Fair-coated steeds l bedecked with gold and silver,
And trappings all inlaid with gems, and I
Will with the treasures send to thee boy-slaves
And handmaids pictures all with crispy locks.
But if thou wilt accept not this my counsel,
Then shalt thou feel my heavy iron bonds,
1 " des chevaux aux couleurs de bon augure " (Mohl).
40 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
v. 1505 For I will follow in a month or twain
This letter and will desolate thy realm,
Lead from the Turkmans and from Chin a host,
Whose tents the earth itself will not support,
Will fill the channel of Jihiin with musk,
And stanch therewith the waters of the sea,
Consign thy pictured palace to the flames,
And raze thee utterly, both root and branch,
Will set your land on fire from end to end,
And skewer you all together with mine arrows.
Those that are old among the Iranians
Will I make prisoners, will behead the worthless,
And carry off the women and the children
As slaves to mine own land ; I will lay waste
Your country and uproot the trees. So much
I had to say. See that thou do thy part,
And lay this letter's counsel to thy heart."
How Arjdsp sent Envoys to Guslddsp
Now when the monarch's minister had finished
The letter, all the captains being present,
Arjasp rolled, sealed, and then delivered it
To those old sorcerers, instructing them :
v. 1506 " Be prudent, go together to his palace,
And, when ye see him on the throne of state,
Both bow yourselves forthwith, and proffer him
The worship that pertaineth unto kings,
With eyes upon the ground. When ye are seated,
Look steadfastly upon his shining crown,
Deliver mine enlightening embassage,
Attend to what he sayeth in reply,
And, having heard the answer every whit,
Kiss ye the ground before him and depart."
Then Bidirafsh, tlie vengeful, left the presence,
And bare his banner forth toward famous Balkh,
While with him fared Namkhast, his headstrong com-
One to be shunned by all that seek for fame.
Arrived at Balkh they went toward the court
Afoot and, drawing nearer to Gushtdsp,
Bowed down themselves before him on the threshold.
When they beheld his visage o'er the throne,
As though it were the sun above the moon,
They did obeisance, such as slaves would do,
Before the Shah the monarch of the happy
Then gave to him the letter of the king,
The letter written in the Turkman l script.
The Shah, on opening the letter, raged V. 1507
And writhed. He called his counsellor Jamasp,
The chosen chiefs, the captains of the host,
The experienced magnates and the archimages,
Then spread the Zandavasta out before him.
He called his Prophet and archmage, he called
Zari'r, his well beloved, his general,
Who was his brother and the chief of all
The warriors, and then world-paladin
Because Asfandiyar, the cavalier,
Was still a youth. Zari'r was leader, warden,
The refuge of the world, the horsemen's stay :
'Twas his to clear the earth of evil doers,
And couch his lance in battle. Said Gushtasp :
" Arjasp, the ruler of Tiiran and Chin,
Hath written unto me in terms like these ! "
And he informed them of the scurrile words
Addressed to him by the Turanian king.
" What are your views herein," he said to them,
" What do ye say ? How will the matter end ?
How very ill-advised was amity
42 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
With one who hath so small a stock of wisdom !
My race is from f raj of holy birth,
While he is sprung from Tiir, the sorcerer.
How then can there be peace betwixt us twain,
Although I used to deem it possible ?
And now let him that is the most possest
Of reputation speak before the rest."
How Zarir made Answer to Arjdsp
v. 1508 Whenas the sovereign had spoken thus,
Zarir, the leader, and Asfandiyar
Unsheathed their scimitars forthwith, and cried :
" If there be any one in all the world
Who holdeth not Zarduhsht to be a prophet,
Is disobedient and approacheth not
The courtgate of the glorious Shah, nor girdeth
His loins before the splendid throne, rejecting
The way and good religion, and refusing
To be a slave thereto, his life will we
Part from his body with our scimitars,
And set his head upon a lofty stake."
He that was hight Zarir, the Iranian leader,
A hero valiant as the rending lion,
Said to the world's king : " O illustrious !
If I may have permission from the Shah
To give Arjasp, the sorcerer, his answer. . . ."
And Shah Gushtasp approved thereof: "Go to,"
He said, " arise then, give him his reply,
And make his warriors l of Khallukh like gleeds."
Zarir, with glorious Asfandiyar,
And with that prosperous minister, Jam asp,
Departed with stern hearts and frowning looks,
And wrote a letter to Arjasp the foul
A fit response. Zari'r, chief of the host,
Took it still open, bare it to the Shah,
And read it out to him. The world-lord marvelled
At that sage general and cavalier,
And at Jamasp, and at Asfandiyar,
Then fastened up the letter, wrote thereon
His name, and called to him the ambassadors.
" Take this," he said, " and bear it to Arjasp.
Henceforth perchance ye will not tread my roads.
Were not safe-conduct for ambassadors
Enjoined expressly in the Zandavasta,
I would have wakened you from drowsihead, V. 1509
And hung you all alive upon the gibbet,
In order that yon worthless one might learn
That he may not exalt his neck with kings."
He threw the letter at them, saying : " Take it,
And bear it to the Turkman sorcerer.
Say : ' Thy calamity is drawing nigh,
The need for blood and dust hath come upon thee.
Be thy neck smitten and thy spirit wounded,
And may thy bones be scattered on the ground.
Next Dai, God willing, I will habit me
In heavy iron mail, lead forth the host
Against the country of Tiiran to war,
And ruinate the realm of the Gurgsar.' " l
How the Envoys returned to Arjasp with the
Letter of Gushtdsp
The monarch of the earth, when he had ended
His speech, sent for his general, greeted him,
Put in his charge the ambassadors, and said :
1 Of the Wolf-heads the name of a tribe.
44 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
" See them beyond the borders of Iran."
The envoys left the presence of Gushtasp,
And went their way with dust upon their heads,
The Shah dismissing them with ignominy.
From glorious Iran they reached Khallukh,
But in Khallukh were still inglorious.
As soon as they perceived the monarch's palace
Afar, surmounted by the sable standard,
They lighted from their proudly pacing steeds,
Their hearts were broken and their eyes were dim.
They went afoot before their sovereign,
With souls all darkness and with livid cheeks,
And gave to him the letter of the Shah
The answer of Zarir the cavalier.
V. 1510 The letter was unfolded by a scribe,
Who read it to the king of Turkman l race.
The writing in the letter of the prince,
The leader of the brave, the warrior-horseman,
Ran : " Thine insulting letter to the Shah
Arrived, and I have listened to and marked
Words that were not becoming thee to utter,
Words that should not be written or divulged,
Not fit to be read out and hearkened to.
Thus spakest thou : ' I will lead forth anon
A host against that jocund land of thine.'
For my part I need not four months or twain
Ere I lead forth my Lions of the fray.
Bring not upon thyself increase of toil,
Because I shall unlock my treasury,
And lead a thousand thousand warriors,
All men of name, all veterans in fight,
All offspring of Iraj, the paladin,
Not of Afrasiyab, or of the Turkmans, 2
All moon-faced men, all kings to look upon,
All upright in their stature and their speech,
i PaigM. 2 Ibid.
All worthy of the empire and the throne,
All worthy of the treasure, crown, and host,
All spearmen and all swordsmen, all of them
The leaders and the shatterers of armies,
All brandishing their lances as they ride,
All with my name inscribed upon their signets,
All converts to the Faith, all men of wisdom,
All worthy of the earring and the armlet.
When they are ware that I have bound the drums v. 1511
Upon the elephants their horses' hoofs
Lay low the heights, and when they arm for battle
They send the dust-clouds flying to high heaven.
Firm as a mountain are they in the saddle,
The hill-tops shatter at them, while among them
For choice there are two warrior-cavaliers
Zarir, the leader, and Asfandiyar
Who, when they don their iron panoply,
Bestride the sun and moon, and, when they shoulder
The crashing mace, their Grace illumineth
The Grace and form of others. As they stand
Before the host thou must perforce observe them.
They with their crowns and thrones are like the sun,
Their countenances shine Avith Grace and fortune.
The other troops and chiefs are like myself
Approved and chosen of the archimages
So never fill up the Jihiin with musk,
For I will open thy parched treasuries,
And, if it pleaseth God, will trample down
Thy head in fight upon the day of battle."
Arjasp descended from his throne, amazed
At reading this, and bade his generals :
" Call out the whole host at tomorrow's dawn."
The warriors l of the army, chosen men
Of Chin, came to Tiiran from every quarter.
The monarch had two brothers Ahrimans v. 1512
46 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSl
One hight Kuhram, Andariman the other,
Who both received drums, elephants, and standards,
Bedecked with yellow, red, and violet.
He gave to them three hundred thousand men,
Selected and courageous cavaliers.
He oped the treasury-doors and paid the troops,
Bade blow the trumpets and load up the baggage.
He had Kuhram, his brother, called in haste,
And gave him charge of one wing of the host.
He gave the other to Andariman,
And took, his own position in the centre.
There was an aged Turkman named Gurgsar,
To whom the king gave the command in chief :
Thou wouldst have said : " He knoweth naught but ill."
To Bidirafsh, the brother of this man,
He sent a banner blazoned with a wolf.
There was a valiant man by name Khashash,
Who fought afoot with lions ; him the king
Made leader of the scouts and of the vanguard :
They bore his flag as champion of the host.
There was a Turkman who was named Hushdiv ;
The monarch sent him to the rear, and said :
" Keep guard behind the army and if thou
See one deserting slay him on the spot,
And take good heed herein."
Thus in fierce wrath
He fared with full heart and with eyes all tears,
v. 1513 He ravaged as he went, he set on fire
The palaces, and razed trees, root and branch.
That king of infidels led forth his host,
With vengeful heart, against the Iranian coast.
How Gushtdsp assembled his Troops
As soon as tidings came to Shah Gushtdsp :
" The ruler of the Turkmans and of Chin
Hath made his preparations and set forth,
Dispatching to the front the brave Khashash,"
He bade his general : " At dawn tomorrow
Array the elephants, lead out the host."
He wrote a letter to his rnarchlords thus :
" The Khan hath left the pathway of the great.
Come to my court-gate, all ! because my foes
Are at the border."
When the letter reached
Those nobles with this news : " There hath appeared
A foeman who ambitioneth the world,"
Troops gathered at the portal of the Shah,
Out-numbering the grass-blades on the ground.
The warriors of the world girt up their loins
To aid the Kaian Shah, the world-possessor,
And, as he had commanded, all the marchlords
Set forward to the court-gate of the king.
Anon a thousand thousand gathered round
The Shah, that famous and benignant Kaian,
Who visited the camp, reviewed the troops,
And chose the fit. It joyed the glorious Shah,
Whose heart was all astound at such a host.
Next day Gushtasp went with the archimages,
The chiefs, the great men, and the army-captains,
Unlocked the treasures hoarded by Jamshid,
Gave to the soldiers two years' pay and then,
When he had given mail and rations, sounded v. 1514
The drums and trumpets, loaded up the baggage,
And ordered to be borne before the host
The conquering standard of the glorious Shahs.
48 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He led the troops to battle with Arjasp
An army such as none had ever seen.
None could discern the daylight or the moon
For murk of flying dust-clouds, troops, and steeds
Whose neighing and the war-cries drowned the drums.
A multitude of banners were displayed,
And spearheads pierced the clouds like trees that grow
On mountain-tops or like reed-beds in spring.
Upon this wise by Shah Gushtasp's command
The army made its way from land to land.
How Jdmdsp foretold the Issue of the Battle to Gushtdsp
When he had reached Jihiin from famous Balkh
The captain of the army made a halt.
The Shah departed from among the troops,
Alighted from his steed and, having mounted
Upon the throne, called unto him forthwith
Jamasp his counsellor, the chief archmage,
The first among the nobles, and the lustre
Both of the great men and the generals.
So pure in person was he, so devout
Of soul, that mysteries were revealed toihim.
He was a mighty reader of the stars,
And who in point of knowledge had his standing ? l
Of him the Shah inquired : " God hath endowed thee
With honest counsel and the good religion.
There is none like thee in the world ; in short
The Ruler of the world hath given thee knowledge ;
So make thy calculations of the stars,
And tell me all the aspect of affairs.
How will the battle go from first to last,
And which of us will meet disaster here ? "
1 See p. 19.
The old Jamasp was grieved, with rueful looks v. 1515
He said : " I would to God that He, the Just,
Had not bestowed on me this skill and wisdom,
For then the Shah would not have questioned me ;
Yet will I speak for, if I answer not,
The king of kings will have me put to death."
The world-lord answered : " By the name of God,
By his the holy bringer of the Faith
And by the life of that brave cavalier,
Zari'r, and that of great Asfandiyar,
I will not ever do thee injury,
Myself, or bid another so to do.
Say what thou knowest touching this affair,
For thou canst give, and I am seeking, help."
The sage made answer : " O illustrious Shah !
May thy crown flourish everlastingly.
Know, Kaian warrior, seeker of renown !
When fight shall bring the heroes face to face,
When they shall raise their shouts and battle-cries,
And thou wouldst say: 'They tear up all the moun-
The mighty men of valour will advance,
And air grow pitchy with the dust of battle ;
Then will the world be darkened in thine eyes,
Fire will fulfil the earth and reek the air,
While mid the blows struck and the massive maces,
Descending like smiths' hammers on the steel,
The twang of bowstring will oppress the brain,
And air re-echo with the charger's neigh ;
The heavens will be broken, spheres and vaults, v. 1516
The standards drenched with gore. Full many sons
Wilt thou see fatherless and fathers sonless !
First will Ardshir, that Kaian, the king's son,
The famed and gallant, urge his charger forth,
And fling whoe'er opposeth in the dust,
Unhorsing of the Turkman cavaliers
VOL. V. D
50 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
A number greater than the tale of stars,
Yet in the end be slain and his good name
Erased. The monarch's son, the great Shfdasp,
In vengeance then will urge his sable steed,
Rage, draw his sword, and charging slay full many
A horse and man, but in the end his fortune
Will be abased, and his crowned head be bare.
Then my son will come forward with his loins
Girt with my girdle for Shidasp's avengement,
And go, like Rustam, in between the hosts.
How many men of name and warriors
Of Chin will that brave Lion bring to earth,
And undergo much travail in the fray !
I tell the king of kings that Giramf,
What time the Iranians drop the glorious flag
Of Kawa, will behold it from his charger,
All dust and blood, and leaping to the ground
Will raise it bravely, with the scimitar
In one hand and the standard in the other
The violet standard and while thus bestead
Will overthrow the foe and root the life
Out of those Ahrimans ; then suddenly
An enemy vindictively will strike
One hand off with the trenchant scimitar,
v. 1517 And Girami will seize the violet flag
Between his teeth and hold it therewithal,
While with one hand he maketh foes to vanish :
No man hath* seen a feat more wonderful ;
Yet will a Turkman with an arrow smite
His breast and bring his head and crown to dust.
Next nobly born Nastur, son of Zarir,
Will urge his charger forward like a lion,
And when at last he shall return in triumph,
With hands that have been stretched out o'er the foe,
Nivzar, the chosen horseman, will go forth,
The world-lord's son, will overthrow three score
Of foemen, and display the mastery
Of paladins ; but in the end the Turkmans
Will smite him with their arrows and will fling
His elephantine body to the dust.
Next to advance will be that valiant Lion,
That warrior-horseman who is named Zarir.
He will go forth, a lasso in his hand,
Upon his Arab bay, arrayed in breastplate
Of gold resplendent as the moon. The troops
Will be astonied at him. He will take
A thousand warriors of the Turkman host,
Put them in bonds, and send them to the Shah,
And wheresoe'er that prince shall turn his face
He will pour forth his foemen's blood in streams.
No one will take that royal paladin,
Who will confound the monarch of the tents. 1
Then will Zarir see great Ardshir o'erthrown v. 1518
With livid cheeks and form like turmeric,
Will bitterly lament him and, grown grim,
Urge his bay Arab onward and will set
In bitter wrath his face against the Khan :
Thou w r ouldest say : ' Ne'er hath he looked on flight ! '
When he shall see Arjasp among the host
He will proclaim the praise of Shah Gushtasp,
O'erthrow the battle of the enemy,
And, looking not to any one on earth,
Proclaim the Zandavasta of Zarduhsht,
And put his kingly confidence in God ;
But in the end his fortune will be darkened,
The chosen Tree be felled, for there will come
One, Bidirafsh by name, and make his way
Toward the spear that hath the violet standard,
But, daring not to face the chosen champion,
Will lie in wait for him upon the road,
And bar it like a maddened elephant,
1 "le roi du peuple qui demeure sous des tentes" (Mohl).
52 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
While grasping in his hand a venomed sword.
As prince Zarir returneth from the fight,
And thou wouldst say : ' He cometh from a feast,'
That Turkman will let fly at him an arrow,
Not daring to assail him openly,
And thus the chief of nobles will be lost
Through loathly Bidirafsh, who will bear off
His charger and his saddle to the Turkmans.
What man will then be foremost to avenge him ?
Anon this famous, mighty host will close,
Like wolves and lions, on the foe, and earth
Will in the mellay blush with warriors' blood,
Their faces all be wan, the bravest tremble,
The army's dust will hide the sun and moon,
While flashes from the spearheads, swords, and arrows
Will glisten as the stars among the clouds,
v. 1519 Then Bidirafsh, that valiant miscreant,
Will go forth like a wolf that raveneth,
And, holding in his hand the envenomed glaive,
Will urge his steed like some mad elephant.
By his hand will a multitude of troops,
And those the choicest of the Shah's, be slain.
Then will the glorious Asfandiyar,
With troops behind and God to succour him,
In blood-stained raiment and with soul fulfilled
By hate bring Doomsday down on Bidirafsh,
Smite with an Indian sword a single blow,
And hurl down half his body from the saddle.
Then with his iron mace in hand the prince
Will illustrate his Grace and majesty,
Will break the foemen with a single charge,
And shall he let them go when they are broken ?
Nay, with a spearpoint will he gather them,
And scatter them abroad in utter ruin,
While in the end the king of Chin will flee
Before Asfandiyar, that glorious Kaian,
And in his flight will make toward Tiiran,
Heart-broken and in tears, and cross the waste
With but a scanty following, while the Shah
Will be triumphant and the foe destroyed.
Know, thou chosen chief of sovereigns !
What I have said will not be otherwise.
From me thou wilt hear nothing more or less ;
Regard me not henceforth with louring looks.
I have not said the things that I have said
Save at thy bidding, O victorious Shah !
And as for what the glorious Shah hath asked
Of that deep sea and dark abysm of fate,
I have not kept back aught that I have seen, v . 1520
Else why should I have told the Shah these secrets ? "
Now when the Shah, the master of the world,
Heard this revealed he sank back on his throne,
And dropped the golden mace; thou wouldst have said :
"His Grace and majesty alike are gone."
He fell upon his face and swooned away,
He spake no word and uttered not a sound.
The monarch when his sense returned to him
Descended from his throne, wept bitterly,
And " What to me," he said, " are throne and kingship
When all my day shall have been turned to gloom,
My Moons, brave cavaliers, and princes gone ?
What need have I for empiry and fortune,
For puissance and host, for crown and throne,
When those that I love best, the most renowned,
The chosen of the host, shall have departed,
And from my body pluck my wounded heart ? "
Then to Jarndsp he said : " Since things are so,
When it is time to go forth to the battle,
I will not call upon my valiant brother,
I will not burn mine aged mother's heart.
I will forbid his going to the fight,
And give the host to glorious Gurazm.
54 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Those of blood Kaian with my youthful sons,
Who all are as my body and my soul,
Now will I call before me, will prevent
Their arming and will seat them in my presence.
How can the points of poplar arrows reach
These rocks and mountains higher than high heaven ? "
The sage replied : " Most gracious, glorious Shah !
If these be not before the army, helmed,
Who will dare face the warriors of Chin ?
Who will retrieve the Grace and holy Faith ?
Rise from this dust, be seated on the throne,
And ruin not the Grace of sovereignty,
For 'tis God's purpose which no shift can stay ;
The Maker of the world is not a tyrant,
v. 1521 Thou wilt not profit by indulging grief,
For that which shall be is as good as done.
Distress thy heart no more then but acknowledge
The justice of the Maker of the world."
He gave much counsel while the Shah gave ear,
Grew like the sun, and mounted to his throne,
And as he sat his purpose was confirmed
To fight the ambitious monarch of Chigil ;
Oppressed with thought he gat no sleep that night,
And was all eagerness for war and fight.
How Gushtdsp and Arjdsp arrayed their Hosts
Gushtasp, according to Jamasp's advice,
When morning breathed and starlight disappeared,
Led down his chosen warriors to the field,
And, at the season when the scent of roses
Is wafted houseward by the breath of dawn,
Dispatched according to the Iranian custom
His scouts on every side. A cavalier
Approached and said : " O monarch of the world !
The enemy is nigh. So great a host
Ne'er came before from Turkistan or Chin.
They have encamped hard by and pitched their tents
On mountains, dales, and plains. Their general
Hath sent out scouts, and his and thine have met."
Thereat high-born Gushtasp, the valiant Shah,
Called for his general glorious Zarir
And gave to him the standard, saying: " Haste :
Array the elephants and arm the troops."
The general went forth and ranged his host,
All fain to battle with the king of Chin.
Gushtasp gave one wing to Asfandiyar,
With fifty thousand chosen cavaliers,
Because he had an elephantine breast
And lion's heart. Upon the other wing
He stationed a select and goodly band,
And gave it to the cherished warrior, V 1522
Who was the son and equal of the Shah,
The high, exalted, and exultant prince,
To whom the Shah had given the name Shi'dasp ;
While fifty thousand valiant cavaliers
He gave to glorious Zarir, the leader,
Assigning him the centre, for he was
A savage Lion and the Shah's own equal.
The rearguard he entrusted to Nastiir,
Of glorious race, the Lustre of Zarir.
The army thus arrayed, the Shah, o'ercome
With grief and spent with labour, sought the height,
Sat down upon his fair, resplendent throne,
And thence surveyed the army.
The monarch of the cavaliers of Chin,
In like wise ranged his forces and dispatched
A hundred thousand horsemen of Khallukh,
All brave and tried, to Bidirafsh, who had,
56 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
As general, the drums and golden standard,
Entrusting one wing of the host to him,
Whom not a lion loose would face. He gave
The other to Gurgsar, and gave withal
A hundred thousand chosen cavaliers.
In like wise in the centre of the host
He posted a select and goodly band,
And gave them to that stubborn sorcerer,
Namkhast by name, the son of Hazaran. 1
With chosen horsemen five score thousand strong,
Whose prowess was renowned throughout the world,
He took his own post rearward in reserve,
O'erlooking every portion of his powers.
He had one son, a man of high repute,
A veteran and pre-eminent in war,
A noble cavalier by name Kuhram
Above whose head much heat and cold had passed ;
This son of his he set to oversee
The army and direct the strategy.
The Beginning of the Battle beticeen the Iranians and
Tiirdnians, and how Ardshir, Shirti, and SMdasp icere
V. 1523 Now when that night had passed and it was day,
And when the world-illuming sun shone forth,
The troops of both hosts mounted on their saddles,
While Shah Gushtasp observed them from the height.
What time the glorious Shah saw from the mountain
The warriors in their saddles he desired
Bihzad, his sable charger, to be brought :
Thou wouldst have said : " 'Tis surely Mount Bistiin ! "
They put the bards thereon, and then he mounted.
1 Reading with P.
Whenas they set the battle in array,
And champion challenged champion, first they sent
A shower of arrows like a springtide hail,
Such that the sun's course was invisible !
Who will believe that hath not seen that marvel ?
The fountain of the sun was garnitured
With javelin-heads that sparkled like a river !
One would have said : " The sky is overcast,
And from the clouds are raining diamonds,"
While through the mace-men and the javelin-men,
Who charged on one another, all the air
Assumed the hue of night and all the earth
Was inundate with gore. First came Ardshir,
That goodly horseman and the world-lord's son,
Like some mad elephant upon the field ;
Thou wouldst have said : " Can it be Tus the chief ? "
Thus wheeled he before the host, not knowing
What sun and moon decreed. An arrow struck him
Upon the loins, transfixed his Kaian mail,
And that prince tumbled headlong from his bay,
His stainless form defiled and smirched with blood.
Woe for that fair face radiant as the moon,
Which never more the wise Shah looked upon !
Then came like flying dust high-born Shini, V. 1524
Whose heart was full and visage wan, before
The line of battle, bearing in his hand
A venomed sword ; he roared as 'tw r ere a lion,
Brought down like onager full many a foe,
And in his vengeance for that royal horseman
Slew fifty score of hostile cavaliers ;
But as he was returning from the fray,
When thus he had incarnadined the earth,
There came an arrow at his nape ; the prince
Fell. Woe for that brave, noble warrior,
Who died and nevermore beheld his sire !
The next to sally forth w T as prince Shidasp,
$8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
One like the moon, a man of royal mien.
He, seated on a steed like indigo,
Fleet as gazelle and huge as elephant,
Rushed on the field of battle, whirled and brandished
His lance as 'twere a twig, held in his steed,
And shouted, saying : " Which is bold Kuhrain,
Whose look is as the look of wolf and tiger ? "
A div advanced, exclaiming : " I am one
To bite the famished lion."
Then they wheeled
With lances, and the Shah's son speared the Turkman,
Dismounted him, and, cutting off his head,
Flung down his goodly girdle to the dust ;
Then wheeled before the warriors of Chin,
As though he were a mountain on the saddle.
In sooth eye never saw a man so goodly ;
His beauty drew all eyes. Howbeit a Turkman
Let fly at him an arrow, and that prince,
That offspring of the Shah, went to the winds.
Woe for that lost one reared so daintily,
Whose face his father was no more to see !
How Girdmi, Jdmdsp's Son, and Nivzdr were slain
Then of the leaders of the host went forth
The brave son of Jamasp the minister,
V. 1525 A valiant horseman, Girami by name,
Like to the son of Zal, the son of Sam.
Upon a chestnut charger fleet and trusty
He stood before the battle of the men
Of Chin, and, having prayed to God the Judge,
" Who of you," said he, " is of lion-heart
To come against my life-destroying spear ?
And where is that o'erweening sorcerer,
Namkhast by name, the son of Hazaran ? " l
Namkhast went forth to him : thou wouldst have
" That charger hath a mountain on its back ! "
Those two accomplished horsemen wheeled about
With mace and lance, with shaft and scimitar,
But gallant Girami had lion's strength ;j
That valiant cavalier could not withstand him,
And, though a man of battle, took to flight
On seeing that Kaian puissance and keen sword ;
Then Girami rode onward in fierce wrath,
With heart all raging to avenge the fallen,
And fell upon the centre of the foe.
Anon a blast rose from the mountain-skirt
As those two armies mingled in the mellay
And sent the dark dust flying. In the turmoil
That followed 'twixt the hosts, amid the strokes
Of scimitars and sable clouds of dust,
Fell from the Iranians' hands the splendid standard
Of Kawa. Girami beheld that flag,
All indigo of hue, which they had flung
From elephant-back, dismounting lifted it,
Shook off the dust, and cleared the soil away.
Now when the warriors of Chin beheld him
Raise from the ground that flagstaff famed and dear,
And, after having cleansed it, bear it off,
Their bravest warriors surrounded him,
And, thus assailing him on all sides, struck
One hand off with a scimitar. He seized
The flag of Faridiin 2 between his teeth
And, strange to tell, plied with the other hand
His mace ! At last they slew him wretchedly, v. 1526
And flung him vilely on the burning dust.
Alas for that brave, warlike cavalier !
That ancient sage 3 beheld him not again.
1 Reading with P. - Cf. Vol. i. p. 157. 3 Jamasp.
60 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Immediately went forth Nastiir, the Lion,
A warrior, Kaian-born, son of Zan'r.
He slew a countless multitude of foes,
For he had learned to battle from his father,
And in the end returned victorious
And glad, and stood again before his sire.i
Next there went forth the chosen cavalier,
Nivzar, son of the monarch of the world.
He rode a charger fleet of foot a steed
Of thousands came to that dark battlefield,
And shouted, saying : " Chosen warriors !
What man of name is there among you all,
What valiant, veteran wielder of the spear ?
Let him confront me now with lance in hand,
Because a man of mettle fronteth you."
The cavaliers of Chin rushed forth at him,
And strove to overthrow him. Brave Nivzar,
Who was the finest horseman in the world,
Like some wroth elephant and rending lion,
Kept wheeling round the warriors of Chin :
Thou wouldst have said : " He rolleth up the earth ! "
He slaughtered sixty warriors world-renowned,
And nurtured all upon the dust of battle,
But in the end an arrow from a bow
Struck him as it had been a flash from heaven.
He fell from that fleet steed of goodly hue,
And died. Behold the end of combating !
Alas ! that noble cavalier and Lion,
Who fell in vain the image of his sire
And woe is me for that fair face and form !
Now when that goodly cavalier was slain
The myriad warriors that were around
Engaged in every quarter of the field,
And raised the dust-clouds from earth's face. Two se'n-
Passed in that fight for not a horseman slept,
GUSH T ASP 6 1
The earths 1 were filled with slain and wounded men, V. 1527
The passage of the wind was barred by dust,
The dales and deserts were in tulip-dress,
And blood flowed over waste and wilderness.
How Zarir, the Brother of Gushtdsp, ivas slain by Bidirafsh
In these encounters two weeks passed away,
And all the while the fighting grew more fierce.
Then brave Zarir advanced before the host,
Bestriding his huge chestnut, threw himself
Upon the encampment of the enemy,
Like blazing fire and wind amid the grass,
Slew, and dispatched them to their last repose :
None that beheld withstood him. Then Arjasp,
Perceiving that the prince had slaughtered many
Of name, cried loudly to his warriors :
" What ! will ye let Khallukh go to the winds ?
We have been fighting for two weary weeks,
And still I see no prospect of the end.
The warriors of Shah Gushtasp have slain
Full many a man of name among our troops,
And now Zarir is in the midst of you,
As 'twere a fierce wolf or a rending lion,
And he hath slaughtered all my followers,
My noble Turkmans and my men of war !
We must devise a remedy for this,
Or trudge back to Tiiran, for if this man
Continue thus he will not leave Ayds,
Khallukh or Chin. What man of you in quest V. 1528
Of fame will show among the troops, go forth
Man-like, alone, and compass world-renown ?
I will bestow on him my daughter's hand,
1 Cf. Vol. ii. p. 15 and note.
62 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And give to him the conduct of rny host."
The soldiers answered not a word, for all
Feared that Wild Boar. Immediately Zarir
The chief, the paladin of paladins,
Advancing as he were a furious wolf,
Fell on them like a maddened elephant,
Or lion, slaughtering and overthrowing.
Arjasp, beholding this, was so astound
That day turned dark to him. Again he said
. " great, brave l princes, warriors of Chin !
Regard ye not your kindred and allies,
Nor yet the wounded groaning 'neath the feet
Of one who is as a consuming fire,
With Sam's mace and the arrows of Arish,
Whose flames e'en now are burning up my host,
And scorching all my kingdom ? Who is there
Among you all, one puissant of hand,
To go against yon maddened Elephant ?
Whoever will attempt yon warrior-slayer,
And hurl him from his steed, upon that man
Will I bestow a treasury full of gold,
And raise his helmet higher than the sky."
Still no man answered him a word. Arjasp
Was in amazement and his cheeks grew pale.
He spake the third time to the troops, but when
No answer came to him he held his peace.
At last the lusty Bidirafsh advanced
The foul, that dog, that warlock, that old wolf
And spake thus to Arjasp : " O mighty Sun,
In root and stem like to Afrasiyab !
1529 Thee have I brought my life and I have made it,
Sweet as it is, thy shield. I will confront
Yon raging Elephant. If I shall seize,
And fling him to the dust before the king,
Let me be leader of this countless host."
Thereat Arjasp rejoiced, praised Bidirafsh,
Gave his own steed and saddle to that chief,
And therewithal a keen two-headed dart
Of steel that would have pierced an iron mountain.
That foul enchanter with the loathly form
Went toward Zarir, the leader of the folk,
But seeing from afar his fearsome fury,
His beard besoiled, his eyes fulfilled, with dust,
A mace like Sam the hero's in his hand,
And slain before him heaped up like a mountain,
Adventured not to face him openly,
But skirmished round him stealthily and hurled
Unseen at him the double-headed dart.
His royal mail was pierced, his kingly form
Bedrenched with blood. He tumbled from his steed.
Woe for that youthful, royal cavalier !
Foul Bidirafsh alighted, stripped the prince,
And bare off to the king the horse and girdle,
The standard and the goodly, jewelled crown,
While all the army shouted and paraded
The standard on an elephant. Gushtasp,
What time he looked forth from the mountain-top,
Saw not amid the dust that Moon of chiefs,
And said : " I fear me that the full-orbed Moon,
That ever gave a lustre to the host
My valiant brother, glorious Zarir,
Who used to overthrow the angry lion
Hath been dismounted, for the warriors
Have ceased from charging and the princes shout not !
Perchance that chief of nobles hath been slain.
Speed to the battlefield a mounted man v. 1530
Toward yonder sable standard and discover
My royal brother's case, because my heart
Is fuU and seared for him."
Thus fared the world's king
Till one, whose eyes poured blood-drops, came and said:
64 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
" The Turkman horsemen wretchedly have slain
Thy Moon, the guardian of thy crown and host,
Him that was paladin of paladins
Zarir the cavalier for Bidirafsh,
The chief of all the warlocks of the world,
Hath overthrown him and borne off the standard."
The world's king, hearing of that slaying, felt
Death visible. Down to the feet he rent
His robe, strewed dust upon his jocund crown,
And said to sage Jamasp : " What shall I say
To Shah Luhrasp ? How can I send to court
A messenger ? How tell mine ancient sire ?
Alas ! that royal warrior ! Alas !
Gone like the bright moon midst the clouds ! Bring
Luhrasp' s Gulgun and set thereon my saddle."
He made him ready to avenge his brother,
And carry on his Faith and precedent,
But " Pause ! " said his experienced minister,
" Thy going to revenge is ill-advised."
So, as that prescient minister enjoined,
The Shah alighted and resumed the throne,
Thus saying to his troops : " What Lion is there
To take revenge for glorious Zarir,
And, urging forth his steed with that intent,
Retrieve my brother's saddle and his charger ?
I swear before the Master of the world
The oath of upright and of noble men
v - 'S3 1 That whosoe'er shall go forth from the army,
On him will I bestow Humai, my daughter."
But not a man came forward from the host,
And not a single warrior left his post.
How Asfandiydr heard of the Slaying of Zarir
Thereafter tidings reached Asfandiyar :
" Zarir, that princely cavalier, is slain.
Thy father, overcome by grief for hiin,
Now purposeth to take revenge himself."
The famous hero wrung his hands, and said :
" What ill doth fortune spare us ? When I saw
Zarir in fight I ever feared this day.
Woe for that horseman, warrior, and chief,
Whom fortune hath discrowned ! Who slew that prince,
That valiant Elephant ? Who plucked from earth
That iron Mount ? "
Resigning to a brother
Flag, troops, and his own station, he advanced
Himself and reached the centre, girt his loins,
And seized the royal standard. Now he had
Five brothers, the adornments of the throne,
All men of high renown, the Shah's compeers.
They held Asfandiyar in reverence,
Because it was his wont to shatter hosts.
That Mainstay of the troops said to those nobles :
" Ye men of name and scions of the Shah !
Attend to what I say, observe it well,
And trust the Faith of God, the Lord of all.
Know then, ye princes ! that this is the day
Which will discern the false Faith from the true.
See that ye fear not death or anything,
For none will die but at his fated time,
And if so be that fated time hath come,
What is more glorious than to die in battle ?
Heed not the slain, seek not for further help,
And count not heads. Put not your trust in flight,
And be not terrified at combating.
VOL. v. E
66 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
V. 1532 In battle let your lances' points be low,
Strive for a space and quit you manfully.
If ye will do as I have bidden you
My soul will still be stayed within my body,
Your name will be renowned throughout the world,
And all the host of yon old Wolf will perish."
While matters fared thus with Asfandiyar
His father shouted from the mountain-top :
" Ye men of name and warriors of mine,
Who are as mine own body and my soul !
Fear ye not arrows, swords, and javelins,
Because there is no fleeing from our fate.
By God's Faith and by brave Asfandiyar,
And by the soul of that loved cavalier,
Zarir, alighted now in Paradise,
Luhrasp the Shah hath written unto me,
And I have pledged me to that ancient man,
That, if good fortune giveth me the day,
I will bestow, when I shall quit the field,
The crown and throne upon Asfandiyar ;
I will bestow the royal crown on him
Just as my sire bestowed the realm on me,
While Bishutan l shall have the host, and .1
Will crown him with a crown of royalty."
Hoiv Asfandiyar went to battle with Arjdsp
Asfandiyar, the elephant-bodied hero,
Lord of the throne and terrible of form,
Heard what his father shouted from the mountain,
And hung his head for sorrow. Spear in hand
He came, bent modestly before his sire,
And then, as 'twere a div escaped from bond,
1 One of Asfandiydr's brothers.
Bestrode a stately grey, like blast on rose-leaves
Fell on trie foe, slew, and beheaded them,
While all that saw him died of fright. Nastiir,
Son of Zarir the horseman, left his tent,
Went to the keeper of the steeds and bade
To bring him forth one fresh and fleet and broad v. 1533
Of buttock, like a caracolling mountain.
He set a golden saddle on its back,
And harnessed it and put the bards thereon.
He bound a Kaian lasso to the straps,
Then mounted, after he had armed himself,
And spear in hand rode to the battlefield.
Thus faring till he reached the scene of strife
He sought to light upon his slaughtered sire.
He hasted, put his charger to its speed,
Exacting vengeance, slaying as he went,
And when he saw one of the Iranian race
Would ask that noble of the host, and say :
" Where was it that Zarir, my father, fell
That warrior, that doughty cavalier ? "
There was a certain man, Ardshir by name,
A horseman, one of worth, a hero-taker,
Of whom the youth inquired. That warrior
Directed him to where his slain sire lay.
" He fell," so spake Ardshir, " amid the host,
Hard by yon sable standard. Thither haste,
And thou mayst look upon his face once more."
The prince urged on his steed and as he went
He slaughtered foes and dealt destruction round.
He rushed along until he reached his sire,
And, when he saw the corpse upon the dust,
All heart and reason left him. From his saddle
He threw himself upon his father's body,
And thus addressed it : " O my shining Moon,
The lustre of my heart and eyes and soul !
What toil and trouble hadst thou in my nurture,
68 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And whom didst thou commit me to in dying ?
Since Shah Luhrasp bestowed the host upon thee,
And gave Gushtasp the throne and diadem,
Thou hast administered the troops and realm,
And battled with a will Thy fame on earth
Is bright as thou couldst wish, yet thou art slain
While still unsatisfied ; but I will seek
v. 1534 Thy brother, that auspicious Shah, and say :
' Descend thou from that goodly throne of thine.
Thy conduct is unworthy of my father ;
Go forth then and avenge him on the foe.' "
Longwhile he mourned, then mounted. With exclaims
He sought the Shah upoD the goodly throne.
" Life of thy father," said the king of kings,
" Why hast thou filled thine eyes with tears ? "
The Kaian-born : "0 monarch of the world !
Go and avenge my sire, because my lord,
His black beard musk-perfumed, is left to lie
Upon the arid dust ! "
Now when the Shah
Heard, daylight blackened to him and the world
Loured on its lord ; his elephantine form
Shrank, and " Bring forth," he said, " my sable steed,
My battle-mail, and casque, because today
In wreak for him will I pour warriors' blood
In many a stream and light a fire whose reek
Shall reach to Saturn ! "
\Vhen the warriors
Saw from the field the hosts' dark scene of strife
Their sovereign arming, and that he would go
To seek revenge, they said : " The king of kings,
And master of the world, will not go forth
To battle, seeking wreak, Avith our consent,
Else what need is there to array the host ? "
The noble minister addressed the Shah,
And said : " Thou shouldst not go upon the field.
Give to Nastur the steed that thou wouldst mount,
And send him forth to battle with the foe,
For better than thou canst will he require
The vengeance that is owing for his sire."
How Nastur and Asfandiyar slew Bidirafsh
The Shah then gave his steed Bihzad, his helm
Of steel, and sable breastplate to Nastur,
The slaughtered prince's son who, armed and mounted,
Rode forth between the opposing hosts and, halting
Before the battle of the enemy,
Heaved from his breast a deep, cold sigh, and cried :
" Nastur am I, the offspring of Zarir :
The lion dareth not encounter me.
Where is that warlock Bidirafsh who holdeth
The flag of Kawa ? "
As no answer came
He urged along night-hued Bihzad, and slew
Full many a valiant warrior of the host,
While no one went forth to encounter him ;
On this side too the brave Asfandiyar
Slew of them past all counting and compute.
Whenas the king of Chin beheld Nastur
That youthful paladin of Kaian race
He cried out to his troops : " What man is this,
This spearman so accomplished, who hath slain
My chiefs in numbers numberless, unless
Zarir, the cavalier, hath come to life
He that came out against me at the first,
And urged his charger in this selfsame way ?
Where is the chosen warrior Bidirafsh ?
Ho ! summon him before me, and right soon."
70 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Then Bidirafsh went forth at once, he bare
The violet flag, was mounted on the charger
Of prince Zarir, and wore the prince's mail,
v. 1536 Advancing in his pride toward Nastiir,
That royal youth, the lustre of the host,
He grasped the selfsame sword of watered steel
Wherewith he had o'erthrown Zarir. 1 They wheeled
Zarir's son and that chief of Turkman warlocks
Contending with their scimitars and arrows.
Men told the glorious Asfandiyar,
The Shah's son, of their combating, who made
All haste to go to them. Now when that chief
Of sorcerers beheld this, and perceived
What man now was advancing to assail him',
He urged his charger from amid the fray,
And hurled his baneful weapon at the prince
To darken if he might that radiant face ;
It missed the prince, who caught it in his hand
And pierced a hero's stroke his foeman's liver,
So that the point came out the other side.
Thus Bidirafsh fell from his steed and perished,
Experiencing the might of Kaian birth.
Asfandiyar dismounted from his steed,
And stripping off the armour of Zarir
"f he noble hero from that ancient warlock,
Whose head he severed from its trunk withal,
He carried off the prince's glossy charger,
The flag, and head of worthless Bidirafsh.
The Kaian army raised a shout, all sent
Their clamour through the skies : " The prince hath
Hath overthrown the foe, gone forth, and brought
The dun steed back ! "
1 The sword is mentioned in Jamdsp's prophecy (p. 52), but elsewhere
we are told that Zarir was slain by a double-headed dart (p. 63). The
discrepancy may be due to lack of revision (p. 22).
The prince, that valiant horseman,
Brought to the Shah Zarir's horse and presented
The head of that old warlock. Thus he slew
The slayer as by law and wont is due.
How Ar j asp Jled from the Battle
When great Asfandiyar had taken vengeance,
And saddled him the charger of Zarir,
He rode back proudly to the battlefield, V. 1537
Formed three divisions of the Kaian host,
And gave one to the warrior Nastiir
Of glorious birth the lustre of the troops ;
The second all franian warriors
And chieftains he entrusted to his brother,
And kept the third beneath his own command,
Whose voice was as it were a thundering cloud.
Nastur of stainless birth, the exalted chief,
And Nush Azar, the valiant paladin,
Both bound themselves together solemnly :
" Although the foeman's sword shall cleave the earth
We will not come back from the fight alive,
And let those miscreants escape our grasp."
When they had spoken thus and made secure
Their saddle-girths they went forth to the battle.
Now, as they urged their chargers from the lines,
The heroes and the young men of Iran
All came on too and decked the world with mail.
They slew so many horsemen that they cramped
The battlefield. The mill-wheels turned in blood
That streamed from hill and plain. Arjasp, beholding^
Advanced with his own chiefs and warriors.
Asfandiyar, the hero-slayer, couched
His lance against those divs of Turkman race,
72 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And sewed them breast to back till he had slain
Full many a haughty chief. Although the Khan
Saw none to aid, and none who dared oppose
v. 1538 Asfandiyar, but that his troops withdrew
Demoralised, he kept his post till eve
Amid the rout, then fled toward the waste.
The Iranians pressed the countless troops of Chin,
And slaughtered them in numbers everywhere,
For, strange to tell ! not one showed pity there !
How the Turkmans received Quarter from Asfandiyar
The Turkman troops saw that Arjasp had fled,
That swords were flashing on all sides of them,
And all the chiefs, alighting from their steeds,
Came to the presence of Asfandiyar,
The hero, flung away their Turkman bows,
And doffed their mail. They said to him in anguish :-
" If now the prince will give his servants quarter
We will accept his Faith, will seek instruction
Therein, and all do worship to the Fires."
The Iranian soldiery regarded not
Their words and smote and slaughtered till the world
Shone with their blood, but when Asfandiyar
Had heard the Turkmans' cries he granted quarter
For life and limb. That elephantine hero,
That princely scion of the royal race,
Made proclamation to his glorious host :
" Iranian nobles ' spare the men of Chin.
Now that our enemies have been o'erthrown
Restrain your hands from further massacre.
Give these dogs quarter, for they have enough
V. 1539 Of anguish, scorn, and strait, make no more prisoners,
Put none in bonds, and let all bloodshed cease ;
Charge not, nor trample on the slain. Go round
And reckon up the wounded. By Zarir's soul,
Make no more prisoners, and tarry not
For long upon your battle-steeds."
On hearing what their leader said to them,
Gave themselves up to tendering the wounded.
They went back to their camp, beat kettledrums,
Because they had returned victorious,
And all that night slept not for joy, for Rustam
Himself might own to such a victory.
When night had passed away, and blood still ran
On wilderness and waste, the famous Kaian,
Escorted by the captains of the host,
Went forth to look upon the battlefield.
He wandered midst the slaughtered, shedding tears
O'er any known to him, but when he saw
His brother's corpse flung vilely on the field
He rent the royal raiment that he wore
And, lighting from his glossy steed Shiilak,
Clutched at his beard with both his hands, and cried :
" Prince of the warriors of Balkh ! by thee
My whole life hath been turned to bitterness.
Alack ! O gracious form ! chief ! prince !
warlike cavalier ! chosen hero
My column and the curtain of the realm,
The Kaian lustre and the army's crown ! "
He came near, raised the body from the dust,
And with his own hands wiped the dead man's face ;
Then placed the body on a golden bier :
Zari'r, thou wouldst have said, had ne'er been born.
The Iranian nobles and his own young kinsmen
He laid upon their biers, and gave command
To count the slain and carry off the wounded.
They searched the battlefield, the plains, and moun-
74 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
v. 1540 The waste and ways. Of soldiers of Iran
Were thirty thousand slain ; of men of name
Eleven hundred and three score and six ;
One thousand and two score of name were wounded,
And 'scaped the trampling of the elephants.
A hundred thousand of the enemy
Were slain, eight hundred of them chiefs and nobles ;
The wounded were three thousand and ten score.
Shun, if thou canst, such ill scenes evermore.
How Gushtdsp returned to Balkh
The famous Kaian, the triumphant Shah,
Went from the battlefield toward his throne,
And bade Nastur : " Tomorrow at the dawn
Conduct the army toward our glorious realm."
That chosen chieftain had the tymbals sounded
At daybreak, and the army packed the baggage.
They turned back to the country of Iran,
Stout-hearted and prepared to fight again.
They passed by no one either killed or wounded,
But bore the wounded to Iran and gave them
To skilful leeches. Now on his return
The monarch of the world bestowed Humai,
His glorious daughter, on his eldest son, 1
And gave illustrious Nastur the host,
According to the usage of the Persians,
Gave him ten thousand of that noble race,
World-questing horsemen, wielders of the lance,
Gave him command, and said : " O gallant spearman I
Go forth against the monarch of the Turkmans,
Pass through Ayas and through Khallukh, and slay
All that thou takest to avenge thy sire."
1 I.e. Asfandiyar. Cf. p. 22.
The Shah supplied whate'er Nastur required, V. 1541
Not taking either count or reckoning,
And thereupon Nastur led forth the host,
While Shah Gushtasp sat on his throne and state,
And, placing on his head the Kaian crown,
Gave audience unto all the host. He opened
His treasury and decked the troops with wealth,
Gave cities to the chieftains, sovereignties
And dignities to those deserving them ;
He passed none over, gave to each his due,
And after that dismissed them to their homes.
Then mounting on his throne for secret conclave,
And sitting on the seat of king of kings,
He bade inaugurate a Fane of Fire,
And use for fuel Indian aloe-wood.
They made the floor thereof pure gold throughout ; .
The dust was ambergris, the fuel aloe.
He fashioned all by rules of art, he called
The place " The Mansion of Gushtasp," and made
Jamasp its archmage. To his governors
He wrote : " The Lord hath not abandoned us,
For He hath turned our night's gross murk to day,
And given us conquest to our full content.
Arjasp was shamed, we triumphed. Who can know
To do this save the Maker of the world ?
On hearing of the victory of your Shah
Present your tribute to the priests of Fire."
When Coesar, King of Rum, received the news :
" The Shah hath conquered and Arjasp is worsted,"
He sent an embassy with precious gifts
Of slave-boys and of steeds caparisoned ;
The king of Barbaristan and kings of Hind
Sent tribute too as did the kings of Sind.
THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
How Gushtasp sent Asfandiyar to all the Provinces, and
how the Folk received from him the good Religion
V. 1542 One day the illustrious and fair-fortuned hero,
When seated on the glorious Kaian throne,
Gave audience to the elect of all his realm,
The magnates, and the princes of birth royal.
Asfandiyar, the hero, came before
The presence, ox-head mace in hand and wearing
A Kaian casque above that shining moon,
His face. He stood before the presence, slave-like,
With head depressed and folded arms. Gushtasp
Saw and esteemed his face o'er life and world,
And smiling said : " O brave Asfandiyar !
Dost thou not long for fight ? "
That gallant swordsman
Replied : " 'Tis thine to bid because thou hast
The kingship and the world."
The famous Kaian
Gave him a golden crown, unlocked for him
The treasures, and committed to his charge ^
The conduct, of Iran, because he had
The might of paladins, gave standard, wealth,
And host, and said : " Thy season for the throne
Is not yet. Mount thy saddle and convert
All nations to the Faith."
The Shah's son went
A hero-slaying swordsman with his host
To all the nations. Over Rum he passed,
And Hindustan, passed ocean and the Gloom,
v - !543 And published the evangel by command
Of God, the All-provider. When folk learned
About the good Faith they received its rites,
Adorned themselves therewith, and sought instruction.
They burned the idols on their thrones, they kindled
The Fire in stead thereof, and all dispatched
This letter to the Shah : " We have accepted
The Faith delivered by Asfandiyar,
And donned the girdle. 1 He hath ordered all.
Thou shouldst not now ask tribute of us, we
Have been converted and profess the Faith.
Send us the Zandavasta of Zarduhsht."
When he had read the letter of the kings
He sat upon his throne and called his peers.
He sent the Zandavasta to each clime,
To every man of name and every chief,
And ordered that the famous paladin
Should go to all four quarters of the world.
Now no one, wheresoe'er that prince appeared
Dared to go forth to meet him in the fight,
But all folk placed themselves at his command,
While evil-doers vanished utterly.
Asfandiyar, when all had recognised
His sire, loosed from his loins the golden girdle,
Sat like a monarch on the royal seat,
And for a season rested with his host,
But called to him his brother Farshidward
And, having summoned troops and warriors,
Bestowed on him dinars and drachms in plenty,
Gave Khurasan to him and so dismissed him.
Now when a while had passed, and when the world
Had grown all pure and convert to the Faith,
Asfandiyar thus advertised his sire, V. 1544
And said : " Illustrious and victorious Shah !
By God's Grace I have purged the world, and spread
The shadow of the eagle through the climes ;
Moreover men no longer fear each other,
And no one is in lack of gold and silver.
The world hath grown as bright as Paradise
1 See p. 1 6.
78 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And populous, and all the fields are tilled ;
Our cavaliers have made it all their own,
The husbandmen are at their husbandry."
The world wagged on awhile with matters thus,
And evil was 110 longer obvious.
How Gurazm spake Evil of Asfandiydr
Mine author saith that when the Shah bestowed
A royal crown upon Asfandiyar
There was a certain noble hight Gurazm,
A famous war-worn warrior, who cherished
A secret enmity against the prince.
I know not why it was, but I have heard
That this man was a kinsman of Gushtasp's,
And always ill-disposed toward his son, 1
And, when that prince's fame was noised abroad,
Was wont to slander and belittle him.
Once at the dawn of day the famous Shah,
While sitting in the banquet-hall at ease,
Gave audience to the chosen of his host,
The magnates, kings, and others of high birth,
v. 1545 Gurazm sat, his visage passion-pale
And heart all black with hate, before the Shah,
The glorious one. Now mark the villain's conduct
What time the converse turned upon the prince,
For thereupon he wrung his hands, and cried :
" A wicked son is like an enemy,
And, being such, should win advancement never.
An archimage, a holy man, hath told us :
< A puissant son, if he becometh great,
Will alter for the worse his sire's estate ;
A slave that is disloyal to his lord
Should be beheaded as his just reward.' "
1 Cf. p 12.
Gushtasp asked what the riddler meant, and said :
" What is this riddle ? Who doth know the answer ? "
The slanderous Kaian said : " Twere indiscreet
To tell it now."
The great king cleared the hall,
And said to that deceiver : " Come to me,
Reveal the whole to me and what my son,
That man of serpent faith, concealeth from me."
Gurazm, the ill-disposed, made answer thus :
" To do the right thing is the part of wisdom.
The Shah hath satisfied mine every wish,
And I must keep no secrets from the Shah.
I will not keep my counsel back from him,
E'en though it proveth unacceptable,
I will in no wise keep it from my lord,
Though he should let me never speak again,
Because for me to speak, although he hear not,
Is better than to hide from him the secret.
Know then, world-lord ! that Asfandiyar
Is clearly bent on battle, troops have flocked
In multitudes, and all men turned, to him.
His purpose is to put thee into bonds ; v. 1546
He cannot bear that thou shouldst be the Shah,
And, when he hath laid hands on thee and bound
Will make the whole world subject to himself.
Thou knowest that Asfandiyar is one
That hath no peer in battle, and when he
Hath coiled his lasso up the sun itself
Will not dare meet him. I have told thee truly
What I have heard ; so now be well-advised ;
To counsel and take action are for thee."
Now when Gurazm spake thus before the Shah
That famous warrior was all astound,
And said : " Whoever saw a thing so monstrous ? "
In dudgeon he began to hate his son ;
8o THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He quaffed no wine withal, forwent his pleasures,
Refused the feast, and heaved deep, chilling sighs ;
He could not sleep for thinking all that night,
Possessed by wrath against Asfandiyar.
As soon as dawn breathed from the mountain-tops,
And starlight disappeared, he called to him
Jamasp, that man of much experience,
His minister in chief, and said : " Approach
Asfandiyar, call him forthwith, conduct him
To me, and say : * ' A great affair is toward,
And therefore come, O leader of the realm !
Thy presence is required, and for my part,
When thou art absent, nothing prospereth.' "
He wrote an urgent letter in these words :
" O noble, glorious Asfandiyar !
I have dispatched the old Jamasp to thee,
Who can remember to have seen Luhrasp.
When thou beholdest him gird up thy loins,
And come with him upon swift-footed steeds.
If thou art lying down spring to thy feet,
And if thou shalt be standing tarry not."
Charged with the letter of the Shah in haste
That wise man crossed the hills and trod the waste.
How Jamasp came to Asfandiyar
V. 1547 Asfandiyar was in the desert hunting
When some one shouted that the Shah had sent
Jamasp. He mused and laughed uneasily.
He had four noble sons, all fair of face
And doughty cavaliers, the eldest hight
Bahman, 1 the second Mihr-i-Nush, the third
1 The future 8Mb.
GUSHTASP 8 1
Azar Afruz a wary warrior
The youngest Niish Azar ; 'twas he that built
The Fane of Fire. Bahman said to his father,
That king of earth : " May thy head flourish ever !
My lord was laughing with a hollow laugh,
I know not why."
Asfandiyar replied :
" My son ! one cometh to me from the Shah,
Who is displeased with me and hath some grudge
Against his slave."
The noble youth said : " Why ?
What hast thou done against our sovereign lord ? "
Asfandiyar made answer : " O my son !
I know of no offence against my father,
Unless it is that I have taught the Faith,
Have lighted sacred Fires throughout the world,
And purified it with my trenchant sword.
What can have made the Shah's heart wroth with me ?
In sooth the Div must have seduced his heart,
For he is mad enough to wish to bind me ! "
Now while Asfandiyar was thus engaged
The dust of the advancing troops appeared.
He saw it from the mountain-top afar
And, knowing that the messenger had come,
Went forth at once to meet him. When they spied v. 1548
Each other on the way they both alighted
Down from their prancing steeds, and warrior
And elder fared afoot. The glorious
Asfandiyar inquired : " How is the Shah,
That hero-king ? "
The sage Jamasp made answer :
" He is both well and happy."
Then he kissed
The prince upon the head and gave the letter,
Informing him with frankness of the case,
And saying : " The Div hath led the Shah astray."
VOL. v. F
82 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDA USI
Asfandiyar said to that man of wisdom :
" What seemeth to thee best for me herein ?
If I set out with thee to go to court
My father will entreat me scurvily,
And if I go not with his officer
I shall no longer be a loyal liege.
Devise some remedy, thou ancient sage !
I may not rest in this bewilderment."
The sage replied : " prince of paladins,
So young in body and so old in knowledge !
Thou knowest that the best love of a son
Is not so tender as a father's wrath.
Thou must set forward, that is mine advice,
For, whatsoe'er he doth, he is the Shah."
This they agreed upon and went their ways,
The messenger and the exalted prince,
Who made Jamasp alight when they had reached
A goodly seat whereafter both drank wine.
Next day Asfandiyar sat on his throne
And, when he had brought forth the muster-roll,
Entrusted all the army to Bahman,
And setting forth with certain warriors,
His girdle girt, his crown upon his head,
Back to the court-gate of the great Shah sped.
How Gushtdsp imprisoned Asfandiyar
The Shah on hearing that Asfandiyar,
His son, had come, crowned with the Kaian casque,
v. 1549 Called to his presence high and low alike,
And spread the Zandavasta out before him.
He seated all the archmages and then summoned
The royal swordsman. With extended hands
The hero came, approached the presence, did
Obeisance, and stood slave-like with bent head
And folded arms. The king of kings addressed
The archmages, chiefs, and leaders of the host.
" Suppose," he said, " that any noble man
Shall rear a son with pains, provide him nurses
While needing suckling, crown him with a crown
Of gold, and guard him till he waxeth lusty,
Teach him till he becometh venturesome,
And undergo no little pains to make
That son a cavalier expert in war ;
Suppose that noble youth attaineth manhood,
And is as bright as new gold from the mine,
That all that seek for favours ask of him,
And that he is the theme of every speaker,
Shall prove a good, victorious cavalier,
And foremost when folk meet for fight or feast,
Shall place the whole world underneath his feet,
And well deserve the royal diadem,
Shall, when victorious, spread forth limbs and boughs,
The while his father, then grown old, shall sit
Within his palace, keeping but one crown
And throne, and stay at home to mind the goods ;
Suppose that son with world and flag and host
Shall grudge his sire e'en one gold crown and throne !
Hath any of you heard of such a thing
As that the son for that one throne and crown
Should purpose to cut off his father's head,
Should make an insurrection with his troops,
And whet his heart to fight against his sire ?
What say ye, ancient men ? What is the course
The father well may take with such a son ? "
The chosen chiefs replied : " monarch ! never v. 1550
Have we to take account of such a case
The father living and the son attempting
His throne ! Call nothing more preposterous."
The world-lord answered : " Here there is a son
84 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Who hath designs upon his father's life.
Him will I bind as well he hath deserved,
And on such wise as none hath bound another."
The son exclaimed : " Shah of noble race !
How ever could I hanker for thy death ?
I do not know, Shah ! of any wrong
That I have done to thee at any time.
By thine own life, imperious sovereign !
When ever did I harbour such designs ?
But thou art Shah ; 'tis thine to order ; I
Am thine, and bonds and prison rest with thee.
Bid them to bind or slay me as thou wilt ;
My heart is honest and my mind submiss."
The king of kings exclaimed : " Bring hither chains;
Bind him, and falter not."
They brought in blacksmiths,
Yoke, chains, and heavy shackles, and then bound him,
Both hand and foot, before the king, the world-lord,
So straitly fettered him that all beholding
Wept bitterly. They brought an elephant,
Like indigo, and set Asfandiyar
Thereon. They bare him from his glorious sire,
With dust upon his head, to Gumbadan,
That stronghold on the mountain-top, conveyed
V. 1551 Four iron columns thither and there bound him
With rigour. They dethroned him ; fortune changed.
The Shah set many to keep guard upon him,
While seared and sore that gallant paladin
Lived for a space in straitest custody,
And ever and anon wept bitterly.
How Guslitdsp went to Sistdn and how Arjdsp arrayed
his Host the second Time
Thus many days passed o'er Asfandiyar,
The while Gushtasp departed to Sfstan
To make the Zandavasta current there,
And archimages testify thereto.
As soon as the illustrious Shah arrived
There went to him the captain of the host,
The ruler of Nimruz, whose name was Rustam,
A veteran cavalier, another Sam,
In company with aged Zal, his sire,
With mighty men and those about the court.
They carried minstrels in their train withal,
And posted them with harps along the route.
Thus went they forth to greet the glorious Shah
Right jubilantly, and it liked him well.
They brought him to Zabul to be their guest,
And stood before his presence as his slaves.
From him they learned about the Zandavasta,
Adopted it, and lighted sacred Fires.
Two years passed thus in hospitality ;
Gushtasp kept feasting with the son of Zal.
Throughout the world, wherever there were kings
That heard about the doings of the Shah :
" He hath confined Asfandiyar in bonds,
Hath galled his elephantine form with iron,
And gone to preach the gospel in Zabul
To blast the idols with the Cult of Fire,"
They one and all refused to do his bidding,
And brake with him completely.
When Bahman v '552
Heard that his sire was prisoned by the Shah,
And for no fault, Asfandiyar's brave meiny
86 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Came grieving to him with the Kaian princes,
Fulfilled with tribulation and dismay,
And raised his spirits with their minstrelsy,
Not letting him be lonesome in his prison.
Then tidings reached the king of Chin : " The Moon
Hath fallen from the Archer into ambush.
The Shah, wroth with Asfandiyar, dispatched him,
Dishonoured, to the hold of Gurnbadan,
And started for Zabulistan himself
From Balkh to stay with Rustam, son of Zal,
Whose guest he now is at Zabul, and thus
Two years have passed away. Of all the Iranians
And soldiery none, saving Shah Luhrasp
With seven hundred devotees of Fire,
Is left at Balkh."
The monarch of Chigil
Called out his chiefs and heartened them to fall
Upon Luhrasp. " Know ye," 'twas thus he spake,
" That Shah Gushtasp hath marched with all his host
Sistan-ward and abideth at Zabul :
No cavalier is left in all his realm.
Now is the time for us to seek revenge ;
We must take order and prepare ourselves.
His son, illustrious Asfandiyar,
V. 1553 Is fast in heavy bonds. What man is there
A searcher out of mysteries prepared
To undertake the long and arduous road,
And, choosing bypaths, shunning public ways,
Obtain full tidings of the Iranians ? "
There was a sorcerer, by name Situh,
A rover and explorer. " I," he said,
" Am one of tact and used to travelling.
What shall I do ? Command me as thou wilt."
The king of Chin said : " Go thou to Iran,
Take heedful note, and roam through all the land."
The spy set forth upon his way and went
To chosen Balkh, the dwelling of the Shah.
He saw not Shah Gushtasp therein but found
Luhrasp, the devotee ; he thereupon
Returned and, having done the Khan obeisance,
Told all. Arjasp grew joyful at the news,
And freed from longsorne care, called all his chiefs,
And said : " Go, muster our disbanded host."
The chieftains of the army went their way
To mountains, desert-tracts, and pasture-lands,
And summoned to the king his soldiery,
The chosen horsemen of his sovereignty.
The Words of Dakiki being ended, Firdausi resumeth,
praising SMh Mahmud and criticising Dakiki
Now, man of eloquence and shrewd ! again V. 1554
Take up the story in thy proper strain.
Dakiki to this point had brought hisilay
When fortune put a period to his day,
And, having dealt with him right grievously,
Bare off his spirit from this Hostelry,
So that these fleeting words of his are all
That now remain as his memorial.
He stayed not to complete the tale, he penned
It not from its beginning to its end.
Now give attention to Firdausi's part,
Whose words are chaste and pleasing to the heart.
What time within my hands this story fell
My hook was angling for the fish as well. 1
I scanned the verses and esteemed them weak ;
In many couplets there was much to seek,
But here have I transcribed them that the king
May know how inartistic verses ring.
1 " Lorsque ce livre tomba entre mes mains, il me manquait un mois
pour avoir soixante cms" (Mohl).
88 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Both jewellers have each a gem to sell ;
Now let the Shah give ear to what they tell.
If thou canst speak but in Dakiki's vein
Speak not at all and spare thy nature pain,
And, mindful of the bondage and the toil,
Ne'er dig in mines whence thou wilt win no spoil.
Unless thou art as fluent as a stream
Lay not thy hand upon this royal theme ;
Tis better that all food should be abjured
Than that thou shouldest spread a tasteless board.
A book fulfilled with legends met my view,
Its words possessed of character and true,
Its stories very ancient and in prose ;
The wits had never thought of rhyming those,
No one had thought of linking line to line
A fact that struck this gladsome heart of mine.
Two thousand years had passed the story o'er,
Two thousand years and haply countless more,
V. 1555 And I began his praises to rehearse,
Who showed the way to turn it into verse.
Although he only rhymed the veriest mite
One thousand couplets full of feast and fight
He was my pioneer and he alone,
In that he set the Shahs upon the throne.
From nobles honour and emolument
Had he ; his trouble was his own ill bent.
To sing the praises of the kings was his,
And crown the princes with his eulogies,
But still he uttered but a feeble strain,
And eld through him could ne'er grow young again.
I took the story for a lucky- sign ;
For many a year the travail was all mine,
Yet found I no great patron of mine own
To shed a lustre on the royal throne
A matter of much discontent to me,
But silence was the only remedy.
I had before mine eyes a garth of trees,
A dwelling-place for such as live at ease,
But not a portal opened on that same,
Save only what was royal but in name.
Fit for my garden must the portal be ;
One that was narrow would not do for me.
For twenty years I kept my work till I
Should find one worthy of my treasury,
Until Mahmiid, the master of the earth,
Endowed with Grace and bounty, he whose worth
Both Moon and Saturn praise (Abii'l Kasim !
The crown of king of kings is fresh through him),
Till he, the world-lord, came and sat him here
Upon the throne of justice. Find his peer.
His name hath crowned my work, his Grace divine
Like ivory made this darkened heart of mine.
He passeth all the Shahs that went before,
And counteth not as ill the breath of yore.
Dinars to him are dust, and him dismay
Betideth not in festival and fray,
For he from one that seeketh doth withhold v. 1556
Not sword in war-time nor at feast-time gold.
May his throne flourish ever and still be
The rapture of the spirits of the free !
How the Host of Arjdsp marched to Balkh and how
Luhrdsp was slain
Now will we tell the warfare of Arjasp
Afresh and by our insight clear the garth
Of weeds : Arjasp had tidings that the Shah
Had set forth with his host toward Sistan,
And gave commandment that Kuhram, the swordsman,
Should lead the troops before him, for Kuhram
90 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Was oldest-born to him and raised his head
O'er radiant Sol. Arjasp said : " Choose thee horsemen
War-worthy from the host and haste to Balkh,
Which hath embittered and o'ercast our days.
Those of our foes, those worshippers of Fire,
Those Ahrimans. whom thou shalt take, behead,
Burn up their homes, and turn their day to night.
Smoke from the palace of Gushtasp must rise
And lick the azure sky. If thou shalt find
Asfandiyar with fetters on his feet
Put thou an end to him ; part instantly
His body and his head, and make the world
Re-echo with thy name. Throughout Iran
The cities have been left at thy disposal,
The foe the scabbard left for thee the sword.
I shall not loiter in Khallukh but follow
Apace, recall our scattered troops, and lavish
My hoarded wealth."
Kuhram replied : " Thy bidding
Will I perform and pledge my life thereto."
When from its waist the sun drew forth its sword,
And darksome night drew back its skirts therefrom,
v. 1557 There gathered five score thousand of Khallukh
About Arjasp choice cavaliers and swordsmen.
Kuhram led forth the army to Iran,
While earth grew like an Ethiop's face for gloom,
And coming to those marches spread his hands,
And overthrew whome'er he saw. The Turkmans
Had set their hearts on vengeance, were prepared
To pillage and to slay, and as they drew
Anear to Balkh spake much and bitterly.
Luhrasp heard of Kuhram, was grieved, and fared
With travail. Thus he prayed : " Omnipotent !
Thou art supreme o'er time's vicissitudes,
Thou art almighty, wise, and merciful,
The Master of the shining sun. Preserve
My Faith, my person, and mine energies,
My watchful heart and intellect withal,
So that I may not perish in their hands
A thrall, or in dismay cry out for succour."
There was no chief or mace-armed cavalier
At Balkh. A thousand came from the bazar,
But all unfit for war. Luhrasp assumed
His mail what time the Turkman host drew nigh,
He left the oratory for the field,
And donned the Kaian casque. Old as he was
He roared out like a maddened elephant,
Bare in his hand an ox-head mace, and dashed
To earth therewith a warlock of the chiefs
At every charge till all folks said : " This noble
Is dealing buffets like Asfandiyar ! "
Where'er he spurred he mingled dust with blood ;
The galls were split of all that heard his voice. v. 1558
Kuhram said to the Turkmans : " Fight no longer
Against him single-handed, strive amain,
Surround him, and roar out like mighty lions."
Arose the crash of bills, the shouts of horsemen
All eager to monopolize the fray,
Whereat Luhrasp, abandoned midst the foe,
Invoked in his resourcelessness God's name,
For old age and the burning of the sun
Oppressed him, and his fortune went to sleep.
That veteran, that worshipper of God,
Fell headlong, smitten by the Turkmans' arrows ;
The head that wore the crown came to the dust.
Then many cavaliers surrounded him ;
They hacked his Kaian harness into bits,
His body piecemeal with their scimitars.
They took him for a youthful cavalier,
But when they raised the helmet from his head,
And saw his ruddy cheek, his'camphor hair,
And heavenly visage livid now with iron,
92 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
All marvelled at the miracle, exclaiming : '
" To think that one so old should sword it thus !
Had but Asfandiyar himself come hither
Our host would have been busy on this plain !
Why have we come here with such puny powers,
For we have come but as a flock to pasture ? "
Then to his comrades said Kuhram : " The toil
And travail in the fight was due to this,
That he who wore the crown was Shah Luhrasp
Sire of Gushtasp, the master of the world.
As king of kings he had the Grace of God,
And passed his life in feasting and the field,
But in old age became a devotee,
And plucked his heart away from crown and throne.
Now will Gushtasp, whose throne is thus bereaved,
Quail for the diadem of king of kings."
V. 1559 The host reached Balkh, the world was wrecked with
And slaughter. Making for the Fane of Fire, 1
For hall and palace decked with gold, they gave
Them and the Zandavasta to the flames.
The fane had eighty priests, God's worshippers,
And all before the Fire the Turkmans slew,
And swept that cult away. The Fire, that erst
Zarduhsht had litten, of their blood did die ; ;
Who slew that priest himself I know not I. 2
1 N6sh A'zar. See p. 93.
- Reading with P. Of. p. 15. Zarduhsht is said to have been
seventy-seven at the time of his death on the day Khurshid of the
month Ardibihisht, i.e. on May r, 583 B.C. WPT, v. 165, and xxx.
How Gushtdsp heard of the Slaying of Luhrdsp and
led his Army toward Balkh
Gushtasp possessed a wife a prudent dame,
Wise, understanding, and high-minded. She,
When she had dight herself in Turkman guise,
And mounted on a fleet steed from the stable,
Departed from the palace and set forth,
Aghast at what had happened, toward Si'stan.
She tarried not to sleep at any stage,
And ran a two-days' journey into one.
Thus she continued till she reached Gushtasp
In grief with tidings of Luhrasp, and said :
" Why hast thou tarried this long while and why
Didst thou depart from famous Balkh at all ?
An army from Turan hath reached the city,
And turned its people's day to bitterness.
All Balkh is full of sack and massacre ;
Thou must return forthwith."
Gushtasp replied :
" What grief is this ? Why mourn a single raid ?
When I march forth all Chin will not withstand me."
She answered thus : " Talk not so foolishly ;
Things of great charge confront us now. The Turkmans
Have slain at Balkh Luhrasp, the king of kings, v. 1560
And turned our days to gloom and bitterness,
Proceeded thence to Nush Azar and there
Beheaded both Zarduhsht and all the archmages,
Quenched in whose blood the radiant Fire expired,
An outrage not to be accounted lightly.
Thereafter they led off thy daughters captive ;
Take not so grave a matter easily.
If there were nothing but Humai's dishonour
'Twould stir a sage's heart, and furthermore
94 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
There is thine other daughter, Bih Afrid,
Till then kept hidden from a breath of air,
Whom they have taken from her golden throne,
And plundered of her bracelets and her crown."
Gushtasp, on hearing this, was filled with anguish,
And showered from his eyelids gall of blood.
He called to him the great men of f ran,
And told before them all that he had heard,
Called for a scribe, put by his crown, avoided
His throne, sent cavaliers to every side
With letters to his paladins, and said :
" Wash not your heads from soil, distinguish not
'Twixt up and down, and come ye all to court
In armour and with mace and Riiman casque."
They bore the letter to each paladin
That was a mighty man within the realm,
And, when from all the Shah's realm there had gathered
The troops and valiant horsemen of his host,
He gave out pay and, marching from Sistan,
Proceeded on his road toward famous Balkh.
v. 1561 Arjasp, on hearing that Gushtasp, the world-lord,
Had come with army and with crown and throne,
Assembled from Tiiran so vast a host
That sun and moon were darkened with the dust.
From sea to sea that host extended, none
Could see the surface of the waste for troops,
And when the dust-clouds of the armies met
The earth grew dark and heaven azure-dim.
The opposing hosts drew up for battle, armed
With spears and swords and double-headed darts.
Upon the Iranian right prince Farshidward
Was posted one that challenged rending lions ;
Upon the left the warrior Nastiir,
Son of Zaiir the chief ; while at the centre
Gushtasp, the world-lord, overlooked his powers.
Kundur was stationed on the Turkman right
With infantry behind him with the baggage ;
Kuhram, the swordsman, on the left; Arjasp
Was at the centre with the main. The din
Of trump and drum ascended from both hosts,
Earth turned to iron, air to ebony.
Thou wouldst have said : " The heavens flee away,
And earth is cracking underneath the weight ! "
The heights of flint bowed at the chargers' neighs
And crash of axes ; all the waste was full
Of heads laid trunkless in the dust and battered
By massive maces ; swords flashed ; arrows rained ;
The heroes shouted in the fray ; the stars
Sought flight ; the troops grew prodigal of life ;
Shafts fell around like hail ; the wilderness
Was all a-groan with wounded trampled down
In multitudes beneath the horses' hoofs, v. 1562
The lion's maw their shroud and blood their bier ;
The trunks were headless and the heads were trunkless ;
The horsemen were like elephants a-foam,
And fathers had no time to mourn for sons.
Thus for three days and nights the heavens revolved,
All onslaught and reprisal, war and strife ;
The moon's face reddened with the splash of blood,
Such was that battlefield ! Then lion-like
Strove Farshidward against Kuhram, the swordsman,
And was so sorely stricken that the life
Passed from his lion-body. Multitudes
Were slain amidst the Iranians, the land
Was wet with warriors' blood. Now Shah Gushtasp
Had eight and thirty sons, bold mountaineers
And horsemen on the plain ; all were laid low ;
The Shah's good fortune darkened at a blow.
96 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
How Gtishtdsp was put to Flight by Arjdsp
At length Gushtasp, when fortune had become
So rugged, showed his back. The enemy
Pursued him for two stages and were instant
To take him captive. In the way before him
There lay a mountain full of pasturage,
Wherein there were a mill-stream and a mill,
And having in its whole circumference
But one sole path : thereof Gushtasp was ware,
V. 1563 And heart-seared scaled the mountain with his troops,
But left a force upon the road behind him.
Arjdsp, arriving with his host, went round
The mountain, but discovered not the path.
On all sides they laid leaguer. When the Shah,
That noble man, was left without resource
His troops lit fires upon the mountain-top,
And burnt thorns on the flints ; a each leader slew
A steed and pondered on his helpless plight.
The proud Shah, compassed thus, was sore dismayed,
And called to him Jamasp, the veteran,
Held talk at large about the stars, and said :
" Declare whate'er thou knowest of heaven's will,
And wait not to be asked. Thou needs must tell
Who is to succour me in this distress."
Jamasp, on hearing, rose and said : " Just king !
If now the Shah will hearken to my words,
Confiding in the process of the stars,
I will discover to him what I know
If he will recognise my truthfulness."
The Shah replied : " Whatever secret thing '
1 There is a play of words in the original between khar (thorns)
and khani (flint).
Thou knowest, tell it to me and be brief ;
My head may touch the clouds, but heaven's changes
I cannot 'scape."
Jamasp replied : " Shah !
List to my words and let me have thine ear.
Asfandiyar, the glorious, by thy bidding
Is wearing chains in this his evil day.
If he were set at liberty the Shah
Would not be left on this high mountain-top."
Gushtasp replied : " O trusty counsellor,
Who art a man of truth and of resource !
When in my wrath I put him into bonds V. 1564
The heavy chains by blacksmiths riveted
I was remorseful all the time and sought
With aching heart to find a remedy
For having bound him in the audience,
Though he was guiltless, at his foeman's charge.
I, if I see him on this day of battle,
Will give him crown and throne and signet-ring ;
But who will dare to go to that beloved one,
And free the innocent ? "
Jamasp said : " I
Will go, O king ! because the case is urgent."
Gushtasp rejoined : " thou fulfilled with wisdom !
Thy virtues are as music to my soul ;
Depart forthwith by night, greet him at large
From me, and say : ' The man that did the wrong
Hath left this world with anguish in his heart,
While I, who acted as that little-wit
Desired, repent that I have done amiss,
And will prepare a goodly recompense.
Now if thou wilt put vengeance from thy heart,
And shalt bring down our foernen's heads to dust,
For else the realm and throne have reached their end,
And foemen will uproot the Kaian Tree,
On thee, if thou shalt come, I will bestow
VOL. V. G
98 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Crown, treasure, and whate'er I have amassed
By toil, and will devote myself to prayer
Thenceforth as did my sire Luhrasp, the world-lord.
God is my witness to these words of mine,
As is Jarnasp who is my counsellor.' "
Jamasp attired him in Turanian mail,
And came down from the heights without a guide.
V. 1565 Whenas that man of wisdom reached the plain
He passed the army of the foe by night ;
To Gumbadan, the hold, he made his way,
Preserved from ill hands and his evil day.
How Jdmdsp visited Asfandiydr
One of Asfandiyar's exalted sons,
Whom he named Niish Azar, was on the ramparts
To see who came forth from the Iranian host,
And advertise his sire. At sight of any
He used to hurry from the walls forthwith.
When he perceived Jamasp upon his way,
And on his head a fair Turanian helm,
He said : " A horseman from Tiiran hath come :
I will descend and tell Asfandiyar."
He hastened downward from the castle-rampart,
And spake on this wise : " Noble paladin !
I see a horseman coming in the distance,
And on his head there is a sable helm.
I will go see if he is from Gushtasp,
Or from Arjasp, a foe. If he shall prove
A Turkman then will I cut off his head,
And fling his feckless body in the dust."
Said great Asfandiyar : " The traveller,
Since he is unattended, is but lowly.
In sooth he is a warrior from Iran,
And cometh unto us with some dispatch ;
My sire hath put that helmet on his head
In apprehension of our valiant foes."
When Niish Azar, the paladin, had heard
He went in haste upon the castle-rampart ;
He recognised Jamasp when close at hand, v. 1566
Descended, and informed his glorious sire :
" Jamasp is at the gate."
He had it opened,
The sage came in, did reverence and, coming
Before Asfandiyar, repeated to him
The message of Gushtasp, his sire, in full.
Asfandiyar replied : " O Memory
Of this world's heroes, wise, courageous,
And of exalted rank ! why bow to one
In chains, for one in irons, hand and foot,
Is not of man's seed, but an Ahrirnan ?
Thou givest me greeting from the king of kings,
So that thy heart is not informed by knowledge,
Since it is for Arjasp to greet me now,
Because the plain is all Iranians' blood.
They bound me innocent. Gurazrn forsooth
Must be the Shah's son, I be fettered thus !
Mine irons are my witnesses to God
That I have had injustice from Gushtasp,
And that Gurazm's words pleased Ahriman.
Such was the recompense of all my toil,
While for my treasury 'tis stocked with irons.
Oh ! may I ne'er forget this injury,
And stultify my wisdom through thy talk."
Jamasp replied : " O speaker of the truth,
World-taker, lion- thrower, bent on fame !
If thou art thus heart- wearied of thy sire
His throne is overturned ; yet for the sake
Of pious Shah Luhrasp, slain by the Turkmans
In battle, and of those God-fearing priests,
ioo THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Who had the Zandavasta in their hands,
Of whom four score were slaughtered archimages
And sages pure of heart, quenched in whose blood
The sacred Fire hath died within the fane
Such ill deeds cannot be accounted lightly,
v. 1567 Possess thy heart with sorrow for thy grandsire,
Rise in thy wrath and let thy cheeks be pale,
For if thou art not stirred up to avenge him
Thou art not worshipful and well advised."
Asfandiyar made answer to him thus :
" famed, high-starred, heroic, and prevailing !
Reflect that for the old Luhrasp that man
Of piety, the father of Gushtasp
The son that sought erewhile his father's throne,
And his prerogative, will best seek vengeance."
Jamasp replied : "If thou wilt not "avenge
Thy grandsire thou art void of principle.
The wise Humai and Bih Afrid, whose faces
No breath of air had seen, are in Tiiran
As prisoners, all misery and anguish,
And foot it wan of mien."
Thus answered : " Did Humai at any time
Remember me in my confinement here ?
And, further, as for noble Bih Afrid,
She never looked on me, as thou mightst say !
Why now should I distress myself for them ?
No one from them hath ever come to me.
A father well may see to his own daughters,
A sire the better undertake for them."
Jamasp replied to him : " paladin !
Thy sire, the world-lord, with his soul all gloom,
Is now upon a mountain with his chiefs,
With tearful eyes and unfed lips ; the Turkmans
Beleaguer him ; henceforth thou wilt not see
His head and crown. The Maker will condemn
Thy disregard of love and Faith. Thy brethren,
For thou hadst eight and thirty Mountain-pards, v. 1568
And Lions of the plain all couch in dust
And brick, because the foe let none escape."
Asfandiyar rejoined : " I used to have
Full many a noble brother, and while I
Lay bound they all made merry ! No one thought
Of wretched me ! If I take action now
What profit, seeing that the foe hath raised
The reek from them ? "
Jamasp, on hearing this,
And noting how the captive's heart was seared,
Rose to his feet in sorrow and in anger,
With anxious heart and eyes fulfilled with tears,
And said to him : " O chief of paladins !
Although thy heart and mind are darkened thus,
What sayest thou of the case of Farshidward,
Who went so heavily on thine account ?
Where'er he was, at fray or festival,
He was all pain and curses on Gurazm ;
His body hath been slashed with scimitars,
Helm and cuirass are cloven, and his soul
Is breaking with his love for thee ! Oh ! pity
His weeping eyes."
When Farshidward was named V. 1569
Asfandiyar wept blood, his heart was grieved,
He cried : " wretched, valiant warrior !
lion-hearted hero, chieftain, prince !
1 have been wounded by those wounds of thine,
And I have bathed my cheeks in my heart's blood."
When he became composed he asked Jamasp :
" What was thy purpose in concealing this ?
Give orders that some blacksmiths shall be brought,
And let them file the fetters from my feet."
Jamasp fetched blacksmiths, and they brought with
102 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Their heavy hammers and their files of steel.
They filed the rings, the rivets, and the chains,
And all the bridge-like fetters made in Rum.
The bonds took long to file ; the captive's heart,
Remiss no longer, grew impatient.
He said thus to a smith : " Thou awkward lout !
Thou bindest but thou canst not break the bonds !"
He drew his hands away, arose in dudgeon,
And, stretching out the chains to their full length,
Strained with his feet and struggled with his hands,
And brake in pieces fetter, ring, and chain.
The breaking of his bonds exhausted him,
The anguish overcame him and he swooned.
That reader of the stars who saw the marvel
Was full of praises of the noble prince.
Whenas the lusty hero had regained
His wits he ranged the bonds and chains before him,
And said : " These presents given by Gurazm
Have severed me from fight and festival."
V. 1570 With aching body galled and stiff with bondage
He went off to the bath. He then demanded
The raiment of a king and therewithal
The armour of a paladin, and bade :
" Bring iny fleet charger, helm, and scimitar."
Now when his eye fell on his steed he called
Upon the Giver of all good, and said :
" If I did wrong I have been vexed with bonds,
But what hath this my prancing Barbary
Done to be starved ? Go groom and feed him up."
He sent for smiths, the prowest in their trade,
Who came, repaired his arms, and hauberks made.
How Asfandiydr satv his Brother FarshMward
Night came like vengeful Ahriman, the bells
Clanged at the gate, and Indian sword in hand V. 1571
Asfandiyar bestrode his royal steed.
He with Bahman and noble Niish Azar
Went forth on their long journey while Jamasp,
The minister of great Gushtasp, went first
As guide. Now when these warrior-cavaliers
Had come outside the walls, and reached the plain,
Asfandiyar, the chieftain, looked toward heaven,
And said : " Judge whose words are true ! Thou art
The Maker, the AlmighCy, and illumest
The spirit of Asfandiyar. If I
Prevail and make the world strait for Arjasp,
Take vengeance on him for Luhrasp, the Shah,
And for the blood of all those blameless chiefs,
My very eyes mine eight and thirty brothers,
Whose blood hath dyed the dust upon the plain
I swear by God, the just Judge, to forego
Revenge upon my father for my bonds,
To build a hundred Fanes of Fire, and weed
The world of tyranny. None shall behold
A carpet 'neath my feet till I have built
A hundred hostels in the wilderness.
In parched wastes that no vulture traverseth,
And where no onager and other game
Set foot, will I have dug ten thousand wells,
And plant their mouths with trees. Out of my treasure
I will bestow a hundred thousand drachms
Upon the poor and every one that asketh.
I will convert the erring to the Faith,
And will lay low the heads of sorcerers,
While in God's presence will I stand and worship ;
104 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
None ever shall behold me take mine ease."
He spake thus and urged on his battle-steed
Until he came to Farshidward, beheld him
Stretched on the dust in miserable case,
His prostrate form confounded by its wounds,
And, pouring from his eyes so many tears
As filled the wise physician with amazement,
V. 1572 Exclaimed : " O Lion, seeker of the fray !
From whom hath this disaster come upon thee ?
On whom shall I avenge thee in the battle,
On Lion of the fray or Crocodile ? "
Thus Farshidward replied : " paladin !
It was Gushtasp that wounded me to death.
Could Turkmans, if he had not fettered thee,
Have wrought this scath and likewise overthrown
Luhrasp, the hoary-headed, and all Balkh ?
None ever hath beheld or heard of ills
Such as Gurazm's words have brought upon us ;
Yet murmur not, accept thy lot, and prove
A fruitful tree, for I shall pass away,
But needs must thou abide for evermore.
Remember me when I have gone, and glad
My spirit by thy bounty. So farewell,
Thou chief of paladins ! For ever live,
And be of ardent soul."
He spake and wanned ;
That noble Lion, Farshidward, was gone.
Asfandiyar clutched at his own cuirass,
Marred all the painted silk, and cried : " Lord
Supreme and holy ! lead me to take vengeance
For Farshidward, to send the dust-clouds flying
From stones and water, from Arjasp to set
The blood a-stream, and give Luhrasp's soul peace."
With heart all vengeance and with head distraught
He laid his brother's corpse upon the saddle,
Then mounted to the heights, his brother's body
Bound on the bay, and said : "What at this present
Can I achieve for thee, how raise thy charnel ?
I have no gold, no silver, and no gems, V. 1573
No bricks, no water, none to build a wall,
Nor any tree where I may lay thee down,
O noble chief ! to slumber in the shade."
He stripped his brother's armour off and used
His turban and his jerkin as a shroud,
And thence departing came where Shah Gushtasp
Had fared so ill. He saw Iranians slain
In numbers that concealed the dust and stones,
And bitterly bewept those hapless ones
Whose fortunes were o'erthrown. There where the
Had been most fierce he saw Gurazm's pale face,
His steed o'erthrown beside him where he lay
O'erstrewn with dust, and thus Asfandiyar
Addressed the slain : " O fool and of ill fortune !
Mark what a wise man of fran once said,
When giving utterance to his secret thoughts :
' A foe that's wise is better than a friend
Albeit in both their wisdom we commend,
For wise men think within their powers nor fret
Their souls by seeking what they ne'er can get.'
Thou soughtest my position in Iran,
And broughtest this destruction on the world.
Thou hast deprived this kingdom of its lustre,
Hast practised artifice and uttered lies,
And all the blood poured out in this contention
Will be upon thee in the other world.",
He turned his head, still weeping, from the waste,
And came upon the main of Turkman troops.
He saw the host extending seven leagues,
And such that heaven was aghast thereat.
A trench had been constructed round about,
More than an arrow's flight in width. This ditch
io6 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He managed with a hundred shifts to cross,
And reined his steed toward the level ground.
The Turkman outpost of some eighty men
Were on their rounds about the battlefield.
V. 1574 They came upon him with disordered ranks,
Came challenging and shouting, and inquired :
" O lion-man ! what seekest thou by night
Upon the battlefield ? "
He answered them :
" All that ye care for on the battlefield
Are sleep and feast. When tidings reached Kuhram
' Asfandiyar hath made his passage through you,'
He said to me : ' Take thy sharp scimitar,
And bring the Day of Doom upon their souls.' "
Then, mindful of the battle with Gushtasp,
He drew his scimitar and laid about him,
O'erthrew full many of them on the road,
And thence departed toward the Shah's abode.
How Asfandiyar came to the Mountain to Gushtasp
Asfandiyar climbed that high, flinty mountain,
And did obeisance when he saw his father,
Who seared at heart, arose, kissed, and caressed
His son's face, saying : " I thank God, my boy !
That I have seen thee happy and still ardent.
Regard me not with anger and dislike,
And be not slow to take revenge. Gurazm,
Malignant miscreant that he was, obscured
My heart toward my son, and ill hath come
Upon him for his calumnies, since evil
Befalleth evil men for their ill deeds.
Now by the Ruler of the world I swear,
Who knoweth all things open and concealed,
That if I prosper and o'ercorae the foe
I will bestow the realm, the crown, and throne
On thee, establish many a shrine, and give thee
My secret hoards."
Asfandiyar replied :
" Let me h'nd favour in the monarch's sight ;
It will be treasure, throne, and crown to me
If he shall be content with me, his slave.
The monarch knoweth that when I beheld v. 1575
Upon the field the face of slain Gurazrn
I shed tears o'er that slanderer and burned
To think what anguish he had caused the Shah.
Our past mishaps are now but wind to me.
Hereafter when I draw my vengeful sword,
And set my face to quit this rocky height,
I will not leave Arjasp, Ay as, or Chin,
Kuhram, Khallukh, or country of Tiiran."
The soldiers, hearing that Asfandiyar
Was freed from heavy bondage and ill- fortune,
Pressed on, troop after troop, upon the mountain
Before their chieftain, while the mighty men,
The alien, and akin bowed down to him.
Thus spake high-starred Asfandiyar : " Famed swords-
Draw ye your watered blades, advance to vengeance,
And slay the foe."
The chieftains blessed him saying :
" Thou art our crown and falchion of revenge !
We all will pledge our lives for thee and make
The sight of thee the rapture of our souls."
They spent the night in ordering the host,
And getting ready coat of mail and spear.
Gushtasp held further talk of fortune's ills
With glorious Asfandiyar and set
His eyes a-stream in telling of the blood
Of all those valiant youths that had been slain
io8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Upon the battlefield, whose princely heads
Were now encircled by a crown of gore.
That very night the tidings reached Arjasp:
" The son of Shah Gushtasp hath come to him.
He hath slain many scouts upon the way,
And those that were not slaughtered showed their
He was in dudgeon, called to him the magnates,
Held converse with Kuhram at large, and said :
V. 1576 " Our thoughts were other of this war what time
The host set forth. I said : ' If we can catch
That div still chained the world will issue scathless,
I shall obtain the Iranian throne, and all
Will offer me their homage everywhere.'
Now, since that div-begotten hath broke loose,
We deal in grief and sighs. None of the Turkmans
Can match him in the fight, so let us march,
Still blithe and yet unworsted, to Tiiran
While crown and throne are ours."
He bade to bring
The treasures and the steeds caparisoned
The booty carried off from famous Balkh
And charged Kuhram therewith. Arjasp possessed
Four sons, all younger than Kuhram, and these
Packed, and then loaded up a hundred camels,
Which went, each with a guide, by divers roads.
The king was full of terror and of haste,
He could not eat or take his ease or sleep.
There was among the troops a Turkman named
Gurgsar who came before the king, and said :
" monarch of the Turkmans and of Chin !
Fling not away thy glory for one man.
Yon host is smitten, beaten, and in flight,
Its fortune all astound, the Shah himself
Is all consumed with grief, his sons are slain,
And who hath come except Asfandiyar
To help him ? Yet thou break'st thy soldiers' hearts,
And woundest by thy words without a battle !
Wise kings fear not, poltroons cause ruin. No mace
Hath fallen on a helm nor arrow struck
A barded steed. I will encounter him,
If he come forth, and fling him to the dust."
Arjasp, on hearing what he said and marking v. 1577
His courage and wise counsel, made reply :
" O warrior eager for the fray ! name, birth,
And parts are thine. If thou make good thy words,
And prowess the corrival of thy tongue,
All from this tent up to the sea of Chin,
And all the treasures of Iran, will I
Bestow on thee ; thou shalt command my host,
And never will I swerve from thine advice."
Forthwith he gave the army to Gurgsar
With lordship o'er the more part of the world.
Whenas the sun took up its golden shield,
And dark night did obeisance, putting off
Its musk-black raiment while the world's face grew
All ruby-like in tint, a mighty host
Descended from the heights. Asfandiyar,
The ruler of the world, the valorous,
Led on the troops himself. An ox-head mace
Depended from his saddle. Shah Gushtasp
Was at the centre of the host, his soul v. 1578
Full of revenge upon Arjasp. Moreover,
The offspring of Zarir, Nastiir, at whom
The lion wont to flee the wood, assumed
His station on the right as general,
And ordered all the battle under him.
Gargwi, the warrior, upon the left
Came forth as bright as Sol in Aries.
Arjasp on his side ranked his" troops; the stars
Saw not the plain for spears and blue steel swords ;
The air was full of silken flags. The centre,
i io THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Where was Arjasp, seemed ebony ; Kuhram
Was on the right with trumpets and with tymbals,
And on the left the monarch of Chigil,
From whom a lion might take heart in fight.
When king Arjasp beheld the mighty host
Of chosen, lance-armed cavaliers he went,
Chose out a height, and thence surveyed the armies
On every side. The forces of the foe
Frayed him, the world turned black before his eyes.
Anon he bade the cameleers to bring
A hundred strings of camels from the waste,
And said in private to the men of name :
" If this affair prove long, if victory,
Success, and glory show not on our side,
I and my friends will need for safety's sake
To take the road upon these rapid beasts."
Now when between the lines Asfandiyar,
Like some fierce lion with his lips afoam,
Was wheeling like the turning firmament,
And brandishing in hand the ox-head mace,
V. 1579 Thou wouldst have said : " The whole plain is his steed ;
His soul is greater than his skin can hold."
Arose the war-cry and the clarion's blare ;
The warriors of the host advanced. " The waste,"
Thou wouldst have said, " hath grown a sea of blood,
And all the air is Pleiad-like with swords."
Then brave Asfandiyar rose in his stirrups
And shouted, brandishing his ox-head mace
Of steel, then, gripping it still tighter, slew
Three hundred Turkmans of the central host,
Exclaiming : " In revenge for Farshidward
This day will I raise dust-clouds from the sea."
Then letting his swift charger have the reins
He charged against the right wing of the foe,
And slaughtered eight score of the warriors.
Kuhram, when he beheld it, showed his back.
Asfandiyar exclaimed : " Thus I avenge
My grandsire whom my father loved so well,"
Then turned his reins toward the left, and all
The earth became as 'twere a sea of blood.
He slew of mighty men eight score and five,
All men of name possessed of crowns and wealth.
" Thus," said he, " I revenge my noble brothers,
Those eight and thirty who have passed away."
Arjasp, on seeing this, said to Gurgsar :
" Our warriors in numbers numberless
Are slaughtered all ; not one of them is left ;
Not one remaineth still before the line.
I know not wherefore thou remainest silent,
Or why thou hadst so much to say before."
The words aroused the spirit of Gurgsar,
And he advanced before the line of battle.
Within his hand he bare a royal bow,
And poplar arrow with a point of steel.
As soon as he was near he aimed his shaft,
And struck the paladin upon the chest.
Asfandiyar hung over on his saddle
So that Gurgsar might deem : " The shaft hath pierced
His breastplate, and the prince's radiant form
Is wounded," and Gurgsar accordingly
Unsheathed his flashing falchion, purposing
To smite the head off from Asfandiyar ;
But he, all fearless of disaster, loosed v. 1580
The coiled up lasso from the saddle-straps,
And in the Maker's name, the Omnipotent's,
Flung it about his foe whose head and neck
Were taken in the toils. Asfandiyar
Then hurled Gurgsar all quaking to the ground,
Secured, firm as a rock, his hands behind him,
And, having set a halter round his neck,
Dragged him along the ground before the lines,
With blood-foam on his lips, toward the camp,
ii2 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Dispatched him to the Shah's safe custody
That conquering monarch of the golden helm
And said : " Keep this man in the camp-enclosure
In bonds and no wise think of slaying him
Till we shall see how fortune will incline,
And which side gain the day."
He led his whole host onward to the fray,
And shouted to the troops : " Where is Kuhram,
Whose flag is seen no more upon the right ?
Where is Kundur, the swordsman, too that taker
Of Lions who was wont to pierce the mountains
With spears and arrows ? "
They informed Arjasp :
" Asfandiyar, the hero, hath encountered
Gurgsar in fight and ta'en him prisoner,
Bold Lion though he was. The atmosphere
Is violet-dim with swords of warriors,
The banner blazoned with the wolf hath vanished."
That portent grieved Arjasp. He bade to bring
The camels and then took the desert-route.
He and his courtiers rode those lusty beasts,
And led their chargers. Thus he left behind
His army still upon the battlefield,
While with his lords he fared toward Khallukh.
v. 1581 Asfandiyar sent up a battle-shout,
The mountain-top re-echoed at his voice.
He shouted to the Iranians : " Brandish not
Your scimitars of battle fruitlessly,
But sheathe them in your foemen's hearts and blood,
And pile on earth a mount Karun of slain."
The troops, inspired with vengeance, gripped their
And host encountered host. Dust, stones, and grass
Were saturate with gore, and had a mill
Been standing there the blood had driven it.
The plain was all bestrewn with feet and trunks,
With severed heads and fists still grasping swords,
While still the cavaliers of war charged on,
And gave themselves no time for pillaging.
Now when the Turkmans heard : " Arjasp hath fled,"
The skins upon their bodies burst with grief ;
Those that had steeds betook themselves to flight,
While all the rest threw down their casques and mail,
And came in sorrow to Asfandiyar,
Came with their eyes like spring. That mighty one
Accorded quarter and then ceased to slay.
He set a chief to guard them, and thenceforth
Grieved not his grandsire's death. He and his troops
Came to the Shah, breast, sword, and Human casque
All blood ; it glued the falchion to his hand,
And his cuirass had galled him, chest and shoulder.
They washed his hand and scimitar in milk, 1
And drew the arrows from his mail, and then
The atheling, triumphant and unharmed,
Went forth and bathed him. Afterward he called
For raiment meet for worshippers and sought
The all-righteous Judge. Gushtasp, all fear and awe,
Made for a week thanksgiving with his son
Before the just Creator of the world.
Upon the eighth day, when Asfandiyar
Had come again, Gurgsar appeared before him,
Despairing of sweet life and all a-quake v I5 g 2
With terror like a willow in the wind,
And said : " O prince ! my death will not renown thee ;
I will attend thee as a slave and ever
Guide thee to good, abate all future ills,
And show thee how to reach the Brazen Hold."
The prince bade take Gurgsar bound hand and foot,
Just as he was, back to the camp-enclosure,
And went to the encampment of Arjasp
1 " pour le separer " (Mohl).
VOL. V. H
H4 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
The slayer of Luhrasp distributed
The spoils midst horse and foot, committed all
The captives taken to his chiefs, and slew
Those that had given the army cause to rue.
How Cfushtdsp sent Asfandiydr the second Time to
Asfandiyar, on his return to camp,
Took counsel with the Shah about Luhrasp,
And the revenge for Farshidward and all
Those men renowned upon the day of battle.
To him Gushtasp said : " Thou, mighty man !
Rejoicest while thy sisters are in bondage.
Oh ! happy they that died upon the field,
Not frantic with dishonour from the Turkmans !
When men behold me sitting on the throne
What will my subjects say ? So long as life
Endureth I shall weep for this disgrace,
And burn within my brain. By most high God,
The Omnipotent, I pledge myself if thou
Shalt go without disaster to Turan,
V. 1583 Courageously confront the Dragon's breath,
And free thy sisters from the Turkmans, I
Will yield to thee the crown of empire, treasure
Which thou hast earned not, and the throne of great-
Asfandiyar replied : " May none behold
A time devoid of thee. I am a slave
To thee, my sire ! I do not seek the kingship,
And hold my soul and body as thy ransom.
I am not fain to sit upon the throne
And rule in person. I will go in quest
Of vengeance on Arjasp, spare neither field
Nor fell within Turan, and will restore
My sisters from their bondage to their thrones
All through the fortune of the exalted Shah,
The master of the world."
A blessing on him, saying : " Now may wisdom
Be with thee ever, in thy going forth
May God protect thee, and the throne be thine
On thy return."
He called the host together
From all parts where were warriors or archmages,
And from among them chose twelve thousand men,
All skilful cavaliers of high renown,
Distributing to them a donative
That well contented them. He furthermore
Bestowed upon Asfandiyar a throne,
And such a jewelled crown as monarchs use.
Then from the portal of the royal court
A shout rose : " Bring the princes' noble steeds."
They bore the tent-enclosure to the plain,
They bore the eagle-standard, and the host
Marched out mid dust that gloomed the radiant sun.
From palace plainward went Asfandiyar,
And saw an army ready dight for war.
THE STORY OF THE SEVEN STAGES
The poet, after inditing a Prelude in praise of Mahmud, tells
how Asfandiyar set forth with his host to rescue his sisters from
the Brazen Hold ; how he met with divers adventures by the
way, captured the Brazen Hold by a stratagem, delivered his
sisters, slew Arjasp, defeated the Turanians, and returned in
triumph to his father.
In this Part the rivalry between the two greatest heroes of
Iranian legend proper, the priestly and the popular hero
Asfandiyar and Rustam may be said to get fairly under way.
For the present it is a rivalry of achievement only. In Part III.
it is a personal contention in which every faculty of mind and
body is exerted to the utmost in a desperate struggle that results
tragically for both protagonists. This rivalry in legend may be
said to have commenced even in Part I., where, just as Rustam
delivered Tus and the Iranian host when beleaguered by the
Turkmans on Mount Hamawan, 1 so Asfandiyar delivers Gushtasp
and his army in similar circumstances from Arjasp. 2 In the
present Part, however, the rivalry becomes more pronounced.
As Rustam went alone to release Kai Kaus from imprisonment in
Mazandaran and encountered seven adventures on his way, so
Asfandiyar goes to Tunin to rescue his enslaved sisters and has
a similar series of difficulties to overcome. Again, just as Rustam
twice donned merchant's garb, on one occasion to get possession
of Mount Sipand, 3 and on another to rescue Bizhan when captive
in the pit, 4 so Asfandiyar assumes a like disguise to win the
Brazen Hold. 5 We should notice further that though the parallel
expeditions of Rustam and Asfandiyar pass under the same
1 Vol. iii. p. 132 scq. 2 p. 106 scq. 3 Vol. i. p. 329 scq.
4 Id. iii. 334 scq. ~ p. 143 seq.
name, 1 yet the priestly redactors of the latter's legend have
taken care that his achievements should be attended with more
pomp and circumstance than his rival's. Thus Rustam goes alone
to Muzandaran, 2 but Asfandiyar, whose princely rank has to be
recognised, makes his expedition to Tvmin accompanied by his
brother and minister Bishiitan and an army. This, however,
is not allowed to militate against the merit of his exploits.
When an adventure has to be achieved, the hero sets forth alone,
while Bishiitan and the troops remain at a respectful distance
in the rear till all is over, and then come up to offer their con-
gratulations. Again, Rustam sleeps through his first adventure
the killing of a lion and only wakes up to find that his steed
Rakhsh has done the business for him. 3 Asfandiyar slays suc-
cessively and single-handed two monstrous wolves and a lion and
lioness.* The third adventure of both is the slaying of a dragon. 5
Rustam succeeds with the help of Rakhsh, Asfandiyar with the
assistance of a break and pair of horses ! In the next adventure
both, after an interlude of wine, lute, and song, put to death a
witch ; 6 Ghul, however, whom Asfandiyar slays, is represented as
being the more formidable of the two beguilers. Finally, the
taking of the Brazen Hold and the slaying of Arjasp by Asfan-
diyar 7 evidently is intended to eclipse Rustam's capture of Mount
Sipand 8 and his encounter with the White Div in the cave. 9 We
may add that both heroes have a prisoner to guide them during
part of their respective expeditions. Rustam rewards Ulad. 10
Asfandiyar slays Gurgsar. 11 The champion of the Faith must
not show a mistaken mercy to infidels ! Evidently, however, from
what we have seen above, it was not considered enough that
Asfandiyar should be merely a great religious hero ; it was de-
sired that he should be a great popular hero as well, and surpass
Rustam on the latter's own ground, for Rustam's Haft Khwan
obviously is the original one. There seems also to be a malicious
hit at Rustam in Asfandiydr's fifth adventure, 12 that in which
he kills the Simurgh, the traditional guardian of the race of Zal.
Popular legend, however, stood firm on behalf of its great hero ;
it refused to supersede him or to acquiesce in the death of the
Simurgh ; on the contrary, it kept the great bird alive so that
it might compass indirectly its own revenge by providing Rustam
with the means of vanquishing Asfandiyar. Worsted in this
world, and to redress the balance, priestly tradition called in
1 Haft Khwdn. See Vol. ii. p. 29. 2 Id. ii. 44, iv. 296.
3 Id. ii. 45. 4 pp. 122, 124. 5 Vol. ii. p. 48, and p. 125.
8 Id. 50, and p. 128. 7 p. 152. 8 Vol. i. p. 330.
9 Id. ii. 59. 10 Id. 76. u p. 141. i 2 p. 131.
Ii8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
aid the next, and declared Rustam's lot therein to be an unhappy
one. This conflict between the legends of the two heroes is
typified in the story of their personal encounter in Part III.,
and we shall gather from Firdausi's splendid version of it, " the
deepest conflict of soul in the poem and one of the profoundest
in all national epics," as Professor Noldeke justly calls it, 1 that
after centuries probably of unconscious give and take the con-
flicting claims of the two protagonists were compromised, and
their combined legend settled down into the marvellous equi-
librium which now characterizes it.
The Praise of Mahmud the great King
V. 1584 The Seven Stages will I next set forth'
In words both novel and of dainty worth.
Oh ! may the world's Shah live for ever, may
Its potentates be slaves beneath his sway !
He showed his visage like bright Sol above,
And graced the surface of the earth with love.
V. 1585 Sol was in Aries when first he wore
The crown, and East and West rejoiced therefore.
The thunder-peal is rolling o'er the hills,
And tulip and narcissus throng the rills,
The patient tulip, arch narcissus, yea
And awesome spikenard and pomegranate gay.
The clouds have hearts of fire and tearful eyes,
And bursts of anger mix with melodies.
The levin flasheth and the waters leap
Till at the din thou rousest from thy sleep.
Thus wakened look abroad and call the scene
Brocade or painted by Mam' in Chin, 2
A scene that, bright in sunshine, having spied
The tulip and narcissus still wet-eyed,
Will laugh and cry : " Ye minxes ! thus again
I weep for love of you, not wrath or pain."
i NIN, 35. Cf. too, 30. 2 Cf. Vol. ii. p. 19 note.
Earth hath no laughter while the heaven is dry.
I do not call our great king's hand the sky,
Which only giveth forth its rains in spring,
For such is not the usance of a king.
As Sol, when it ariseth gloriously
In Aries, such shall the Shah's hand be,
For whensoe'er there cometh to his hand
A wealth of pearls or musk from sea or land,
The radiance that is his he doth not scant
To proud-necked monarch and to mendicant.
Abii'l Kasim ! our great Shah's hand is still
Thus generous alike to good and ill.
He never slackeneth in bounteousness,
And never resteth on the day of stress,
Delivereth battle when the times demand,
And taketh heads of monarchs in his hand,
But largesseth the humble with his spoils,
And maketh no account of his own toils.
Oh ! may Mahmiid still rule the world, still be
The source of bounty and of equity !
Now list to what an ancient sage hath told, v. 11586
And learn the legend of the Brazen Hold.
THE SEVEN STAGES OF ASFANDIYAR
THE FIRST STAGE
llow Asfandiydr slew tico Wolves
A rustic bard hath spread the board and there
Set forth " The Seven Stages " as the fare.
He took within his hand a cup of gold,
And of Gushtasp and of the Brazen Hold,
And of the doings of Asfandiyar,
120 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
His journey and the counsels of Gurgsar,
Spake thus : Now when embittered, tongue and soul,
Asfandiyar reached Balkh he left his sire,
And set out with Gurgsar toward Turan.
He marched until he came where two roads met,
And camped there with his host, bade spread the board,
And furnish wine and harp and minstrelsy,
While all the captains of the host drew near,
And sat at table with the king of men,
By whose directions presently Gurgsar,
In miserable plight, was brought before him,
And furnished with a golden goblet filled
Four times successively. Thereafter said
Asfandiyar to him : " Thou luckless one !
I will advance thee to the crown and throne,
Will give thee all the kingdom of the Turkmans,
And will exalt thee to the shining sun,
As soon as I return victorious,
If thou wilt tell me truly what I ask,
v. 1587 Nor will I harm thy children, kith or kin;
But if thou go about to utter lies
In any way they will not pass with me,
My sword shall cleave thee, and the hearts of all
Shall tremble at thy fate."
Gurgsar replied :
" famous, glorious Asfandiyar !
From me the king shall hear naught but the truth,
And be it thine to act the kingly part."
" Where is the Brazen Hold," Asfandiyar
Said, " for its marches march not with Iran ?
What roads are there to it ? How many leagues ?
How can it be approached without mishap ?
Say too how many troops there are within it,
And tell me what thou knowest of its height."
" kind and glorious Asfandiyar ! "
Gurgsar replied, " three roads lead hence to what
Arjasp hath titled ' Battlestead.' One route
Will take thy troops three months, the second two.
The first hath water, grass, and towns, and chiefly
Pertaineth to the chieftains of Turan.
The second road, that which will take two months,
Will furnish for the troops but little provand ;
There is no grass or water for the beasts,
And thou wilt find no camping-grounds. The third
Will occupy but seven days ; the troops
Will reach the Brazen Hold upon the eighth,
But that road is all lions, wolves, and dragons,
And none can scape their claws ; yet mightier
Than lion, wolf, and savage dragon are
A witch's charms, who raiseth from the deep
One to the moon and flingeth to the abyss
Another headlong. There are wastes, simurghs,
And bitter frosts which rise like blasts and cut
The trees. Then will appear the Brazen Hold,
And none e'er saw, or heard of, such another.
It toppeth the dark cloud-rack. Arms and troops
Abound within it. Waters and a river V. 1588
A sight to cheer the soul environ it.
The monarch crosseth to the plain by boat
When he will hunt, but should he stay within
For five score years the plain could furnish naught
That he would need, because inside the hold
Are tilth and pasture, fruit-trees and a mill."
Asfandiyar, on hearing this, was troubled
Awhile and sighed, but said : " There is no way
For us save this ; the short road is the best
In this world," and Gurgsar retorted thus :
" O king ! none e'er by puissance and pains
Hath made the passage of the Seven Stages
Without foregoing life."
The chieftain answered :
If thou art with me thou shalt see the heart
122 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And strength of Ahriman. What, sayest thou,
Will meet me first ? What must I fight for passage ? "
Gurgsar replied : " famed and fearless man !
Two wolves, each like a lusty elephant,
A male and female, having horns like stags
And all a-gog to make a fight of lions,
Broad in the neck and breast and thin of flank,
With monstrous elephants' tusks, first will confront
Asfandiyar then bade lead back Gurgsar
Bound as he was in miserable plight,
And blithe himself assumed his Kaian casque,
And held his court.
When Sol displayed its crown
On high, and heaven showed earth its mysteries,
The din of drums rose from the royal tent,
Earth turned to iron, air to ebony,
While in high spirits and with fair array
The prince set forward toward the Seven Stages,
And toward Tiiran. When he approached the First
He chose a veteran among the host,
V. 1589 A watchful man, hight Bishiitan, who guarded
The army from the foe, and said to him :
" Maintain good discipline among the troops.
I am disturbed by what Gurgsar hath said,
And will go on. If evil shall befall me
It must not come upon my followers."
He went and armed ; they girthed his night-hued
The chief, when he had drawn anigh the wolves,
Sat firmly like a mighty elephant.
The wolves beheld his breast and neck, his waist,
His warrior-handgrip, and his iron mace,
And like grim elephants and keen for fight
Made at him from the plain. The hero strung
His bow and, roaring like a rending lion,
Rained arrows down upon those Ahrimans,
And hardily employed the horsemen's sleights. 1
The steel-tipped shafts disabled both the beasts,
And neither could approach unscathed. With joy
Asfandiyar perceived them growing weak
And sore distressed, unsheathed his watered glaive,
And charged. He hacked'their heads and made the
Mire with their blood, lit from his noble steed,
Acknowledging his helplessness to God,
And washed the wolves' gore from his arms and person,
Then sought a spot that had not been defiled 2
Upon the sand and turning toward the sun,
With troubled heart and cheeks besmirched with dust,
Exclaimed : " righteous Judge ! Thou hast bestowed
Upon me strength, Grace, process. Thou hast laid
These beasts upon the dust and to all good v. 1590
When Bishutan came with the host
They saw the hero at the place of prayer.
The warriors were astonied at his exploit,
And all the troops thought : " Shall we call these wolves
Or lusty elephants ? May such a heart
And sword and hand live ever ! Never may
The throne of kingship, majesty, and feast,
And host lack him."
The wary warriors
Approached and pitched the tent-enclosure round him ;
They set a golden board whereat to dine,
Partook of victuals and called out for wine.
1 " et se precipita dans le danger qaijusque-ld avait accabl^ tous les
cavaliers " (Mohl).
2 "Un endroit pur de sang" (Id.).
124 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
THE SECOND STAGE
How Asfandiy&r slew two Lions
As for Gurgsar his portion was chagrin
About those fierce wolves and Asfandiyar,
Who bade the prisoner be brought before him.
They brought him quaking, with his face all tears.
The prince bestowed on him three cups of wine,
And asked : " What wonder shall I next behold
By thine account ? "
He answered thus the chief:
" O monarch crowned and leonine of heart !
Upon the next stage lions will assail thee,
Such as no crocodile would dare encounter ;
The lusty eagle, valiant though it be,
Will fly not in their path."
Laughed with light heart, and said : " O feckless Turk-
Tomorrow thou shalt see a valiant man
Address the lion with the scimitar."
When night grew dark the monarch gave command,
And they resumed the march. He led the host
Apace amid the gloom, blood in his eyes,
V. 1591 Despite at heart, and when the sun had doffed
Its dusky cloak and donned brocade of gold
He reached the station for the brave the plain
Where he must fight the lions. He commanded
That Bishiitan should come to him, advised him
At large, and said : " I go to fight in person,
Committing this exalted host to thee."
He went his way, and drawing near the lions
Turned all the world to darkness in their hearts.
There were a lion and a lioness,
And bravely both came forth to fight with him,
The lion first. He smote it with his sword ;
Its face grew coral-hued ; 'twas cloven from head
To midriff, which appalled the lioness,
Yet, like her mate, she came on savagely.
The chieftain smote her on the head, which fell
And rolled upon the sand. Her paws and breast
Were tulip-hued with blood. He bathed himself
And, looking to all-holy God alone
As his Protector, said : " righteous Judge !
Thou hast destroyed these creatures by my hand."
Meanwhile the troops came up, and Bishutan
Surveyed the lions' breasts and limbs while all
Acclaimed Asfandiyar. That valiant leader
Thereafter went to his pavilion where
They served to that pure prince delicious fare.
THE THIRD STAGE
How Asfandiyar sleio a Dragon
Asfandiyar then ordered to his presence
The luckless and malevolent Gurgsar,
Gave him three goblets filled with rosy wine,
And, when the wine had cheered that Ahriman,
Addressed him thus and said : " Ill-fated wretch v. 1592
Tell what thou knowest of tomorrow's sight."
Gurgsar returned reply : " High-minded king
May evil-doers ne'er approach to harm thee.
Gone hast thou into battle like a fire,
And made a shift to over-pass these bales,
But know'st not what will come on thee tomorrow.
Have mercy then upon thy wakeful fortune,
126 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUS1
For when tomorrow thou shalt reach the stage
A greater task by far confronteth thee.
There will encounter thee an awesome dragon,
Whose breath doth draw forth from the deep the fish.
A flame of fire proceedeth from its maw ;
Its body is a mountain made of flint.
Now if thou wilt retrace thy steps 'tis well ;
My very soul is pleading in this counsel.
Thou hast not any pity for thyself,
And by that token came this host together."
Asfandiyar replied : " Thou evil one !
I mean to drag thee in thy chains with me
To be a witness that this sharp-clawed dragon
Escapeth not my trenchant scimitar."
At his command some carpenters were fetched,
And therewithal some long and heavy beams.
He had a goodly wooden carriage built
All set about with swords and with a box,
Framed by a clever carpenter, whereon
That seeker of the diadem sat down,
And harnessed to the break two noble steeds
To put it to the proof. He drove awhile
In mail, armed with a falchion of Kabul,
And helmed for fight. Or ever all was ready
For battle with the dragon night grew dark,
As 'twere a negro's face, while Luna showed
Her crown in Aries. Asfandiyar
Gat on his steed Shiilak ; his noble host
v - *593 Marched after him. Next day when it was light,
And night's black flag was furled, the heroic world-lord
Assumed his breastplate and resigned the host
To glorious Bishiitan, had break and box,
Wherein he sat, brought forth, attached two steeds
Of noble stock, and sped toward the dragon.
Afar it heard the rumble and beheld
The prancing of the battle-steeds. It came,
Like some black mountain, and thou wouldst have
" The sun and moon are darkened." Its two eyes
Seemed fountains bright with blood, while from its
Fire issued, and like some dark cavern gaped
Its jaws. It bellowed at Asfandiyar,
Who, seeing the monster, drew his breath and turned
To God for help. The horses strove to 'scape
The dragon's mischief, but it sucked them in,
Them and the break, and in his box dismayed
The warrior. In the dragon's gullet stuck
The sword-blades, and blood poured forth like a sea ;
It could not free its gullet, for the swords
Were sheathed within it. Tortured by the points
And chariot the dragon by degrees
Grew weak, and then the gallant warrior,
Arising from the box, clutched his keen glaive
With lion-grip and hacked the dragon's brains
Till fumes of venom rising from the dust
O'erpowered him ; he tumbled mountain-like,
And swooned away. Then Bishiitan and all
His mighty host came up in tears and grief
Lest ill should have befallen Asfandiyar,
The troops all wailed, dismounted, and advanced
Afoot while Bishiitan came hurrying, V. 1594
And poured rose-water o'er the hero's head.
Now when the atheling had oped his eyes
He thus addressed the exalted warriors :
" The venom's fumes o'ercame me, for the dragon
Ne'er struck me.".
Rising from the ground like one
Awakening from a drunken drowse he sought
The water, plunged therein, and bathed, bespeaking
A change of raiment from his treasurer.
Then in the presence of all-holy God
128 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He wallowed in the dust and wept, exclaiming :
" Who could have slain that dragon if the World-lord
Had not assisted him ? "
His soldiers too
Bent to the earth and praised the righteous Judge ;
But thus to find alive Asfandiyar,
Whom he thought dead, was grievous to Gurgsar.
THE FOURTH STAGE
How Asfandiyar slew a Witch
Asfandiyar pitched by the water-side
His tent-enclosure while the troops camped round him.
He set forth wine, called boon-companions,
Rose to his feet, and drank to Shah Gushtasp,
Commanding too to bring Gurgsar who came
Before him, quaking. Then Asfandiyar
Gave him to drink three cups of royal wine,
Spake laughingly with him about the dragon,
And said : " Thou worthless fellow ! now behold
How with its breath that dragon sucked us in !
When I go forward for another stage
What greater toils and troubles are in store ? "
Gurgsar replied : " O conquering prince ! thou hast
The fruit of thy good star. When thou alightest
Tomorrow at the stage a witch will come
To greet thee. She hath looked on many a host ,
But quailed at none. She turneth waste to sea
At will and maketh sunset at mid day.
v. 1595 Men call her Ghiil, O Shah ! Face not her toiL
In these thy days of youth. Thou hast o'ercome
The dragon ; now turn back ; thou shouldst not bring
Thy name to dust."
The atheling replied :
" i Tomorrow, knave ! thou shalt recount my prowess,
For I will break the warlocks' backs and hearts,
So will I maul that witch, and trample down
Their heads by might of Him, the one just God."
When day donned yellow weeds, and this world's
Sank in the west, he marched on, packed the loads,
With prayer to God, the Giver of all good,
And led the army onward through the night.
When Sol had raised its golden casque, begemming
The Ram's face, and the champaign was all smiles,
The prince gave up the host to Bishiitan,
And took a golden goblet filled with wine,
Called for a costly lute and, though he went
To battle, dight himself as for a feast.
He had in view a wood like Paradise ;
Thou wouldst have said : " The sky sowed tulips
The sun saw not within it for the trees,
And streamlets like rose-water flowed around.
He lighted from his steed as seemed him good,
And, having chosen him a fountain's marge
Within the forest, grasped the golden goblet.
Now when his heart was gladdened with the wine
The hero took the lute upon his lap,
And out of all the fulness of his heart
Began to troll this ditty to himself :
" Oh ! never is it mine to see
Both wine and one to quaff with me,
But mine 'tis ever to behold
The lion and the dragon bold,
And not, from bales' clutch, liberty.
Tis not my lot to look upon
On earth some glorious fay-cheeked one,
Yet now if God will but impart
A winsome breaker of the heart
The longing of mine own is won."
VOL. V. 1
130 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Now when she heard Asfandiyar the witch
Grew like a rose in springtide, saying thus :
" The mighty Lion cometh to the toils
With robe and lute and goblet filled with wine."
Foul, wrinkled, and malevolent she plied
Her magic arts amid the gloom and grew
As beauteous as a Turkman maid, with cheek
As 'twere brocade of Chin and musk-perfumed,
Of cypress-height, a sun to look upon,
With musky tresses falling to her feet.
Her cheeks like rosaries, she drew anear
Asfandiyar, with roses in her breast.
The atheling, when he beheld her face,
Plied song and wine and harp more ardently,
And said : " O just and only God ! Thou art
Our Guide upon the mountain and the waste.
I wanted even now a fa} 7 -faced maid
Of beauteous form as my companion ;
The just Creator hath bestowed her on me,
Oh ! may my heart and pure soul worship Him."
He plied her with musk-scented wine and made
Her face a tulip-red. Now he possessed
A goodly chain of steel which he had kept
Concealed from her. Zarduhsht, who brought it
From Paradise for Shah Gushtasp, had bound it
About the prince's arm. Asfandiyar
Flung it around her neck ; her strength was gone ;
She took a lion's form. The atheling
Made at her with his scimitar, and said :
" Thou wilt not injure me though thou hast reared
An iron mountain. Take thy proper shape,
For now the answer that I make to thee .
Is with the scimitar."
Within the chain
There was a fetid hag, calamitous,
With head and hair like snow, and black of face.
With trenchant sword he smote her on the head, v. 1597
Which with her body came down to the dust.
Sight failed, so loured the sky when that witch died,
While blast and black cloud veiled the sun and moon.
The atheling clomb to a hill and shouted
As 'twere a thunder-clap. Then Bishutan
Came quickly with the host, and said : " Famed prince !
No crocodile or witch, wolf, pard and lion,
Can stand thy blows, and by that token thou
Wilt be exalted still. Oh ! may the world
Desire thy love ! "
The head-piece of Gurgsar
Flamed at these triumphs of Asfandiyar.
THE FIFTH STAGE
How Asfandiyar slew the Simurgh
The atheling laid face upon the ground
Awhile before the Maker of the world,
Then pitched his camp-enclosure in the wood.
They spread the board in fitting mode and then
Asfandiyar gave orders to the deathsman :
" Bring hither in his bonds that wretch Gurgsar."
They brought him to the prince who, seeing him,
Gave him three cups of royal wine. Now when
The ruddy wine had gladdened him thus said
Asfandiyar : " Thou wretched Turkman ! mark
Upon the tree the head of that old witch,
' Who turneth,' so thou saidst, ' the plain to sea,
And doth exalt her o'er the Pleiades.'
And now what marvel shall I see next stage.
132 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Judged by the standard of this witch ? "
He answered :
" O Elephant of war in battle-time !
Upon this stage thou hast a harder task :
Be more than ever cautious and alert,
v. 1598 Thou wilt behold a mount, with head in air,
And thereupon a bird imperious,
One like a flying mountain, combative,
And called Simurgh by merchants. With its claws
It beareth off the elephant at sight,
The pard on land, the crocodile from water,
And feeleth not the effort. Weigh it not
With wolf and witch. Upon its mountain-home
It hath two young, 1 their wills to hers affined,
And when it flieth the earth is impotent,
The sun is put to shame. 'Twill profit thee
To turn back for thou canst not strive against
Simurgh and mountain-height."
The hero laughed.
" A wonder ! " he exclaimed. " I will sew up
Its shoulders with mine arrows, cleave its breast
With Indian scimitar, and bring its head
From height to dust."
When bright Sol showed its back,
Which ruffled all the bosom of the west,
The chief of warriors led the army forth,
And pondered that account of the Simurgh.
Thus he and host fared onward all the night.
Whenas the shining sun rose o'er the mountains
The Lamp of time gave freshness to the earth,
Transforming dale and plain. Asfandiyar
Gave up the army to its chief 2 and took
To steed and box and break. He sped along,
Like an imperious blast, and spying in air
A peak stayed in its shadow break and steed,
1 "II a deux petits qui sont grands comme lui " (Mohl). 2 Bishutan.
Absorbed in contemplation. The Simurgh
Marked from the mount the box, the troops behind it,
And all their trumpeting, and, swooping down
Like some dark cloud obscuring sun and moon,
Essayed to seize the chariot with its talons,
As leopard seizeth quarry, but transfixed
Its legs and pinions with the swords, and all
Its might and glory passed away. It beat
Awhile with claws and beak while strength remained, v. 1599
And then was still. On seeing this its young
Flew off with screams and weeping tears of blood
Down from the eyry, blurring every eye
Beneath their shade. When the Simurgh thus sank
With all its wounds and bathed steeds, box, and break
In blood, Asfandiyar, all armed and shouting,
Emerged and hewed to pieces with his sword
That bird now mastered, once so masterful ;
Then prayed thus to the Maker who had given
Such mastery to him in good and ill,
And said : " righteous Judge ! Thou hast bestowed
Upon me wisdon, puissance, and prowess,
Hast driven out the sorcerers and been
My Guide to every good."
With that arose
The sound of clarions, and Bishiitan
Set forward with the host. None could behold
The desert for the bird, but only saw
Its form and talons bathed in blood which covered
The earth from range to range, and thou wouldst say :
" The plain was lost in plumes ! " Men saw the prince
Blood-boltered, 'twas a sight to fray the moon,
And all the captains, cavaliers of war,
And mighty men applauded him. Anon
Gurgsar heard tidings of that famed chiefs triumph,
Quaked, paled, and fared with tears and heart all
134 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
V. 1600 The world's king had the tent-enclosure pitched,
His joyous warriors round him. Then to dine
They spread brocade, took seat, and called for wine.
THE SIXTH STAGE
How Asfandiydr passed through the Snow
Asfandiyar, the illustrious prince, then bade
Gurgsar to come and gave him in succession
Three cups of wine whereat his cheeks became
Like bloom of fenugreek, and then the prince
Addressed him : " Miscreant in mind and body !
Observe the doings of this whirling world !
Evanished are Simurgh and lion, wolf
And dragon sharp of claw and valorous ! "
Gurgsar then lifted up his voice and said :
" famous, glorious Asfandiyar !
God is thy Helper, most fortunate !
The royal Tree hath come to fruit ; howbeit
Tomorrow there confronteth thee a task
That none in war expecteth. Thou wilt take
No thought of mace or bow or sword, and see
No opening for fight, no way of flight,
For snow, a spear's length deep, will come upon thee,
A crisis will confront thee, thou with all
Thy famous army wilt be lost therein,
O glorious Asfandiyar ! No marvel
If thou turn back, nor need my words offend thee ;
Thou wilt be guiltless of this army's blood,
And quit this road for other. Sure am I
That earth will rive beneath a mighty blast,
The trees be levelled. E'en if thou shalt make
At last thy way through to the plain beyond
The next stage will be thirty leagues across,
An arid wilderness of dust and sand, v. 1601
Which birds and ants and locusts traverse not.
Thou wilt not see a drop of water there ;
Its soil is ever seething with the sun.
A lion cannot pass that sandy waste,
Nor swift-winged vulture fly across the sky.
No herbage groweth in the arid soil,
And that is tutty-like, 1 all shifting sands.
Thus wilt thou fare along for forty leagues ;
Men's souls will fail and horses lose all heart.
Thy host then will approach the Brazen Hold,
Which thou wilt find upon no fruitful spot.
Its soil is in the maw of poverty ;
Its summit holdeth conclave with the sun.
Outside the castle beasts look not for food,
The army will not have a horseman left.
Though there should come a hundred thousand men,
Sword-wielders from Iran and from Turan,
And should beleaguer it a hundred years,
And shower arrows there, it recketh not
How many enemies or few there be ;
They are but as a knocker on the door."
The Iranians heard Gurgsar, were pained, and said :
" noble prince ! forbear with all thy might
To compass thine own ruin. If things are
As said Gurgsar we cannot blink that we
Came hither to our death and not to wreck
The Turkmans. Thou hast traversed this rough road,
And 'scaped disaster from wild beasts. Not one
Of all our warriors and heroic Shahs
Can reckon up so great a tale of toils
As thou hast met with in these Seven Stages.
So thank the Maker for it all, and since
Thou wilt return victorious thou mayst go
Light-hearted to the Shah, while if thou marchest
1 An impalpable powder used for the eyes.
136 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
To war elsewhere the whole state of Iran
v. 1602 Will homage thee. So, as Gurgsar saith, hold not
Thy person cheaply and involve not all
A host in slaughter, for this ancient sky
Will play new tricks. Now that we are triumphant
And glad there is no need for thee to fling
Thine own head to the winds."
On hearing this
That young, heroic paladin replied :
" Why fray me thus and open for yourselves
The door of terror ? Came ye from Iran
To counsel then and not for high renown ?
If this was then the mind of all of you
Why did ye gird yourselves to fare with me
Since at this miserable Turkman's Avords
Ye tremble like a tree ? Where then are all
The counsels and the presents of the Shah,
The golden girdles, thrones, and diadems,
Where all your oaths, your bonds, and covenants
By God 'neath favouring stars that now your feet
Should falter thus and one march wreck your plans ?
Turn back then happy and victorious,
But as for me may I seek naught but fight.
The World-lord is my conquering ally,
And fortune's head reclineth on my breast.
Now by my manhood I will none of you
As comrades whether I am slain or slay,
And by my manhood, might of hand, and triumph
Will show the foe what prowess is. Withal
Ye shall not lack for tidings of my Grace
Imperial, famed, and that which I have wrought
In His name, who is Lord of Sun and Saturn,
Upon this stronghold by my might and manhood."
The Iranians looked upon Asfandiyar,
Beheld his eyes all wrath, and went before him
v. 1603 To make excuses: "Let the prince forgive '
Our fault if he see fit. Oh ! may our souls
And bodies be thy ransom, such hath been,
And will remain, our covenant with thee.
We grieve for thee, prince ! Our toil and strife
Have not reduced us to extremities,
And, while a chief surviveth, none of us
Will shrink from fight."
Their leader, hearing this,
Grieved for his words and praised the Iranians.
He said, " will show itself. If we return
Victorious we shall enjoy the fruits
Of our past toil ; it will not be forgotten,
And your own treasuries shall not be void."
The prince took counsel till the world grew cool,
And zephyrs wafted from the mountain-top,
Then trump and clarion sounded from the court-gate,
And all the host set forward, sped like fire,
And called upon the Maker. When the dawn
Rose o'er the mountain-tops, and night drew o'er
Her head her filmy wimple as a veil
Against the blazing sun which pressed behind,
That mighty host all mace-men clad in armour
Reached their next stage. It was a glorious day
In spring, a day to gladden heart and world.
The prince bade pitch the tent and tent-enclosure,
Then had the board spread and the wine brought forth.
With that there came a fierce blast from the mountains,
And sore dismayed him. All the world became
Like ravens' plumes, and none knew plain from upland.
From that dark cloud descended showers of snow ;
The earth was filled with snow and raging blast,
And o'er the desert for three days and nights
The fury of the wind was measureless.
The tents and tent-enclosure were soaked through, v. 1604
An,d not a man could stand or stir for cold.
138 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
The air was woof, the snow was like the warp ;
The chief, resourceless, called to Bishutan :
" This plight of ours is one with misery.
I met the dragon's fumings like a man,
But strength and manhood now avail us not.
Make supplication, all of you, to God !
Call ye upon Him, offer to Him praise,
That He may cause these ills to pass from us,
Else we are naught henceforth."
Made prayer to God, who is the Guide to good,
While all the soldiers lifted up their hands,
And offered supplications numberless.
Thereon a gentle breeze arose which bare
The clouds away and heaven became serene,
And when the Iranians had taken heart
They offered thanks to God. They stayed three days
And, when the world's Light shone upon the fourth,
The leader called the officers to him,
And spake to them at large and graciously :
" Leave baggage here and take but gear of war.
Let every chief that hath a hundred beasts
Load half of them with water and supplies,
The other half with means of serving them.
Leave all the other baggage here, for now
The door of God is opened unto us.
When any man hath lost all hope in God
His portion of success is small indeed ;
But we by help of God shall overcome
That evil-doer and idolater,
While ye shall be the richer for yon hold,
And all have crowns and treasures."
v. 1605 When the sun
Drew o'er its head its yellow veil, and when
The west became like flower of fenugreek,
The warriors, having loaded up the beasts,
Marched with the king of men. Now in the night
A sound of cranes came from the sky above.
Asfandiyar was wrathful at the sound,
And sent this message to Gurgsar : " Thou said'st :
' There is no water for thee on this stage,
Nor rest nor sleep withal. 3 Yet cranes give note
Above ! Why didst thou make us dread a drought ? "
Gurgsar replied : " The baggage-beasts will get
But brackish water here, and thou wilt find
The fountains poisonous, though birds and beasts
The chief said : " In Gurgsar have I
A hostile guide."
He bade the host proceed.
Invoking God they hurried on at speed.
THE SEVENTH STAGE
How Asfaiidiydr crossed the River and slew Gurgsar
When one watch of the darksome night had passed
There rose a clamour from the plain in front.
The young prince, smiling on his charger, rode
Forth from the centre of the army vanward.
When he had ridden past the troops he saw
A deep, unfathomed river. Now a camel,
One of the caravan whose cameleer
Had kept it in the front, had tumbled in.
The chieftain seized and dragged it from the mud,
And that malignant Turkman of Chigil
Quaked. At the bidding of the prince he came
That fell Gurgsar both seared of heart and fettered.
" Base villain ! " said the prince, " why hast thou used
This snake-like subtlety ? Didst thou not say :
' Here thou wilt find no water, and the sun
v. 1606 yfi\l k urn thee up ' ? Why didst thou make out water
Tojbe but dust and wouldst have wrecked the host,
Thou miscreant ? "
He said: "Thy host's destruction
Would be as bright to me as sun and moon.
I get from thee but fetters ; what should I
Wish but thy bale and loss ? "
The chieftain laughed,
Stared, was amazed at him, but showed no wrath,
And said : " Gurgsar, thou man of little wit !
When I return victorious from the fight
Thou shalt be captain of the Brazen Hold :
Far be from me to harm thee. All the realm
Is thine if thou wilt give rne honest counsel.
I will not hurt thy children, kith, or kin."
Gurgsar grew hopeful at the words. In wonder
He kissed the ground and asked to be forgiven.
The prince replied : " Thy words are passed, but water
Hath not been turned to land by thy wild talk.
Where is the ford ? Thou must direct us right."
Gurgsar rejoined : " No arrow plumed and pointed,
When ironed thus, can find its way across.
Thou shalt work magic with the mighty stream
If thou wilt but unfetter me."
Astonished bade to loose him, and Gurgsar,
When he had seized a camel by the halter,
Descended to the stream and at a spot
That was within his depth essayed the passage.
The soldiers followed him in single file.
Inflating at Asfandiyar's behest
Their water-skins forthwith, and binding them
Along the barrels of their beasts of burden,
The}' all plunged in. The host and baggage reached
Land, and reforming to the left and right
Marched till the Brazen Hold was ten leagues off.
The captain of the host sat down to meat, v 1607
The slaves attended him with cups of wine
And, at that mighty Lion's bidding, brought
His tunic, helmet, coat of mail, and sword.
In merry pin the hero gave command,
And when they brought Gurgsar thus said to him :
" Now that thou hast escaped calamity
Good words and truthful will become thee well.
When I behead Arjasp and make rejoice
The spirit of Luhrasp ; when I behead
Kuhram, who slaughtered Farshidward and troubled
My soldiers' hearts ; behead Andariman,
Who slaughtered eight and thirty of our chiefs
When he prevailed ; when for my grandsire's death
I take revenge in all ways ; when I make
The lions' maws their tombs and gratify
The Iranian warriors' lust ; when I stitch up
Their livers with mine arrows and take captive
Their wives and children, shall I call thee glad
Or grieved thereat ? Tell all thy heart to me."
Heart-straitened, hostile both in speech and soul,
Gurgsar retorted : " How long wiltithou use
Such converse ? Be accursed and justly so.
May every evil star control thy life,
Thy waist be cut asunder with the sword,
Thy gory body flung upon the dust,
The earth thy bed, the grave thy winding-sheet."
Roused by his words, and raging at the oaf,
The prince smote with an Indian sword his head,
And clave him, crown to midriff'. To the river
They flung him presently, and that malignant
Grew food for fishes. Then Asfandiyar
Gat on his steed, girt up his warrior-loins
In wrath, and mounted on a height to view
The hold. He saw a mighty iron rampart
142 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Extending over forty leagues by three,
But saw not any earth or water there.
V. 1608 The wall was broad enough for cavaliers
To gallop round upon it four abreast.
Whenas Asfandiydr beheld that wonder
He heaved a sigh, and said : " I cannot capture
A place like that ! I suffer for my sins.
Alas for all my fighting and my toil !
Repentance is the only fruit thereof."
He looked around upon the waste and saw
Two Turkmans coursing with four hounds. Descending
With spear in hand he unhorsed both the Turkmans,
Brought them upon the heights and questioned them :
" What is this splendid hold ? How many horsemen
Are there within ? "
They told about Arjasp
At large and of the hold. " Observe," they said,
" How long and wide it is ! One gate is toward
Iran and one toward Chin, while in it are
A hundred thousand swordsmen all renowned,
Exalted cavaliers yet all of them
Are slaves before Arjasp and bow the head
To his command and counsel. There is provand
Past all compute with stores of grain in case
Fresh food should fail, while if the monarch closed
The gates for ten years there is food enough,
Great though his host is, while, if he so willed,
A hundred thousand noble cavaliers
Would come to him from Chin and from Machin.
He hath no need of aught from any one,
For he possesseth provand and defenders."
< They spake. > His Indian sword the chieftain drew,
And put to death the simple-minded two.
How Asfandiy&r went to the Brazen Hold in the
Guise of a Merchant
Thence he departed to his camp-enclosure.
They cleared the place of strangers, Bishiitan
Came to Asfandiyar, and they discussed v. 1609
The war. That warrior said : " We might assail
This hold in vain for years unless indeed
I take upon me to demean myself,
And try a stratagem against the foe.
Be thou upon the watch here night and day,
And guard the army from the enemy.
A man, I ween, is held in high esteem,
And worthy of a realm and lofty throne,
Who feareth not a host of enemies
In battle, pard on mount or crocodile
In water, but proceedeth now by craft
And now by force, whiles mounting, whiles descending.
I shall approach the hold in merchants' guise,
And none will know me for a paladin.
All craft will I employ and con all lore.
Dispense not thou with watchmen and with scouts,
And never let thy vigilance relax.
If in the day the watch shall'spy a smoke,
Or in the night a bonfire like the sun,
The Lustre of the world, then be assured
That 'tis my doing, not my foeman's ruse ;
So order thou the army and march hence,
With coat of mail, with helm, and massive mace ;
Set up my flag without delay and take
Thy station at the centre of the host ;
Charge with the ox-head mace, and bear thee so
That folk will hail thee as Asfandiyar."
He called the head-man of the cameleers,
144 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Caused him to kneel to Bishutan, and said :
"Bring me a hundred beasts with ruddy hair,
Beasts fit to carry burdens, sound and strong."
Ten of these beasts he loaded up with gold,
Upon five more he put brocade of Chin,
Another five had various kinds of gems,
A golden throne and massive crown. He brought
Forth eighty pairs of chests, whose fastenings
Were all concealed from sight, and therewithal
Made choice of eight score of his mighty men
Such men as would not make his purpose known
V. 1610 And, having hidden them within the chests,
Bound on the baggage and set forth. He bade
Some twenty of his nobles skilled in sword-play
To take the conduct of the caravan,
And turned these nobles into cameleers.
With slippered feet, a blanket thrown about him,
And freighted with the jewels, gold, and silver,
The chieftain went in haste toward the hold,
And journeyed in the guise of chaff erers.
He led the way, and when the sound of bells
Rose from the caravan the chiefs inside
The hold grew ware of it, held talk at large,
Were all a-gog, and said : " A merchantman,
Who selleth a dinar's worth for a drachm, 1
The dealers and the nobles -went ;
To buy, and asked the owner : " What hast thou
Of use within these bales ? "
He made reply :
" The first thing is for me to see your king,
And show my wares to him. When he comrnandeth
I will display them to your eyes."
1 I.e., Who will give us an opportunity of buying at a lower price than
One of the camels and himself proceeded-
To see how he could make his market quickly.
He took a goblet filled with royal gems,
And many a piece of gold to give in largess,
Some signets set with ruby and with turquoise,
A steed, and ten bales of brocade of Chin.
He draped the goblet in a piece of silk,
Perfumed throughout with musk and spicery,
He donned a dress of beautiful brocade, V. 1611
Sought for an introduction to Arjasp,
And at the interview strewed gold, and said :
" May wisdom mate with kings ! A merchant I :
My sire was Turkman and my mother Persian.
I purchase from Turan, bear to Iran,
And also to the desert of the brave. '
I have with me a caravan of camels,
And deal in stuffs, in clothes, and furniture,
In jewels, crowns, and other valuables.
I left my goods outside the hold, assured
That all are safe with thee. If thou wilt let
The cameleers conduct the caravan
Within the hold thy fortune will protect me
From every ill, and I shall sleep beneath
The shadow of thy love."
Arjasp replied :
" Be happy and secure from every ill ;
No one shall do thee hurt within Turan,
Nor when thou goest to Machin and Chin."
At his command they gave Asfandiyar
Within the Brazen Hold a spacious dwelling
A warehouse with a mansion at its back 1
And thither brought the baggage from the plain
That he might make the warehouse a bazar,
And keep his goods in safety. They departed,
And led the camels, after loading them.
1 "un magasin anx approches du palace" (Mohl).
VOL. V. K
146 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUS1
A shrewd man asked : " What is inside the chests ? "
A cameleer replied : " Our wits, for we
Must carry them themselves."
Prepared the warehouse, decking it to look
Like flowers in spring. On all side buyers sprang up,
And there was busy trafficking within it.
V. 1612 The night passed by. At dawn Asfandiyar
Went to the palace to the king, there kissed
The ground before him, praised him much, and
" I and my cameleers have made all haste
To bring the caravan and baggage in,
And there are crowns and bracelets suitable
For an exalted king, so let him bid
His treasurer inspect my stock, for all
The warehouse is in order. I shall be
Content if he will take what seemeth best ;
The king's part is acceptance and the merchant's
Excuse and praise."
Arjasp smiled, showed him favour,
Assigned him a more honourable seat,
And asked : " What is thy name ? "
He said : " Kharrad,
A merchant, traveller, and well to do."
The king replied : " noble man ! concern not
Thyself with more excuses. Ask no longer
For audience through the chamberlain, but come
Before me when thou wilt."
He then inquired
About the labours of the road, Iran,
The Shah, and host. Asfandiyar replied :
" My journey hath been five months' pain and toil."
The king said : " In Iran what tidings were there
Both of Asfandiyar and of Gurgsar ? "
He said : " My gracious lord ! folk speak of them,
Each as his fancy is : ' Asfandiyar,'
Said one, ' is in revolt for injuries
Inflicted by his sire.' Another said :
' He is advancing by the Seven Stages
In haste to fight Arjasp ; he will attempt
War with Tiiran and boldly seek revenge.' "
Arjasp replied with smiles : " No man of age
And knowledge of the world would talk like that !
If vultures e'en approach the Seven Stages v. 1613
Then call me Ahriman and not a man."
The warrior heard and, having kissed the ground,
Came from the palace of Arjasp rejoicing,
Then opening the noted warehouse-doors
He filled the hold with din of chaffering,
And seemed so occupied that he deceived
The eyes of all. Scarce for dinars took he
The worth of drachms and traded recklessly.
How the Sisters of Asfandiyar recognised him
Now when the bright sun set and buying ceased
The sisters of Asfandiyar descended
Lamenting from the palace to the street,
And bearing water-jars upon their shoulders.
They came heart-broken and in deep dejection
Toward Asfandiyar who, when he saw
That monstrous spectacle, concealed from view
His features from his sisters, for his heart
Misdoubted how they might comport themselves,
And so he hid his face behind his sleeve.
They both drew near him and the cheeks of each
Were running with the torrents from their eyes.
The hapless ones began to question him
That wealthy man of merchandise and said :
148 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
" May all thy days and nights be prosperous,
The nobles be before thee as thy slaves !
What tidings hast thou from Iran, brave chief !
Both of Gushtasp and of Asfandiyar ?
We twain, the daughters of the king of kings,
Are captives in the hands of wicked men,
And carry water, bare-foot and unveiled.
Our sire hath merry days and peaceful nights,
While we fare naked in the throng. How blest
Is she that hath a shroud to cover her !
The tears that we are shedding are of blood :
Be our physician and relieve our pain.
If thou canst tell us aught of Shah and home
Our bane here will be changed to antidote."
V. 1614 He gave a cry beneath his robe that made
The damsels shake with terror : thus he said :
" I would that there were no Asfandiyar,
And no one in the world to care for him.
Would there were no Gushtasp, that unjust Shah
May crown and girdle never see his like !
Perceive ye not that I am trading here,
And toiling that I may support myself ? "
When glorious Humai had heard his voice
She recognised him and took heart again,
But, though she recognised his voice, she kept
The knowledge to herself and stood before him
As stricken to the heart as theretofore,
And pouring down the tear-drops on her cheeks.
Her feet and countenance were foul with dust,
Her soul was filled with terror of Arjasp.
The gentle warrior saw that Humai
Had recognised him and he thereupon
Revealed his countenance, his tearful eyes,
His heaving breast, and visage like the sun.
The process of the world astonished him,
He bit his lips in dudgeon and addressed
His sisters thus: "Restrain your tongues awhile,
For hither have I come to war and win
Renown by toil. Can any's sleep be sweet
Whose daughter is a water-bearing slave ?
May heaven father, and earth mother, her :
This lot I praise not I."
The young man left
The warehouse, hurried to Arjasp, and said :
" O king ! be happy, master of the world,
And live for ever. While upon my journey
I chanced upon a deep sea all unknown
To merchantmen. A whirlwind rose thereon ;
The boatman said : ' I mind me of no like.'
On board we all were wretched and in tears,
Consuming for our persons and our lives.
I swore by God, the one and only Judge : v. 1615
' If I escape from this with life to shore
Then will I hold a feast in every realm
That hath a monarch to rule over it,
Invite all cordially to be my guests,
And pour my very soul out for their sakes.
I will give more or less to all who ask,
And hold the mendicant exceeding dear.'
Now let the monarch show me special favour,
And honour this request of mine today ;
I have arranged to make his army's chiefs
Those whom the world's king honoureth my guests,
And by so doing set my mind at ease."
Arjasp, that witless man, was well content
On hearing this ; his head was filled with folly.
He bade : " Let every one of high degree,
And all the noblest of the army, visit
The dwelling of Kharrad today as guests,
And, if he giveth wine, bemuse yourselves.'
Then said Asfandiyar : " King, hero, sage
The high-priest and the ruler of the world !
150 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
My house is small, thy palace is too grand.
The rampart of the hold will do for us ;
Tis early summer. I will light a fire,
And glad the nobles', hearts with wine."
Said : " Go the way that pleaseth thee ; the host
Is king at home."
The paladin rejoicing
Conveyed a mass of firewood to the ramparts.
They slaughtered steeds and sheep, and carried them
Up to the summit of the hold. The wood
Sent up a smother that obscured the sky.
He brought forth wine and, when they had partaken,
Each reveller became a slave thereto.
The chiefs all left bemused ; to steady them,
While in their cups, each clutched a narciss-stem. 1
How Bishutan assaulted the Brazen Hold
v. 1616 The night came and a conflagration blazed,
Whose burning scorched the sky. When from the
The watchman saw the flames by night, and day
Made thick with smoke, he left his post and came
Exultingly, and " mated to the wind,"
Thou wouldst have said. On reaching Bishutan
He told what he had seen of fire and fume.
Said Bishutan : " A valiant warrior
In courage passeth elephants and lions."
He sounded corn-pipe, flute, and brazen cymbal ;
The blare of trumpets went up from his door.
The army from the plain approached the hold,
And bright Sol gloomed with dust. The troops were all
In mail and helm, their livers seethed with blood.
1 " c'est-&-dire le bras d'un page" (Mohl). Cf. p. 164.
When news spread in the hold : " A host hath come,
And all the world is hidden by dark dust," i
The place rang Avith the name " Asfandiyar " ;
The tree of bale was bearing colocynth.
Arjasp armed for the fray and rubbed his hands
Together vehemently. " Let Kuhram,
The lion-catcher," thus he bade, " take troops,
Mace, scimitar, and shaft."
He told Turkhan :
" Exalted chief ! speed forth with troops for fight.
Take thou ten thousand of the garrison,
All men of name and battle-loving swordsmen,
Discover who are our antagonists,
And why it is that they attack us thus."
Turkhan, the chief, with an interpreter
Went in all haste to that side of the hold.
He saw a host equipped with arms and armour,
Their flag a leopard on a sable ground.
Their leader Bishiitan was at the centre, v. 1617
And all his troops' hands had been bathed in blood.
He held Asfandiyar 's own mace and rode
A noble steed ; he seemed to be none other
Than brave Asfandiyar, and there was none
But hailed him monarch of Iran. He ranked
The troops to right and left till none saw daylight.
Such were the blows of spears with flashing points
That thou hadst said : " Blood raineth from the clouds."
The forces on both sides advanced to battle,
All who were men of war and loved the fray.
Then Niish Azar, the swordsman, galloped forth,
And offered combat to the enemy.
The noble chief Turkhan went out to him
To bring his head clown trunkless to the ground.
When Nush Azar beheld him on the field
He clapped his hand upon his sword and drew it ;
He cut Turkhan asunder at the waist,
152 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
And filled Kuhram's heart with dismay and anguish ;
Then in like fashion fell upon the centre,
Where great and small were all alike to him,
Thus those two armies battled, each with each,
While dust collected in a cloud above them.
In full flight from the host the chief Kuhram
Made for the hold, and said before his sire :
" famous monarch, glorious as the sun !
A mighty host hath come forth from Iran ;
Their leader is a doughty warrior,
Who by his stature is Asfandiyar.
None like him hath approached the hold before.
He beareth in his hand the spear which thou
Beheld'st him grasping at fort Gumbadan." 1
The words distressed the heart of king Arjasp,
Because the old feud had revived again.
He gave the Turkmans orders : " Go ye forth
Upon the plain in mass, surround the foe,
V. 1618 Roar like great lions, let none live, and name not
The soldiers marched away
With wounded hearts and eager for the fr^y.
How Asfandiyar slew Arjasp
Asfandiyar, when night was growing dark,
Arrayed himself again in fighting-gear,
Undid the chest-lids that more air might come
To those inside, and brought kabab and wine
With other provand, battle-mail, and raiment.
When they had eaten he supplied to each
Three cups of wine, which gladdened them, and said :
1 I.e. at the battle fought in that neighbourhood, when Asfandiyar
delivered Gushta"sp from his perilous position on the mountain, where
he was beleaguered by Arjasp. See p. 106 seq.
" This night is one of bale. Hence we may well
Win fame. Put forth your powers. Quit you like men,
And from calamities make God your refuge."
Then of those warriors adventurous
He formed three troops, one in the stronghold's midst
To combat any that they met, the second
To move upon the gate and take no rest
From strife and bloodshed, while he told the third :
" I must not find hereafter any trace
Of those that revelled with me yesternight,
So take your daggers and behead them all."
He went with twenty valiant men of war
In haste, committing to them other work,
Went boldly to the palace of Arjasp,
Arrayed in mail and roaring like a lion.
Huinai, when these shouts reached her in the palace,
Came rushing with her sister Bih Afrid,
Their cheeks all hid by tears, to meet the chiefs.
Asfandiyar perceived that spring-like pair
As he approached. " Like flying dust-clouds speed," v. 1619
Thus spake that lion-man, " to my bazar
With all its wealth, for 'tis upon my way,
And wait till in this fight I lose my head
Or win a crown."
This said, he turned from them,
And vengeful sought the palace of Arjasp.
He entered with an Indian sword in hand,
And slaughtered all the nobles that he saw.
The audience-chamber of that famous court
Was blocked, its floor was like a billowing sea,
So many were the wounded, stunned, and slain.
Arjasp awoke, was troubled at the din,
Arose in fury, donned his coat of mail
And Human helm, a, bright glaive in his hand,
The war-cry on his lips and rage at heart.
Asfandiyar rushed from the palace-gate,
154 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSl
And, clutching with his hand a glittering sword,
Cried to Arjasp : " Now will this merchantman
Supply thee with a sword that cost dinars.
I give it as a present from Luhrasp,
And on it is impressed Gushtasp's own seal.
When thou shalt take it thine heart's blood will flow,
And thy next stage will be beneath the dust."
They closed in strife outrageous, foot to foot
With sword and dagger, striking whiles at waist
And whiles at head. Arjasp failed 'neath the blows ;
He was a mass of wounds ; his huge form sank,
And then Asfandiyar beheaded him.
Such is the fashion of life's changeful day !
Thou hast by turns its sweetness and its bane.
V. 1620 Why dote upon this Hostel by the Way?
Grieve not, thou canst not, as thou know'st, remain.
Asfandiyar, freed from Arjasp, commanded
To kindle torches and to fire the palace :
He raised its reek to Saturn. Having charged
The eunuchs with the womenfolk he carried
Them all away the Lustre of the place
And set a seal upon the treasury-door,
No one opposing him. He sought the stables,
He mounted there with Indian sword in hand,
And of the Arab horses bade his men
To saddle such as liked him. There went forth
A cavalcade of eight score warriors,
Approven horsemen on the day of battle.
He furnished mounts, moreover, for his sisters,
And marched forth from the court-gate of Arjasp,
But left a few Iranians, men of name,
With noble Sawa in the hold. " When we,"
He said, " have gone outside the walls, have gone,
I and my noble warriors, to the plain,
Secure the gate against the Turkman troops,
And may my good star aid me. When ye think
That I have joined our noble troops outside,
Then let the watchmen from the look-out cry :
' Blessed be the head and crown of Shah Gushtasp.'
And when the Turkman troops come toward the hold,
In flight retreating from the battlefield,
Then ye shall throw the head of king Arjasp
Before them from the tower of the watch."
The valiant hero rushed upon the plain, V. 1621
And slaughtered all the Turkmans that he found.
As he approached the troops of Bishiitan
They saw and praised him in amaze that he,
Who was so young, should show such bravery.
Hoiv Asfandiydr slew Kuhram
Whenas the moon had left her silvern throne,
And when three watches of the night had passed,
The watchman shouted lustily, proclaiming :
" Gushtasp, the Shah, hath gained the victory,
And may Asfandiyar be ever young.
May heaven, moon, and fortune be his helpers,
Who hath in vengeance for Luhrasp beheaded
Arjasp and, adding lustre to our Grace
And customs, cast him down from throne to dust, :
And made the name and fortune of Gushtasp
Hearing such a cry the Turkmans
All listened while Kuhram grew dark of heart
By reason of that watchman, was astonied,
And spake thus to Andariman : " How clear
This cry is in the night ! What, sayest thou,
Can be the cause ? Let us consult, for who
Would dare to bawl thus by the monarch's couch
And after dark ? What tricks might such an one
156 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Play in the day of battle and thus bring
Our nobles into straits ! So send and have
His head cut off, whoever he may be.
If one of our own household is our foe,
And he is backing up our enemies
V. 1622 With evil words and evil presages,
Then will we brain him with an evil mace."
Now when the cry went on persistently
Kuhram was stricken to the heart with anger
Against the watch whose utterance, spread abroad
In such a fashion, filled the nobles' ears.
The soldiers said : " The shouts increase, beyond
A watchman's ! Let us drive the foemen forth
And after take l this host."
Kuhram was straitened
At heart about that watchman, writhed, and frowned.
He told the troops : " These men have filled my
With dread about the king. We must return
At once, past question. What may happen after
I know not."
So that night they left the field,
Whereat Asfandiyar, with ox-head mace
And mailed, pursued them. When Kuhram had
The portal of the hold, and saw the Iranians
Pursuing, " What is left us," he exclaimed,
" Unless to fight with brave Asfandiyar ?
Unsheathe and send your message by the sword."
But fortune frowned and those famed chiefs fared ill.
The two hosts raged and smote each other's heads
Till morning came, and then the chiefs of Chin
Had had their day. Ascending to the ramparts
The warriors of Asfandiyar inside
1 In the sense of " No fairy takes nor witch hath power to charm."
Hamlet, i. 1.
The hold flung down therefrom the severed head
Of brave Arjasp the king that slew Luhrasp.
The Turkmans fought no longer, from their host
Arose a cry, and all the troops unhelmed.
The two sons of Arjasp wept and consumed v - l62 3
As in fierce fire, while all the army knew
What they must weep for on that evil day.
They said : " Alas ! thou gallant heart, thou prince,
Thou chief of lions, hero, warrior !
May he who slew thee perish on the field
Of vengeance, rnay his day be gone for ever !
To whom shall we intrust our families ?
Whose standard shall we have upon our right ?
Now that the dais is bereaved of king
Let crown and host not be."
The soldiers longed
For death, and from Khallukh up to Taraz
Was universal anguish. In the end
They all of them advanced to certain death,
Advanced in armour with their helms and casques.
Kose from the battlefield the sound of strife,
The air above was like a dusky cloud.
The slain lay everywhere in heaps, the plain
Was thick with trunkless heads and limbs ; else-
Lay hands and maces, while a wave of blood
Rose at the portal of the hold, and who
Could tell left hand from right ? Asfandiyar
Advanced ; Kuhram, the captain of the host,
Opposed- him ; and those warriors grappled so
That thou hadst said : " They are one ! " The peerless
Took by the waist Kuhram, whirled him aloft
A wondrous feat and dashed him to the ground
While all the Iranian army roared applause.
They bound his hands and bore him off in shame,
158 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
And all his splendid armament dispersed.
Then maces fell like hail, the earth was full
Of Turkmans, and the air was charged with death ;
Heads showered beneath the swords like leaves from
One side lost all, the other gained a throne ;
Blood dashed in billows on the battlefield ;
Here heads were trampled and there heads were
V. 1624 The world is fain to keep its secret still,
And no man really wotteth of its will.
Those that had noble chargers fled the field,
Those in the Dragon's gullet strove in vain.
Few of Turan or Chin were left and none
Of name. All flung away their mail and helms,
And all had blood-drops in their eyes. They made
All haste to come before Asfandiyar
With eyes like early spring. The general
Shed blood unmercifully, and the host
Approved the want of mercy that he showed ;
He gave no quarter to a warrior,
And had the wounded slaughtered past account ;
No noted warrior of Chin remained,
No prince was left surviving in Turan.
They moved the camp-enclosure and the tents,
And left the whole field to the slain. He reared
Before the palace-gate two lofty gibbets
Whence twisted lassos fell. From one he hung
Andariman head-downward, from the other
His brother l living, sent out troops on all sides,
And when they lighted on some chieftain's seat
His orders were that they should burn it down :
They wrecked thus all the cities of Tiiran ;
No man of name was left in any place,
And not a horseman in Tiiran or Chin.
Thou wouldst have said : " There rose a murky cloud,
And poured down fire upon the battlefield."
The atheling, with matters in this trim,
Brought wine and gathered all the chiefs to him.
How Atfandiydr wrote a Letter to Gushtasp and his Answer
Asfandi} T ar called for a scribe and told
The story of his stratagem and fight.
The illustrious scribe sat on the throne and bade v. 1625
His Turkman slave to bring him silk of Chin
And pen which having inked, he lauded first
The Master of the Moon, the Lord of Saturn,
Of Venus and the Sun, of elephant,
Of ant, of victory, and Grace divine,
The Lord of the imperial diadem,
The Lord of right direction and good gifts,
The Lord of place and counsel : " May the name
Of Shah Gushtasp for ever live through Him,
Luhrasp have all his will in Paradise !
I reached Tiiran and by a road which I
Shall never praise. If I narrated all
Youth's locks would age with grief, but when the Shah
Is so disposed I will expound the plan
Of my campaign ; his sight will gladden me,
And I shall revel in these longsome toils.
The Brazen Hold, by means of the devices
That I employed to compass my revenge,
Is void both of Arjasp and of Kuhram,
Is void of all save wailing, grief, and mourning.
I have spared none ; the herbs upon the plain
No longer bear ; the lion and wolf devour
The brains, and lusty pards the hearts, of men.
Oh ! may the crown of Shah Gushtasp illume
160 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
The sky, and Shah Luhrasp make earth a rosebed."
They set the signet of Asfandiyar
Upon the letter and made choice of riders,
Whom that young ruler sent forth to 1 ran
On beasts that went apace with lips afoam.
He tarried till he should receive the answer,
Repressing all a self-willed man's impatience,
And in a little while the answer came,
A key whereby his fetters were unlocked.
It opened thus : " Established may he be
That seeketh good. The rightly minded sage
Will compass in adversity God's praise."
v. 1626 It further said : " I pray the one just God
That He may guide thee ever. I have planted
In Paradise a Tree that is more bearing
Than any set by Faridun. Its fruit
Is gold and rubies and its leafage beauty
And Grace. Its summit chafeth on high heaven ;
Its roots withal are precious. May this Tree
Abide for ever, flourishing of stem,
And glad of heart the favourite of fortune !
As for thy words : ' By craft and subtlety
I sought for vengeance for my grandsire's death,
And then for thy description of the bloodshed,
And of thine exploits in the fight the persons
Of kings are precious though renown may come
From strife and travail. Guard thy person well
And wisdom too, for wisdom nourisheth
The mind with knowledge. Thirdly thou hast said
' Of all these thousands I have spared not one.'
Be thy heart ever warm and merciful,
Be temperate in soul and soft in voice.
Let it not be thy business to shed blood,
Or fight with chieftains, saving for revenge,
Because the bloodshed hath surpassed all bounds
In this thy wreak for eight and thirty brothers.
But in that, though thy grandsirc in old age
Had banished craft and ill will from his heart,
Since they shed his blood thou hast shed theirs too,
And closed with them like lions when they fight,
For that be ever fortunate and happy,
And do the dictates of thy soul and wisdom.
I long to look upon thy face and mind
So doughty and so shrewd. On reading this
Bid thy troops mount, and come back with thy chiefs
The speedy dromedaries went, v. 1627
And all Iran re-echoed with the news.
Now when they had returned the cameleers
Came to the exalted chief who had no peers.
How Asfandiydr returned to Gushtdsp
Asfandiyar, when he had read the letter,
Distributed dinars and made an end,
Reserving but the treasure of Arjasp,
While lavishing the treasures of his kinsmen :
The troops were all enriched beyond compute.
On plain and mountain there were steeds and camels,
All brand-marked by the monarch of Tiiran.
Ten thousand head of these Asfandiyar
Collected from the plain and mountain-top,
And bade his men to load of them a thousand
With gold out of the royal treasury,
Three hundred with brocade and thrones and casques,
Five score with musk, with ambergris, and jewels,
Five score with crowns and splendid diadems,
One thousand with brocaded tapestries,
Three hundred with the native stuffs of Chin,
With hides both raw and tanned and painted silks
VOL. v. L
162 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He furnished litters with brocaded curtains,
And carried off from Chin two troops of girls,
With cheeks like spring and tall as cypress-trees,
With reed-like waists and pheasant-like in gait.
A hundred ladies, beautiful as idols,
Went with the sisters of Asfandiyar.
Five ladies of the kindred of Arjasp
His mother, his two sisters, and two daughters
Toiled on in misery and wretchedness,
In pain and grief and stricken to the heart,
v. 1628 And, finally, he fired the Brazen Hold;
The tongue of flame ascended to high heaven.
He razed the castle-ramparts to the ground,
And sent the dust up from the land of Chin.
He gave his three young sons a force each, saying :
" Take various roads, and fortune be with you.
If any shall insult you on your way
Cut off the head of such remorselessly.
March ye in haste toward the desert-track,
And raise your spear-points to the shining sun.
I shall myself go by the Seven Stages
To hunt the lion. Make what speed ye may,
But I shall take my time, shall occupy
The road's end, and expect you in a month."
Asfandiyar went with his famous troops
To hunt along the Seven Stages' route.
As soon as he approached the frozen stage
He saw his baggage lying all about.
The air was sweet, the earth was beautiful :
Thou wouldst have said : " 'Tis spring in summertime ! "
He gathered all the goods that he had left,
And marvelled that he was so fortunate.
As he was drawing nearer to Iran
The land of Lions and of warriors
He whiled away two weeks with hawks and cheetahs,
Distressed with travail and the longsome road,
And kept a watch for his three noble sons,
Whose long delay in coming angered him,
But when the armies and the sons arrived
He smiled on all, and said : " My journey done,
I was anangered at your tarrying."
The three sons kissed the ground and made reply :
" Who hath a father in the world like thee ? "
He went thence toward Iran and bare off all
The treasures to his valiant countrymen.
The folk decked all the cities of the land,
And called for wine, for harp, and for musicians.
They draped the walls with hangings and showered
And ambergris from overhead. The air
Resounded with the voice of minstrelsy, . v. 1629
And earth was full of horsemen armed with spears.
Gushtasp made merry when he heard the news,
And pledged the tidings in a cup of wine.
At his command all that were with the host,
And all the great men of the provinces,
Assembled at the palace-gate with drums.
The chiefs went out to meet Asfandiyar.
His sire, moreover, with illustrious sages,
The great, the wise, and the archmages, went
With beaming countenance toward his son,
And all the city talked of little else.
Now when the prince beheld his father's face
His heart grew merry and his spirit bright.
He urged his black steed forward from the ranks,
That steed which set a-blaze the flames of war,
And, having lighted down, embraced his sire,
Who, wondering at his exploits, praised him much,
Thus saying : " Ne'er may time and earth lack thee."
Thence went they to the palace of the Shah
In popularity with all the world.
Gushtasp prepared the palace and the throne ;
164 THE SHAHNAMA OF F1RDAUS1
His great good fortune made his heart rejoice.
They spread the banquet in the halls. The Shah
Said to the chamberlain : " Invite the lords."
The boon-companions came from every side
To that imperial Shah. The royal wine
In crystal goblets gave to those that quaffed
A lustre like the sun's ; upon their cheeks
The flush of wine was burning, and the hearts
Of evil wishers died and were consumed.
The son drank modestly his father's health,
The father in like manner pledged his son,
And asked him how he passed the Seven Stages.
Asfandiyar replied : " Nay, ask me not
Such questions in the banquet-hall. Tomorrow
V. 1630 Will I relate the story in thy presence,
Wise king of men ! Tomorrow thou wilt hear
In soberness and own that God hath triumphed."
Each one among the guests that grew bemused
Went homeward clinging to a moon-faced page. 1
Told is the story of the Stages Seven,
Peruse it in His name the Lord of Heaven,
Lord of the sun and of the shining moon,
Him who alone hath power for bale or boon.
If this tale please our conquering monarch's eye
I set my saddle on the circling sky.
The time to quaff delicious wine is now,
For musky scents breathe from the mountain-brow,
The air resoundeth and earth travaileth,
And blest is he whose heart drink gladdeneth,
He that hath wine and money, bread and sweets,
And can behead a sheep to make him meats.
These have not I. Who hath them, well is he.
Oh ! pity one that is in poverty !
The garth is strewn with rose-leaves and each hill
With tulip and with hyacinth, and still
1 Cf. p. 150.
The nightingale complaineth in the close,
And at its plaining burgeoneth the rose.
At night it never ceaseth to complain ;
The rose is overcharged by wind and rain.
I see the cloud's sighs and its tears, but why
The narciss should be sad I know not I.
The nightingale bemocketh rose and cloud ;
Perched on the rose it carolleth aloud.
I wist not which of them it holdeth dear,
But from the cloud a lion's roar I hear.
The cloud's robe sundereth and from its form
Fire flasheth, and the tear-drops of the storm
Bear witness for themselves upon the ground
Before the imperious sun. Who shall expound
The descant of the nightingale, disclose
The purport of its quest beneath the rose ?
But mark it at the dawning of the day,
If thou wouldst list to its heroic lay,
Bewailing dead Asfandiyar, for he
Surviveth only in that threnody.
A-nights the cloud with Rustam's voice doth flaw
The heart of elephant and lion's claw.
THE STORY OF ASFANDIYAR'S FIGHT
Asfandiyar, finding that his father still is disinclined to abdi-
cate, makes a formal application to him to do so. Gushtasp,
having ascertained his son's destiny from the astrologers, sends
him to bring Rustam in chains to court. Asfandiyar sets forth
very unwillingly. Long negotiations with Rustam follow.
At length the two engage in single combat, and in the end
Rustam, by the help of the Simurgh, is victorious. He brings up
Asfandiyar's son, Bahman, at his own home. Gushtasp sends for
Bahman, and appoints him to succeed to the throne.
" A man there is," said Muhammad in the Kurdn, " who buyeth
an idle tale, that in his lack of knowledge he may mislead others
from the way of God, and turn it to scorn : For such is prepared
a shameful punishment ! " 1
The reference is to a certain merchant, Nadr the son of Harith
by name, who had brought back from the banks of the Euphrates
the story of Rustam and Asfandiyar, and recited it to the inhabi-
tants of Mecca, where it became for a time much more popular than
Muhammad's own deliverances. The Prophet never forgave Nadr,
who was one of the two prisoners put to death by him after the
battle of Badr, A.D. 623. It is evident, therefore, that the story
contained in this part was well established at the beginning of
the seventh century of our era. Reference already has been made 2
to the compromise arrived at in Iranian legend between the con-
flicting claims of Rustam and Asfandiyar, and the reader will find
it fully set out in the following pages.
22. The Aiwa slain by Nush Azar is identical probably with
1 RK, 284. 2 p. u6seq.
the Al\v;i previously recorded to have been slain by Kamus. 1
They are both warriors and natives of Zabulistan, and the function
of both is the same to give the enemy a temporary triumph
which is counteracted by the intervention of a stronger champion.
Alvvu reappears as we are dealing with a different legend.
How Asfandiydr amlitioned the Throne and how
Gushtdsp took Counsel with the Astrologers 2
I heard a story from the nightingale,
Which it reciteth from the lays of old,
How, when Asfandiyar bemused with wine
Came forth in dudgeon from the royal palace,
His mother, Caesar's daughter, Katayiin,
Took him to her embrace. When midnight came
He wakened from his drowse, called for the wine-cup,
And babbled to his mother, saying thus :
" The Shah is treating me injuriously.
He said : ' When by thy valour thou shalt take
Revenge on king Arjasp for Shah Luhrasp,
Shalt free thy sisters from captivity,
And win us high renown throughout the world,
Shalt weed it utterly of malcontents,
And renovate it by thy labours, then
The whole realm and the army shall be thine,
And therewithal the treasure, throne, and crown.'
Now when the sky shall bring again the sun,
And when the Shah shall wake, I will recall
His words to him ; my rights must be asserted. v. 1632
If he shall give to rne the crown of kingship
I will adore him to idolatry ;
But if he will not and his face shall frown
I swear by God, who stayeth up the sky,
1 Vol. iii. p. 1 88.
'-' This heading is not in the original, which has merely " The Begin-
ning of the Story."
168 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
That I will place the crown on mine own head,
And give the land and treasure to the people,
Will make thee lady of Iran and do
The deeds of lions with my strength and courage."
His mother sorrowed at his words. The silk
Upon her turned to thorns. The famous Shah,
She knew, would give him not throne, crown," and treasure,
And said to him : " What would thy princely heart
Require yet of the world, my toil-worn son ?
The treasure, rule, and conduct of the host
Thou hast already : seek for nothing more !
Thy sire, my son ! hath nothing but the crown,
While thou hast all the troops and all the realm.
How better were it for the savage Lion
To stand before his sire with girded loins !
When he departeth crown and throne are thine,
Thine greatness, fortune, state."
Replied : " How goodly was the sage's saw !
' Thy secret unto women ne'er confide,
For thou wilt find it in the street outside ;
Moreover do not as she biddeth thee,
For woman good at rede thou ne'er wilt see.' "
With frowning face and all abashed his mother
Repented of her words. Asfandiyar,
Howbeit, went not to Gushtasp but spent
His time with minstrelsy and boon-companions.
V. 1633 He drained the wine-cup for two nights and days,
And took his ease among his moon-faced dames.
Gushtasp upon the third day was informed
About his son's pretension to the state,
That he was growing more resolved and needs
Must have the Kaian crown and throne. Forthwith
He called Jamasp and all Luhrasp's diviners.
They came, their tablets on their breasts, and he
Inquired about the brave Asfandiyar :
" Is he to have long life ? Will he abide
In peace, prosperity, and all delights ?
Is he to wear the crown of king of kings,
And will the good and great rely on him ? "
The wise man of Iran, 1 on hearing this,
Looked at his ancient astrologic tablets,
While sorrow filled the lashes of his eyes
With tears, and knowledge all his brow with frowns.
He said : " 111 are my days and ill my stars,
And knowledge bringeth ill upon my head.
Would fate had cast me to the lion's claws,
Preventing glorious Zarir ; then I
Had not beheld him flung upon the ground,
All dust and blood ; or would that mine own sire
Had slain me ere ill fortune reached Jamasp !
Although Asfandiyar in combat now
May rend a lion's heart by his attack ;
Though he hath cleared the world of enemies,
And knoweth neither fear nor dread in fight ;
Though he hath made the world to fear no foe,
And cloven the dragon's form in twain, hereafter
We shall have reason to lament for him,
And taste enough of woe and bitterness."
The Shah exclaimed : " O admirable man !
Speak out and turn not from the path of knowledge.
If he shall fare as did the chief Zarir
To live will be henceforth an ill to me.
Come tell me instantly, for bitterness V. 1634
Hath come upon me from my questioning,
Whose hand will slay him and so cause the pang
For which I needs must weep ? "
Jamasp replied :
" Will not ill fortune reach me too, O king ?
His death will be within Zabulistan,
And at the hands of Zal's heroic son ! "
170 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
The Shah replied : " Give this affair due weight.
If I resign to him the imperial throne,
The treasure, and the crown of majesty,
He will not even see Zabulistan,
And none will know him in Kabulistan ;
He will be safe from every turn of fortune,
And favouring stars will be his monitors."
The astrologer rejoined : "Who can escape
The process of the sky ? None can avoid
By courage or by might the sharp-clawed Dragon
Above our heads. What is to be will be
Past doubt, the when the wise seek not to know.
Although Suriish be lying at his feet
The prince will perish by a great man's hand ! "
The monarch mused, his mind a brake of thoughts ;
He pondered on the processes of time,
Which in their turn instructed him in crime.
How Asfandiyar demanded the Kingdom from his Father
When night had gathered up its reins and gone,
And when the dawn had raised its shining spear,
The Shah sat down upon the throne of gold,
And glorious Asfandiyar approached.
V. 1635 He stood before the presence of his sire
In deep concern, slave-like with folded arms,
And when the throng of warriors and nobles
Had gathered round the Shah, and when the archmages
Were ranged in line before his throne, and when
The captains of the host stood ranked before him,
Asfandiyar, the elephantine chief,
Began to vent his grievances, and said :
' O Shah ! live evermore. ' Upon the earth
The Grace of God is thine. Through thee are love
And justice manifest, and crown and throne
Adorned. A slave am I to thee, my sire !
And run to do thy will. Thou knowest how
Arjasp came hither for religion's sake
With cavaliers from Chin, while I had sworn
A mighty oath e'en as God prompted me :
Whoever shall make wreckage of the Faith,
And give his heart to idol-worshipping,
Him will I smite asunder and fear none.'
So when Arjasp came forth to war I shrank not
From fighting that fierce Leopard ; yet didst thou
Disgrace me at the instance of Gurazm,
When quaffing royally upon a feast-day,
Didst put my body into heavy bonds,
And blacksmiths riveted my chains and fetters ;
Didst send me to the hold of Gumbadan,
And give me up to strangers in contempt.
On quitting Balkh thou wentest to Zabul,
Regarding warfare merely as a feast,
And though consigning Shah Luhrasp to death
Beheldest not the falchion of Arjasp.
Jamasp, when he arrived, saw me in bonds,
And scathed thereby, assured to me the realm v. 1636
And throne, and pleaded much. I said to him :
' These heavy chains, these columns, and these shackles
By blacksmiths riveted, will I display
To God upon the Great Day of Account,
And cry to Him against the evil-doer.'
He said to me : ' The blood of all our princes
Men of high rank and armed with massive maces
Shot down by arrows on the battlefield ;
Thy sisters carried captive ; Farshidward,
The noble warrior, o'erthrown and wounded
Upon the field of battle ; and the Shah
Himself in flight before the Turkmans, writhing
At having put Asfandiyar in bonds
i?2 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Is not thy heart on fire at things like these,
And all this travail, grief, and misery ? '
He added much words fraught with grief and anguish.
I burst my yoke and bonds, and came apace
Before the ruler of the flock. I slew
Unnumbered foes ; the Shah approved my deeds.
If I should speak about the Seven Stages
Good sooth ! I ne'er should end. I glorified
The name of Shah Gushtasp, I took the head
Off from Arjasp and brought his wife and children,
His crown and throne and treasure, to this court.
The goods thou placed'st in the treasury ;
My capital was blood, my profit toil.
Thou wast so full of promise, oath, and pledge
That I more readily performed thy bidding.
Thou said'st : ' If I shall look on thee again
I will esteem thee dearer than my soul,
And give thee diadem and ivory throne,
Because thy courage rneriteth the crown/
V. 1637 Now I am shamed before the mighty men,
Who say : ' Where are thy treasures and thy host ? '
What pretext hast thou ? What is my position ?
For what end have I gone through all the toil ?
It is the part of Shahs to keep their word ;
They do not break their bonds and covenants.
Now therefore set the crown on thy son's head
As thine own father crowned thee in his stead."
How Gushtasp ansiccml his Son
The Shah replied : " 'Tis ill to turn from right.
Till now thou hast been better than thy word :
The Maker of the world be thine ally.
I see not at this present anywhere
A public or a private foe. What man
Shall catch thy name and shall not writhe thereat ?
Did I say writhe ? Nay verily not live !
Thou hast no peer except the worshipful
And famous son of Zal, who hath for life
Zabulistan, Kabulistan, Ghaznin
And Bust, and is exalted o'er the sky
In valour, but accounteth not himself
A subject and transgresseth my commands
And counsels, stooping not to league with me
Although he was a slave to Kai Kaus,
And was devoted unto Kai Khusrau,
But sayeth of the kingship of Gushtasp :
' He hath a new crown while my crown is old.'
Now thou hast not a rival in the world
Midst Humans, Turkmans, or our own free folk,
And must set forward to Sistan forthwith, V. 1638
And put in practice colour, force, and guile,
Lay bare the sword and mace, and bring me Rustam.
The son of Zal, Zawara, Fararnarz,
In bonds and suffer none to mount the saddle.
Then by the Judge of all the world, the Source
Of strength, who kindleth star and moon and sun,
Then by the Zandavasta and Zarduhsht,
The good religion, and by Nush Azar,
The Fire and Grace divine, as soon as thou
Accomplishest these things thou shalt not hear
Of further opposition at my hands,
But I will give thee treasure, throne, and casque,
And seat thee crowned upon the state myself."
Asfandiyar replied : " worshipful
And noble Shah ! thou quitt'st the ancient rule ;
Thou shouldst speak measured words. Fight with the
Of Chin and send dust from his warriors,
But wherefore fight against an aged man,
174 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Whom Kai Kaus dubbed ' Lion-capturer ' ?
From Minuchihr as far as Kai Kubad
The whole state of fran rejoiced in him.
Men called him : ' Lord of Rakhsh,' ' World-conqueror,'
' King-maker,' ' Lion-queller.' He is great ;
His fame is not a new thing in the world ;
He hath his patent from Shah Kai Khusrau,
And if the patents of the Shahs are void
One should not seek for patents from Gushtasp ! "
The Shah replied : " My famed, illustrious son !
Whoe'er hath turned him from the way of God,
His patent is as is the desert- wind.
Thou surely must have heard how Shah Kaiis
Went erring at the bidding of Iblis
V. 1639 And, having scaled the sky on eagles' wings,
Fell vilely into water at Sari. 1
He brought a div's child from Hamavaran,
And made her mistress in the royal bower. 2
By her malpractice Siyawush was slain,
The day departed from his family. 3
It is not well to pass the gate of one
That turneth from his fealty to God.
If thou art eager for the crown and throne
Lead forth the host and hie thee to Sistan.
Upon arriving there bind Rustam's hands,
And bring him with the lasso on thine arm.
As for Zawara, Faramarz, and Zal,
See that they set no traps upon thy way.
Bring them afoot and running to my court,
And bring them so that all the troops may see ;
Then none hereafter will revolt from us
However he may wish it and repugn."
The chieftain frowned. " Go not about," he said,
" To compass such designs, for neither Zal
Nor Rustam is in question here, but thou
1 See Vol. ii. p. 102 seq. * Id. p. 86 seq. 3 Id. p. 200 seq.
Wouldst rid thec of Asfandiyar ; thou art
Concerned about the throne of empiry,
And wouldst be quit of me. Let crown and throne
Of chiefs remain thine own, for me the world
Hath nooks enough, yet I am still thy slave,
And bow my head to thy command and will."
Gushtasp said : " Be not angry. Thou shalt have
This greatness yet and therefore be not downcast.
Choose from the army many cavaliers
All veterans in war. At thy disposal
Are implements of war and troops and money ; V. 1640
'Tis for thy foemen to despond. Without thee
What are the treasure and the host, the throne
Of kingship and the golden casque, to me ? "
Asfandiyar replied : " No host will serve ;
The world-lord, if my fate is drawing nigh,
Will not withhold it with his troops ! "*
The presence of his sire with indignation
Both for the crown's sake and his father's words,
And entered his own hall in doleful wise,
His heart all sorrowful, his lips all sighs.
Hair Katayi/n counselled Asfandiyar
Much moved and weeping sun-cheeked Katayun
Went to the glorious Asfandiyar,
Her son, and said to him : " thou that art
The memory of the heroes of the world !
Bahman hath told me that thou wouldest go
From this Rose-garden to Zabulistan,
And wilt put Rustam, son of Zal, in chains,
That master of the mace and scimitar !
Now hear of all things what thy mother saith :
i;6 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Rush not to evil and endeavour it not.
That cavalier of elephantine might
Disdaineth battle with the river Nile,
Dis-sundereth the White Div's liverstead,
And maketh with his sword the sun to stray.
He slew the monarch of Hamavaran
Withal, and none is bold to chide with him.
v. 1641 When he took vengeance on Afrasiyab
For Siyawush he made earth like a sea
With blood. But if I were to talk for ever
I could not tell the tale of his good deeds.
Give not thy head for crown's sake to the winds,
For no one yet was born already crowned.
Thy father is an old man ; thou art young
A mighty man of hardihood and valour.
The whole host's eyes are on thee ; plunge not then
Thyself through anger in calamities.
Sistan is not the sole place in the world,
Act not the youth and be not masterful.
Make me not sad in this world and the next,
But hearken to thy loving mother's words."
Asfandiyar replied : " loving mother !
Heed what I say : thou knowest Rustam well,
And what thou say'st of his accomplishment
Is true as Zandavasta. Thou mayst search
At large throughout Iran but wilt not find
A better man ; 'twould be a shame to bind him.
Such ill, not good, proceedeth from the Shah !
But still there is no need to break my heart,
Though if thou dost so I will tear it out.
How can I disobey the Shah's command,
Forego a state like this ? Grant that my life
Shall finish in Zabul ; 'tis Heaven's process
V. 1642 That draweth me thither, and if Rustam yieldeth
He ne'er will hear unfriendly words from me."
His mother's eyes rained blood, she tore her hair,
And cried : " mighty, raging Elephant !
Strength maketh thee too prodigal of life.
Thou art no match for elephantine Rustam,
And therefore go not hence without a host.
Take not thy life, on thine own shoulders merely,
To that fierce Elephant ; thy will to go
Is also miscreant Ahriman's for thee.
Oh pause ! Take not thy children into Hell,
Or no wise man will call thee well-advised."
The warlike prince made answer : " Not to take them
Would be unwise, for while a youth remaineth
Within the bower his spirit is repressed,
His mind is dark, and, my prudent mother ! v. 1643
I want their help on every battlefield.
There is no need for me to take a host,
Just kith and kin and certain chiefs at most."
How Asfandiydr led a Host to Zdbul
At dawn, at cock-crow, from the court-gate rose
The din of drums, the elephantine chief
Gat on his steed and led his powers like wind.
He marched until he came where two roads met ;
Then prince and army halted in dismay.
One road led toward the hold of Gumbadan,
The other toward Zabul. The leading camel
Lay down, thou hadst said " wedded to the ground."
The camel-driver smote it on the head,
But for the while the caravan was stayed.
It seemed ill-omened to the atheling,
Who gave commandment to behead the beast
So that the harm might come upon itself,
And he himself not lose the Grace of God.
The warriors cut its head off on the spot,
VOL. v. M
i?8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
And turned forthwith the presage on the camel.
Though vexed about the beast, Asfandiyur
Affected to disdain the evil omen,
And said : " When one hath triumphed, and illumed
Earth by his fortune and his eminence,
He ought to smile since good and ill alike
Derive from God."
He then fared toward the Hirmund,
But fearful of mishap. As they were wont
They pitched the tent-enclosure while the chiefs
Chose their own camping-ground. The prince set up
Throne and pavilion ; thither fared the favoured.
Asfandiyar provided wine and minstrels,
And he and Bishutan sat down together,
v. 1644 Rejoicing his own heart with song and filling
His nobles' hearts with bluster. When old wine
Had made the faces of the warrior-king
And of his lords to blossom like the rose
He said thus to his friends : " I have abandoned
The Shah's injunctions and his way withal.
He said : ' Get this affair of Rustam's over :
Bate naught of bondage and humiliation.'
I have not acted as my father bade me,
Because the brave and lion-hearted Rustam
Hath many toils in other chieftains' stead
To his account and with his massive mace
Reformed the world. The whole state of Iran
From Shah to slave surviveth to this day
Through him. I need a valiant messenger,
Instructed, wise, and of retentive mind,
A cavalier of Grace divine and lustre,
A man that Rustam will not over-reach.
If Rustam will come hither and illume
My gloomy soul, by graciously allowing me
To bind him, he shall not experience
For his discretion any harm from me.
I wish him well if he will think no ill."
" That is the proper course," said Bishiitan,
" Hold thereunto and seek the hurt of none."
How Asfandiydr sent Bahman to Rustam
Asfandiyar then summoned to his presence
Bahman, held talk with him at large, and said :
" Array thee in brocade of Chin and mount
Thy sable steed, wear too a royal crown,
Bedecked with jewels fit for paladins,
So that whoever seeth may discern thee
Among the notables and, recognising
That thou art one of royal race, invoke
The Maker's blessings on thee. Take five steeds
With golden trappings, and ten archimages, v. 1645
All men of reputation and degree,
Proceed to Rustam's house, and do thine errand
With right good will. Greet him from us, be kind,
Address him, adding compliments, and say :
' Let him that groweth great and keepeth all
The world unscathed give thanks to God that He
At all times recogniseth excellence ;
Howbeit one that is both great and good,
And keepeth his own heart from frowardness,
Will find his might and riches all the more,
Be happy in this Hostel by the way,
And, by renouncing every sordid aim,
Hereafter compass Paradise. With us
Both good and evil are but transient things
As all of wisdom know. Dark dust at last
Will be our couch, our spirit wing to God.
Those that know Him will toil to serve the Shahs.
And now let us appraise thee faithfully
i8o THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Without exaggeration or default,
For thou hast lived through countless years and seen
Full many a king on earth. Thou know'st that 'tis
Unseemly to hark back from wisdom's way
For thee who hast such greatness, troops, and treasure,
Such noble horses, crown, and throne, all which
Thou hadst from my forefathers for prompt service ;
Yet for how long did Shah Luhrasp possess
The world and yet thou never cam'st to court !
And since he gave the kingdom to Gushtasp
Thou hast not recognised the Shah, not written,
Or paid to him the customary service,
V. 1646 Hast never gone to court to do him homage, 1
Or hailed him as thy Shah. Yet from Hiishang,
Jamshid, and Faridun who won by valour
The kingship from the offspring of Zahhak,
Until we reach the time of Kai Kubad,
Who set the crown of greatness on his head,
There hath not been a monarch like Gushtasp
In fight, in feast, in counsel or the chase.
He hath received the pure and good religion,
Both error and injustice are no more,
For when the Lord's way shone forth gloriously
Bad doctrine and the Div's way disappeared.
Thereafter when Arjasp came forth to fight,
With troops like pards and chiefs like crocodiles,
And no one knew the number of his host,
Our famous sovereign encountered him,
And made a graveyard of the battlefield,
Till no one could discern the face of earth.
In sooth until the Resurrection Da^
The tale will ne'er grow old among the great.
He is the man to break a lion's neck,
And everything is his from east to west,
His from Turan as far as Sind and Rum ;
1 Reading with C and P.
The whole world is a bit of wax to him.
Among the spearmen of the desert too
Full many cavaliers come to his court ;
They send him toll and tribute from their realms,
Because they have not strength to fight with him.
This have I said to thee, O paladin !
Because his soul is vext on thine account
In that thou hast not come to his famed court,
Nor recognised his nobles, but hast chosen
A nook wherein thou hid'st thyself; yet how,
Unless they ban all feeling, can our chiefs
Cease to remember thee who hast done good
In all things alway and hast raised thy head
To do the bidding of the Shahs ? If any
Should reckon up thy toils they would exceed
Thy treasures ; yet no Shah could acquiesce
In what is told of thee. Gushtasp said : " Rustam,
Because of much goods, province, and stored treasure, v. 1647
Hath tarried at Zabul and grown bemused
With drink, and none hath profit from a drunkard.
Though wanted he is absent from the field,
And doth not see me even at festivals."
The Shah was wroth and sware an oath one day
By bright day and the azure dim of night :
" None of this chosen host shall look on him
Here in the court unless in bonds." And now
Upon this matter have I left Iran ;
The Shah would not allow me time to breathe.
Be circumspect and shun the monarch's wrath :
Hast thou not seen the fury in his eyes ?
If thou wilt come, obeying my command
And mourning thy remissness in the past,
Then by the sun, the bright soul of Zarir,
And by that noble Lion my father's life,
I swear that I will make the Shah repent,
And cause the moon and stars to shine again.
i82 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSl
Moreover Bishiitan will bear me witness
That, having mind and wisdom for my guides,
I oftentimes have tried to pacify
The Shah, though seeing that thou wast to blame.
My father is the lord ; I am the liege,
And never will I swerve from his command.
A conclave of thy family should sit,
Consult, and take this matter well in hand.
Allow Zawara, Faramarz, and Zal,
As well as noble and discreet Riidaba,
To hear what I advise in all respects,
And recognise the goodness of my words.
This house must not be wrecked and be the den
Of pards and lions. When I bear thee bound
Before the Shah I will set forth to him
Thy many faults, then rise and bring him back
From wrath and wreak, let no wind blow on thee,
But act as native worth would have of me.' '
V. 1648 Bahman, or ever he had heard the words
Of that illustrious prince, went on his way.
He donned a robe of royal cloth of gold,
And placed the crown of greatness on his head,
Then set forth proudly from the camp-enclosure
With standard raised and fluttering behind him.
The atheling went over the Hirmund
A noble youth upon a mighty steed.
Immediately the watchman sighted him,
And sent a cry toward Zabulistan :
" A gallant, warlike cavalier hath come
Upon a sable steed with golden trappings.
Behind him are attendant cavaliers,
And he hath passed in safety o'er the stream."
Zal mounted on his saddle instantly,
With lasso in the straps and mace in hand,
Then coming to the watch-tower saw Bahman,
And from his liver drew a deep, cold sigh.
He said : " This is a famous paladin
Of noble rank clad in a royal robe.
In sooth he is a kinsman of Luhrasp,
And may his advent prove our country's weal."
Departing from the watch-tower he approached
The gate and paused distracted on his saddle.
It was not long before Bahman, whose head
Was higher than the turning sky, appeared
And, having no acquaintance yet with Zal,
Waved with his royal arm, and then approaching
Cried : " Noble thane ! where is the son of Zal,
This people's lord, the backbone of our times,
For great Asfandiyar hath reached Zabul,
And pitched his tents upon the river-bank ? "
Zal said to him : " mine impetuous son !
Dismount, take wine, and rest, for Rustam now
Is coming from the chase with Faramarz, V. 1649
Zawara, and their retinue. Come then
With these thy cavaliers as honoured guests,
And cheer thy heart with many a draught of wine."
Bahman made answer thus : " Asfandiyar
Enjoined not minstrelsy and boon-companions.
Give me a guide to take me to the chase."
Zal said : " What is thy name ? Thou art in haste !
What is thy will ? Methinketh that thou art
A scion of Gushtdsp or Shah Luhrasp."
Bahman replied to him : " I am Bahman,
Son of the world-lord of the brazen body."
Then noble Zal dismounted and did homage.
Bahman alighted smiling, and the twain
Exchanged their greetings. Earnestly Zal pleaded :
' Wait here, there is no colour for such haste."
1 84 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Bahman rejoined : " Not thus must we delay,
And slight the mission of Asfandiyar."
Zal chose a warrior that knew the road,
And sent him with Bahman forth to the chase.
That veteran, hight Shirkhun, went first as guide,
Just pointed to the spot and homeward hied.
How Bahman gave the Message to Rustam
A mountain lay before the youth who urged
His gallant charger thither, then looked down
Upon the chase. The captain of the host
Appeared in sight a man like Mount Bistiin.
He held a sapling in one hand whereon
An onager was spitted. By his side
Were placed his iron mace and other gear.
V. 1650 Within his other hand he held a goblet
A-brim with wine ; his son was in attendance ;
Rakhsh roamed about the meadow. There were trees,
Grass, and a stream withal.
" 'Tis either Rustam,"
Bahman said, " or the rising sun, for none
In all the world hath looked on such another,
Or heard of such from famous men of old.
I fear me that the brave Asfandiyar
Will not stand up to him, but quit the combat.
So let me kill him with a crag and make
The hearts of Zal and of Riidaba writhe."
He loosed a flinty boulder from the height,
And sent it downward from the lofty peak.
Zawara from the hunting-ground beheld it,
And heard the rumble that it made withal.
He shouted : " Paladin and cavalier !
A stone is rolling from the mountain-top ! "
But Rustam to Zawara's wonder incut
Ne'er moved nor laid aside the onager ;
He waited till the stone was close to him,
While all the mountain darkened by its dust,
Then with a kick dispatched it far away,
Whereat Zawara praised him joyfully.
Bahinan was sick at heart at Rustam's deed
And, marking both his majesty and mien,
Said : " If the glorious Asfandiyar
Should fight against a man of such renown
He would be vanquished vilely. It were better
For him to deal with Rustam courteously,
Who, if he overcame Asfandiyar,
Would seize on all the country of Iran."
He gat upon his wind-swift steed and quitted
The mountain in a muse, informed the archmages
About the wonder that he had beheld,
And quietly proceeded on his way.
When he was hard upon the hunting-ground
The peerless Rustam spied him as he came,
And asked an archimage : " What man is this ? v. 1651
I take him for a kinsman of Gushtasp."
Then Rustam with Zawara and the rest,
Both great and small, went forth to meet Bahman,
Who swift as smoke alighted from his steed,
Exchanging greetings and all courtesies,
And Rustam said to him : " Until thou tellest
Thy name thou wilt not get thy will of me."
The youth replied : " Renowned Bahman am I,
Son of Asfandiyar, that upright prince."
The paladin embraced him on the spot,
And made excuses for his tardy coming.
Then both with their respective retinues
Set forth for Rustam's camp. Now when Bahman
Was seated he gave greetings for himself
And for the Shah and the Iranians.
1 86 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
" Asfandiyar," he then went on to say,
" Hath journeyed from the court as quick as fire
And, as the Shah, victorious and exalted,
Enjoined him, pitched his camp on the Hirmund.
Now if the noble cavalier will hear me
I have a message from Asfandiyar."
" The Shah's son," Rustam answered, " hath endured
Much and hath travelled far ; so first of all
Let us partake of what we have, and then
The world is at thy bidding."
On the board
He laid new bread and hot roast onager :
Slaves helped Bahman and matchless Rustam parled.
He placed his brother by the prince but summoned
No other nobles to the feast. He put
A second onager before himself
His customary portion at each meal.
He sprinkled salt, cut up the meat, and ate ;
Meanwhile the exalted prince could not but gaze.
V. 1652 He ate a little of his onager,
But not a hundredth part of Rustam 's meal,
While Rustam smiled upon him, saying : " Shahs
Possess the state in order to enjoy.
If thou art such a feeble trencherman
How ever didst thou pass the Seven Stages ?
In what sort dost thou wield the spear in battle
Who hast, prince ! so little appetite ? "
Bahman said : " God forbid a prince should talk
Or eat much. Eating little he is great
In war and ever hath his life in hand."
Then Rustam smiled and cried : " One should not veil
One's manhood from mankind."
Then he filled up
A golden bowl with wine and drank " The free."
He gave another to Bahman, and said :
" Take this and drink it unto whom thou wilt."
Bahrnan was frayed thereat, and so Zawara
First took a draught thereof and said to him :
" scion of the Shah ! may wine and drinker
Rejoice in thee."
Bahman took back the bowl
At once, but that sweet youth was temperate,
And Rustam's appetite, neck, arms, and shoulders
Astounded him. Both mounted, and Bahman
Set forth Avith noble Rustam and then gave
The message of the prince fair-famed and brave,
Hoio Rustam made Answer to Asfandiyar
When he had heard Bahman the ancient hero
Mused and replied : " Yea I have heard the message
And joy to see thee. Bear Asfandiyar
This answer from me : ' Lion-hearted chief
And famed ! the man whose soul is tenanted y. 1653
By wisdom seeth matters in the gross,
And when he hath both valour and success,
Possessions, hoarded treasures, majesty,
With heroism and a lofty name,
And is the favourite of noble men,
As thou art at this moment in the world,
Should not be evil-minded. Let us worship
God and the right, not grasp the hand of ill.
A word when uttered inexcusably
Is but a tree that hath no fruit or scent,
And if thy soul shall tread the path of greed
Thy travail will be long and profitless.
'Tis well a prince should weigh his words, and well
To have no wish to utter aught amiss.
Thy servant used to joy in all that said :
'' No mother's son is like Asfandiyar.
i88 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
In courage, wisdom, enterprise, and counsel
He will be greater than his ancestors."
How famous is thy name in Hindustan,
In Chin and Rum and in the land of warlocks !
I thank thee for thy counsels and give praise
By day and in three watches of the night.
I sought of God, what now I joy to find
Accorded me, that I might look upon
Thy cherished face, thy greatness, manhood, love,
That, seated side by side in j oy, we twain
Might drain a goblet to the king of kings,
And now I have attained my whole desire
The wish that I was instant to achieve.
I will appear before thee unattended
To hear from thee the Shah's behest and bring
To thee the patents granted by just Shahs
From Kai Khusrau right back to Kai Kubad.
Now, matchless hero ! look upon my case,
My pains and actions, on the goodly deeds
That I have done, my hardship and my travail,
V. 1654 And how I have been servant to the Shahs
From this day backward to the days of old.
If chains are to repay me for these toils,
And ruin from the monarch of Iran,
'Tis well for none to look upon the world,
Or only just to look and tarry not.
I will tell all my secrets when I come,
And speak in tones that all the world may hear.
Then if there should appear i a fault in me
A fault for which I ought to lose my head
Then I will set a yoke on mine own shoulders,
And come afoot clothed in a leopard-skin ;
But inasmuch as I am he that brake
Fierce elephants' necks and flung them to the Nile,
Forbear unseemly words to me and keep
Thy mischiefs to afflict the Di'v's heart. Say not
What no one e'er hath said, use not thy courage
To encage the wind. The mighty cannot pass
Through fire at all, nor, save they swim, through water ;
Thou canst not hide the shining of the moon,
Or mate the fox and lion. Pour not then
Contention o'er my path, who arn myself
Adept therein. None hath beheld me fettered,
No savage lion ta'en my post. Act thou
As princes should. Consult not with the Div.
Put from thy heart wrath and revenge for trifles,
And look not on the world with boyish eyes.
Rejoice then, cross the stream, and may God bless thee.
Do honour to my mansion at a feast ;
Keep not aloof from me who am thy slave.
Just as I was a liege to Kai Kubad,
So now I joy, both heart and brain, in thee.
If thou wilt come to me with all thy host,
And pass two months with me in merriment,
Both man and beast shall rest from toil, foes' hearts
Grow blind with envy. Beast on land, and fowl
On water, wait thee if thou wilt but stay.
I shall behold thy warrior-might, and thou V. 1655
Shalt with thy scimitar o'erthrow the lion
And pard. When thou art fain to lead the host
I ran ward to the monarch of the brave,
I will unlock the ancient hoards which I
Have here collected by my scimitar,
And place at thy disposal everything
That I have gathered by my might of hand.
Take what thou wilt and give the rest away ;
Make not a day like this a grief to me.
Then when the time shall come for thee to go,
And thou art anxious to behold the Shah,
I will not separate my reins from thine,
And we will go to him in company.
By asking pardon I will soothe his wrath,
190 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUS1
And kiss him on the head and feet and eyes.
Then will I ask the great but unjust Shah :
" Why should these hands of mine be put in bonds ? "
Retain my words in each particular,
And tell them to the great Asfandiyar."
How Bahrnan returned
Bahman, when he had heard what Rustam said,
Departed with the holy archimages,
But Rustam peerless chieftain stayed awhile
Upon the road and, having called Zawara
And Faramarz, said thus : " Depart to Zal
And to the fair Moon of Zabulistan, 1
And say to them : " One who ambitioneth
The world hath come Asfandiyar. Set up
Within our halls a golden throne, and place
For him apparel such as monarchs wear,
As on the occasion with Shah Kai Kaus, 2
But let the audience -hall be grander still.
Prepare ye somewhat too by way of food :
There must not be a lack of things to eat,
V. 1656 for the Shah's son hath come to us, hath come
In a revengeful mood intent on war.
He is a famous warrior and brave prince,
And heedeth not a wilderness of lions.
I go to him, and if he will accept
Mine invitation there is hope for all.
If I shall find him well disposed toward me
I will present him with a crown of rubies,
And not withhold from him my treasures, jewels,
Bards, mace, and sword. If I return despondent,
Because I have not a white day with him,
1 I.e. Ruddba. 2 Vol. ii. p. 83.
Thou knowest that my twisted lasso bringeth
The heads of savage elephants to bonds."
Zawara said to him : " Have no such thought :
Men do not seek to fight without a cause.
I know not any king in all the world
For rede and courage like Asfandiyar ;
III deeds proceed not from a man of wisdom,
And he hath not received a wrong from us."
Zawara went to Zal. For his part Rustamj
Bestirred himself and hurried to the Hirmund,
His head all dazed with fear of coming ill,
Drew rein and waited for Bahman to greet him.
Now when Bahman had reached the tent-enclosure,
And stood before the presence of his father,
The glorious Asfandiyar inquired :
" What answer did the famous hero give thee ? "
Bahman, on hearing, sat before his sire,
Narrated all his tidings point by point ; i
And, having given Rustam's greeting first,
Told all about the message and reply
Before his father, told what he had seen,
Or noted privily. " I never saw,"
He said, " in any company a man
Like elephantine Rustain. He possesseth
A lion's heart, the bulk of elephant,
And haleth from the Nile the crocodiles.
He now is on the bank of Hirmund,
Without his armour, helmet, mace, or lasso,
And fain would see the Shah. I do not know
His purpose as to thee."
Asfandiyar, v. 1657
Wroth with Bahman, disgraced him in full court,
And said to him : " Men of exalted rank
Should not confide in women ; furthermore
The employ of children in affairs of moment
As messengers is neither brave nor valiant.
192 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Where ever hast thou looked on warriors,
Who hast heard riot a charger's tramp ? By making
An elephant of war of Rustam thou
Wilt break the spirit of our famous host."
In private he spake much to Bishutan,
And said : " This noble Lion of the fight
Will act the youngster and, I will engage,
Hath not a wrinkle yet in spite of age ! "
The Meeting of Rustam and Asfandiydr
The glorious Asfandiyar bade set
A golden saddle on his sable steed ;
Then from his famous troops a hundred horsemen
Set forth with him. His charger neighed on one hand,
And Rakhsh upon the other. Matchless Rustam
Lit from his steed, advanced to greet the hero,
And, greeting over, said : " I prayed to God
The only God that He would be thy Guide,
And thou with thy great men and troops withal
Hast reached us safe and sound. Come let us sit,
Use gracious terms, then give a good reply.
My witness, be assured, is God himself,
And wisdom is my guide in what I say,
For I shall gain no glory from this matter,
Nor will I tell a lie in any case,
V. 1658 That now were I to gaze on Siyawush
I should not look so happy as I do,
For thou resemblest nobody but him,
That wearer of the crown, that world-bestower.
Blest is the Shah who hath a son like thee !
Thy sire may glory in thy height and face.
Blest are the people of Iran, the slaves
Of thine unsleeping fortune and thy throne.
Ill-starred is he who seeketh thee in fight :
From throne and fortune he will come to dust.
May all foes' hearts be filled with fear of thee,
And thine ill-wishers' riven, may thy fortune
Prevail through all thy years and thy dark nights
Be as the day to thee."
Thereat alighted from his royal steed,
Embraced the hero's elephantine form,
Called many blessings down on him, and said :
" Thank God, O chief of paladins ! that I
Behold thee glad and bright of mind. 'Tis well
That we should praise thee and that this world's heroes
Should be as dust before thee. He is blest
That hath a son like thee, for he beholdeth
A fruitful Branch, and blest is he that hath
A stay like thee, for he will be unscathed
By evil fortune ! When I looked on thee
I called to mind that leader of the host,
That cavalier and Lion Zarir."
Then Kustam :
" Thou paladin and world-lord shrewd and ardent !
I have one wish, O prince ! a wish which granted
Would make me well content, and 'tis that thou
Shalt visit me in state and make niy soul
Bright at the sight of thee. Though there be naught
Worth thine acceptance we will do our best."
Asfandiyar replied : " Thou memory
Of this world's heroes ! he that hath a name
Like thine will prove a joyance to Iran
As one whose counsel must not be transgressed, V. 1659
His land and home not slighted. Ne'ertheless,
I may not swerve in public or in private
From what the Shah commanded, and he did not
Instruct me to abide within Zabul,
Or with the nobles of that warlike land.
Act so that thou mayst take of fortune's fruit ;
VOL. v. x
194 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUS1
Go ; thou the way the monarch biddeth thee.
Delay not thou to put thy feet in fetters ;
Those of the king of kings are no disgrace,
And when I bear thee bound before the Shah
The evil will recoil on him. Meanwhile
Thy bondage will have hurt me to the soul,
I shall have waited on thee like a slave.
I will not leave thee in thy bonds till night ; l
No harm at all shall come upon thy life.
Dost thou suspect foul play, O paladin ?
Beyond all doubt the Shah will do no wrong,
And he hath told me : ' I will give to thee
Mine ivory throne, my treasures, and my crown.'
When I shall set that crown upon my head
I will entrust the whole world to thy hands.
Before the all-just God I do no wrong,
Nor shall I shame in presence of the Shah.
When thou returnest to Zabulistan,
What time the gardens blossom with the rose,
Thou shalt receive such precious gifts from me
As will adorn thy land."
" noble man ! "
Said Rustam, " I have prayed the almighty Judge
That I might glad my heart by seeing thee,
But how can I give ear to these thy words ?
We both are men of rank, one old, one young,
Two paladins both wise and vigilant ;
But I am fearful of the evil eye,
And that our heads will wake from pleasant dreams.
The Div is making way betwixt us two
To warp thy heart by means of crown and throne.
A thing like this would be a shame to me,
One that would last for ever, that a leader,
One high-born and a chieftain such as thou art,
1 The night of the day on which Rustam should be brought before
A noble Lion and a mighty man,
Should come not for a while to mine abode, V. 1660
Or be my guest within these coasts. If thou
Wilt banish this contention from thy thoughts,
And do thy best to exorcise the Div,
I will adorn my soul by sight of thee,
And do whate'er thou biddest save these bonds,
For they are utter shame, defeat, and outrage.
No one shall see me bound while I survive :
My life on that. Enough ! "
Keplied : " memory of this world's heroes !
Thy words are truth, not falsehood, and men gain
No lustre from deceit ; still Bishiitan
Is cognisant of all the Shah's commands
When I set forth. ' Bestir thyself,' he said,
' As touching Rustam. Be thy whole concern
To fight or bind him.' If now I shall go,
A blithe, triumphant guest, to visit thee
In thine own home, and from the Shah's commands
Thou turn thy neck, 'twill mar mine own day's lustre.
For one thing I shall fight thee and employ
The leopard's instinct in that fight, forget
The bond of bread and salt, and cast a slur
Upon the honour of my lineage ;
While if I disobey the Shah the fire
Will be my dwelling in the world to come.
Yet, since thou wishest, let us pass one day
With wine in hand. Who knoweth what may chance
Tomorrow, so we need not talk thereof ? "
Said Rustam : " I will do so. I will go
And don 7 my road-dress. For a week have I
Been hunting and been eating onager
Instead of lamb. When things are ready call me, v. 1661
And sit down with thy kinsmen at the board."
Hurt and concerned he mounted, hurried home,
196 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Beheld the face of Zal, the son of Sam,
The son of Nariman, and said : " Famed chief !
I have been visiting Asfandiyar,
And seen a horseman like a straight-stemmed cypress,
A man of wisdom, dowered with grace and Glory.
Thou wouldest say : ' Shah Faridiin, the hero,
Bequeathed to him both might and understanding.'
His presence bettereth hearsay : there doth shine
From him the Grace imperial and divine."
How Asfandiyar summoned not Rustam to the Feast
When Rustam left the bank of the Hirmund
The great Asfandiyar sat lost in thought,
And Bishiitan, his counsellor, anon
Came to the camp-enclosure. Said the hero :
" We have dealt lightly with a grave affair :
I have no business in the house of Rustam,
And he for his part should not look on me.
If he come not I will not summon him ;
Else, should one of us die, the other's heart
Would burn with anguish for the slain, his head
Shed tears for friendship's sake."
Said Bishiitan :
" Who hath a brother like Asfandiyar,
Famed chief? By God, when first I saw you two,
And neither of you tried to make a quarrel,
My heart became like early spring thereat,
As much for Rustam as Asfandiyar ;
But as I looked more deeply I perceived
The Div controlling wisdom's path. Thou knowest
What Faith and honour bid, the laws of God,
And thine own sire's intent. Restrain thyself,
Do life no hurt, and hear thy brother's words.
I heard what Rustam said : his greatness matched V 1662
His courage, and thy fetters will not gall him.
He heedeth not thy Grace divine and state.
The chief of cavaliers, the son of Zal,
Will not put his head lightly in the net.
The matter, as I fear, will be prolonged
For evil, being 'twixt two haughty men.
Thou art a great man, wiser than the Shah,
And abler both in skill and bravery.
If one would feast, the other strive for vengeance,
Consider which the more deserveth praise."
The prince replied : " If I shall not obey
The Shah I shall be censured in this world,
And God will call me to account hereafter.
I would not sell both worlds for Rustam 's sake ;
No man will sew up his own eyes and heart."
The other said : " The outcome of good counsel,
Will profit thy pure body and thy soul.
I have said all. Now choose thee which is best ;
A prince's heart should be above revenge."
The chieftain bade the cooks to spread the board,
But saidjto no one : " Summon Rustam hither."
The eating done he took the cup in hand,
Spake of the Brazen Hold, of his own manhood,
And drank in honour of the king of kings,
While Rustam stayed within his palace-walls,
Remembering his promise to eat bread.
Now when a long while passed and no one came,
Though Rustam often looked along the road,
And when the time for feasting had gone by,
The hero's dignity could brook no more.
He smiled and said : " My brother ! deck the board,
And summon to the feast the men of birth.
If 'tis the custom of Asfandiyar
To treat us with such superciliousness
As to invite and then not summon us, V. 1663
198 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Hope for no good from him."
He spake. They decked
The board and, having eaten, rose. Then said
The heroic paladin to Faramarz :
" Bid saddle Rakhsh as they would do in Chin.
I shall go back and tell Asfandiyar :
' Prince though thou art, remember : he that breaketh
His plighted word hath in himself effaced
The pathway that the great and good have traced.' "
How Asfandiyar excused himself for not summoning
Rustam to the Feast
Then like an elephant he mounted Rakhsh,
Whose neighings could be heard two miles away,
And hurried to the river, where the troops
Pressed eagerly to see him, while the hearts
Of those that saw him loved him. All exclaimed :
" This noble chief resernbleth none but Sam,
The cavalier. An iron hill is he
Upon the saddle and thou wouldest say
That Rakhsh is Ahriman's own mount, and were
A mighty elephant his opposite
Then splash its head with mourning hues. The king
Must have a witless pate to give up one
That is possessed of Grace divine and prowess
A moonlike chieftain like Asfandiyar
To slaughter for the sake of crown and throne.
He groweth greedier with age and fonder
Of signet and of diadem."
Drew near, Asfandiyar went forth to meet him.
Said Rustam : " Paladin and glorious youth,
But of new-fangled manners ! so thy guest
V. 1664 Was thought unworthy of the summoning !
Thy promise is a promise and no more.
Attend to what I say, and be not hasty
Without a cause with one advanced in years.
Thou thinkest far too highly of thyself,
And art too haughty to the chiefs. Good sooth !
Thou boldest me but light in point of courage,
And slight in counsel and in understanding.
Know that I am the Rustam of the world,
The lustre of the race of Nariman.
I make the Black Div gnaw his hand, I lay
The heads of sorcerers low. The mighty men
That saw mine iron corslet, and that great
And roaring Lion that I rode, abandoned
The field without a blow and on the plain
Threw down their bows and arrows valiant horsemen'
And fighters like Kamus, the warrior,
Or like the Khan of Chin, whom with coiled lasso
I haled from saddle and bound head andifoot.
The warden of the Shahs am I, the stay
Of brave men everywhere. Mistake me not
Because I begged a boon, nor deem that thou
Art higher than heaven. Thy royal Grace and state
Led me to seek thy rede and fellowship,
And I desire not that a prince like thee
Should have his fortunes ruined by my hand,
Because heroic Sam is mine ideal,
At whose approach the lion fled the wood,
And I am his memorial on earth,
valiant, royal prince Asf andiyar !
Long have I been the chief of paladins,
But never spent a day in evil-doing,
Have purged the world of foes and undergone
Abundant toil and stress. I thank my God
That in these latter days I have beheld
My peer a glorious Shoot who will take vengeance
On infidels amid the world's applause."
200 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
v. 1665 Then smiling on him said Asfandiyar :
" son of Sam, the horseman ! thou wast hurt
In that no summons came whereas I took
Some credit to myself. Be not displeased
Because I spared thee on so hot a day
So long a journey, for I said : ' At dawn
I will set out to offer mine excuses ;
Then shall I have the joy of seeing Zal,
And be for once quite happy ! ' But since thou
Hast of thine own self undergone the toil,
Hast left thy home and come across the plain,
Sit down to rest thyself, take up the cup,
And make no show of wrath and bitterness."
Asfandiyar placed Rustam on his left,
Such was the way in which he did the honours !
Then said the veteran : " This is not my place ;
Let me have that to which I am entitled."
The prince said to Bahman upon his right :
" Give him the seat as he demandeth it."
Then Rustam in his wrath said to the prince :
" Look on me fairly and with open eyes ;
Regard my prowess and illustrious stock,
For I am of the seed of valiant Sam.
Though thou hast no seat that befitteth me
I have the Grace, my triumphs, and my prudence."
v. 1666 Thereat the prince gave orders to his son
To place a golden seat upon the dais,
And with a scented orange Rustam came,
And took his seat but he was all aflame.
How Asfandiydr spalte Shame of the Race of Rustam
Then thus to Rustam spake Asfandiyar :
" lion-hearted chieftain of renown !
Now I have heard a tale from archimages,
The mighty men and sages wise of heart,
That Zal is one of evil race, a dfv
By birth, and hath no better origin.
They kept him for a while concealed from Sam,
And thought the child a Doomsday to the world.
His head and hair were white, the rest was dark.
Sam at the sight of him was in despair,
And bade them take the young child to the sea
That birds and fish might have him for their prey.
Then the Simurgh came with spread wings but saw
That 'twas no proper child with Grace divine.
She bore him off to where she had a nest,
She carried him away to serve as food,
And threw him in contempt before her young
That they might finish him at feeding-time.
When they attempted to devour the child
They were afraid and would not batten on him,
But passed him over as he was so vile,
And turned away ; though ravenous the Simurgh
Could not quite stomach such a thing as Zal,
But made him free of the nest though nobody
Was pleased to see him. He ate carrion
That she rejected, and his wretched body
Was raimentless. She came to love the child, V. 1667
And thus the heaven turned o'er him for a season.
When he had fared on carrion for a while
She carried him all naked to Sistan,
Where Sam, who had no child, adopted him
Through folly, dotage, and stupidity.
The Shahs and glorious, great men of my race,
My benefactors and mine ancestors,
Then took him up and furnished him withal.
Thus many years passed o'er him ; he became
A Cypress, one whose head was out of reach ;
It put forth branches and its fruit was Rustam,
202 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Who by his manhood, skill, and mien thus scaled
The sky, in such wise seized on royalty,
Increased in power, and took to villainy."
How Rustam answered Asfandiydr, praising his oicn
Race and his Deeds
Then Rustam answered, saying : " Hold thy peace !
Why speak'st thou such provocatory words ?
Thy heart is growing into frowardness,
The utterance of thy soul is that of divs.
Speak what befitteth the great kings ; the Shah
In speaking swerveth not from what is right.
The world-lord knoweth that the son of Sam
Is great and hath both knowledge and fair fame.
Again, Sam was the son of Nariman,
Which hero was the son of Kariman,
And thus they run back to Garshasp, while all
Are scions of Jamshid. Thine ancestors
Obtained the crown through us, else none had named
V. 1668 'Twas I who brought Kubad, the chosen one
Of all the people, out of Mount Alburz, x
And but for that he had remained a subject, 2
Not having treasure, host, or puissance.
In sooth thou must have heard reports of Sam,
Who had the fairest fame of all his time :
First, how there was a dragon once at Tiis,
A dragon from whose clutches none could 'scape ;
A crocodile in water and a leopard
On land, its breath would soften mountain-flints,
Would broil the fishes' heads in water-ways,
Would scorch the vultures' feathers in mid-air,
1 See Vol. i. p. 382 seq. 2 Beading with C.
And suck in elephants with its breath. Glad hearts
Were saddened at the thought thereof. : And next,
There was a fearful and malicious div,
Whose body was on earth and head in heaven,
Because the sea of Chin reached but his middle ;
The sun itself shone with diminished lustre.
He used to take up monsters from the deep
And, towering o'er the orbit of the moon,
Broil them upon the sun while turning heaven
Was all dissolved in tears. These two great Pests l
Were rendered lifeless and consumed before
The sword of Sam, the hero. Then again,
My mother was the daughter of Mihrab,
Who made the realm of Sind so prosperous,
And was the fifth descendant from Zahhak,
Who raised his head above all other kings.
Who hath a nobler origin than this ?
A wise man will not turn from truth : the honour
Of all the world is mine, and other heroes V. 1669
Must seek to win it back from me. Again,
Mine earliest patent is from Kai Kaus ;
Thou canst not find a pretext on that score.
I have one too from righteous Kai Khusrau,
Like whom no Kaian ever girt his loins.
My wanderings have covered all the earth,
And many an unjust monarch have I slain.
Whenas I crossed the waters of Jihun
Afrasiyab fled from Tiiran to Chin. 2
When Kai Kaiis went to Mazandaran 3
My father Zal had much to say thereon.
Thou knowest how that Shah fared with the di'vs,
And in his blindness cried out from his soul.
Alone I journeyed to Mazandaran ;
The nights were gloomy and the leagues were long.
I did not spare the White Div or Arzhang,
1 See Vol. i. pp. 172, 296. 2 Id. ii. 356. 3 Id. 30 seq.
204 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Piilad, 1 son of Ghundi, or Bid or Sanja.
Moreover for our monarch's sake I slew
My wise and valiant boy. 2 There hath not been
Another warrior like Suhrab in strength,
In courage, and approof in war. In sooth
Above six hundred years have passed away
Since I was severed from the reins of Zal ;
I have been always paladin in chief,
In public or in private 'twas all one.
Just as it was with noble Faridiin,
Who set the crown of greatness on his head,
Dethroned Zahhak and brought him, head and crown,
To dust ; and secondly, as Sam, my grandsire,
Engrossed the craft and knowledge of the world ;
So, thirdly, since I girded up my loins
The person of the monarch hath had rest.
There never were such days of happiness,
The wanderers' feet were never so secure,
As when my will prevailed throughout the world,
And I used scimitar and massive mace.
I speak in order that thou mayst know all,
For thou art prince and nobles are thy flock ;
V. 1670 Yet in respect of age thou art a youth,
Though with the Grace of Kai Khusrau. Thou seest
None but thyself and know'st not secret matters.
Now, having talked much, turn we for relief
To wine and hunt therewith the soul of grief."
How Asfandiydr boasted of his Ancestry
Asfandiyar, on hearing Rustam's words,
Smiled and his heart began to beat with joy.
He answered : " I have listened to thy toils,
Thy pains, thy combats, and anxieties.
1 (jl&d in the text, but cf. Vol. iv. p. 296, note. z Id. ii. 172.
Now hearken to the gests that I have done,
Whereby I raised my head above the noble.
'Twas for the Faith that first I girt my loins,
And cleared the earth of idol- worshippers :
Our warriors could not see the world for slain.
Gushtasp was mine immediate ancestor,
Who was himself begotten by Luhrasp ;
Luhrasp again was son of king Aurand,
Who at that time possessed both fame and rank.
Aurand was of the seed of Kai Pashm,
Blessed by his father who was Kai Kubad
A Shah of wisdom and of upright heart ;
Pursue my race thus to Shah Faridun,
The root of kings and glory of the throne.
My mother is, moreover, Caesar's daughter,
Who is the crown upon the Humans' head
And sprung from Salm a glorious lineage,
Instinct with justice, precedent, and Grace.
Salm was the son of valiant Faridun,
Who carried off the ball from all the kings
For valour. I assert what none gainsay, V. 1671
Though many quit the way and few are in it,
That in the presence of mine own forebears,
Those mighty men devout and glorious,
Thou and thy grandsire were but servitors.
I do not seek to best thee but thou haclst
Thy kingship from the Shahs, who were my sires,
For zealous service. Wait while I tell all,
Then if there be a falsehood point it out.
Since Shah Luhrasp gave to Gushtasp the throne
I have been girt with valour and success,
And I have slain the perverts from the Faith
Upon the plains of Chin and of Tunin.
Then later on, when through Gurazm's words
My father bound and banned me from the feast,
111 reached Luhrasp by reason of my bonds :
2o6 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
The Turkmans hid the earth. Then to the hold
Of Gumbadan the veteran Jamasp
Came with a message and in soldier's garb.
When he arrived and saw how I was bound,
Saw how my mind and heart were pierced by care,
He sent for blacksmiths to deliver me
Out of my heavy bondage, but their work
Was far too slow for me because my heart
Yearned for the scimitar. My heart was straitened
I shouted at them, wrenched me from their grasp,
Rose to my height from where I sat and brake
My bonds with mine own hands, then sought the field
Whereon the fortunes of Gushtasp were lost ;
And when Arjasp fled with his famed array
Before me I girt up my loins with manhood,
And went like raging lion in pursuit.
As for the Seven Stages thou hast heard
Of mine adventures with the lions there
V. 1672 And with that Ahriman, and how I entered
The Brazen Hold by guile and quelled a world,
Hast heard about my doings in Tiiran,
And all the toil and hardship that I bare.
Good sooth, no onager e'er hath endured
Such from a pard, nor maw of crocodile
From sailors' angle. On a mountain-top,
Sequestered by its height from all the throng,
There was a hold. I found the people all
Idolaters and dazed like men bemused.
Since Tur, the son of valiant Faridun,
No man had robbed the hold of its repute.
I took that fortress by my bravery,
I cast the images upon the ground,
And set alight the Fire there that Zarduhsht
Brought in a censer out of Paradise. 1
Victorious through the just, the only God,
1 Of. p. 33-
I came again in such case to Iran
That we had no foe left in all the world,
And not a Brahman in his idol-house.
In all my battles I have fought unaided ;
No one hath shared with me the cares of war.
Now, seeing that we have so long converst,
Tilt up the wine-cup if thou art athirst."
How Rustam vaunted Ms Valour
Then Rustam spake thus to Asfandiyar :
" My deeds remain as my memorial ;
So now in simple justice hear the words
Of one whose name is known an ancient man :
If I had gone not to Mazandaran, 1
And borne my massive mace upon my shoulder,
Where would have been blind Giv, Gudarz, and Tiis,
And our exalted Shah that sport of grief ?
Who had torn out the White Div's heart and brain ? v. 1673
Who had sufficient trust in his own arm ?
Who would have rescued Kai Kaiis from bonds,
And have restored him to the lofty throne
Whereto from heavy chains I carried him
The fortune-favoured darling of Iran ?
I cut the heads from off the sorcerers ;
They saw no bier, no, shroud, no burial.
Mine only helpers in those fights were Rakhsh,
And my sharp sword which meteth out the world.
Then when Kaiis went to Ha ma varan, 2
Where they made fast his feet in heavy fetters,
I took an army of Iranians,
Drawn from wherever there were prince and chief,
Slew in the fight that folk's king, and made void
1 Vol. ii. p. 44 seq. 2 /</. 88 scq.
2o8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Their famous throne. The monarch of the world
Kaiis himself was captive and his heart
Was stricken by anxiety and travail.
Meanwhile Afrasiyab was in Iran
Together with his host and famous chiefs.
Then it was I who rescued Kai Kaiis
As well as Tiis, Giv, and Giidarz, and brought them
Back to Iran out of Hamavaran,
Brought all the paladins and men of name.
One dark night as I went before the troops
In search of fame, not rest, Afrasiyab
Discerned my fluttering flag and heard Rakhsh neigh :
Abandoning Iran he made for Chin,
And justice and thanksgiving filled the world.
Had blood come from the neck of Kai Kaiis
How could he have begotten Siyawush ?
Had saintly mother not borne Kai Khusrau,
Who would have named Luhrasp for Shah ? Why vaunt
V. 1674 About his crown, the armlets and the throne
V. 1675 Of Shah Gushtasp l who saith : ' Go, bind the hands
Of Rustam ' ? Not high heaven itself shall bind them !
From boyhood up to now in mine old age
I have not borne such words from any man.
To make excuses and beg off would shame me ;
To speak thus mildly is a degradation."
Asfandiyar smiled at his violence
And, reaching out and gripping Rustam's hand,
Said : " Rustam of the elephantine form !
Thou art what all have represented thee ;
Thine arm is mighty as a lion's thigh,
Thy breast and limbs are like a lusty dragon's,
Thy waist is fine and slender as the pard's,
And such a chieftain beareth off the day."
He squeezed the hand of Rustam as he spake,
But yet the youth made not the old man writhe ;
1 Reading with P.
Though gall exuded from his finger-nails
Good sooth the hero writhed not with the pain.
Then Rustam grasped the prince's hand in his,
And said : " prince and worshipper of God !
HOAV blessed is the famous Shah Gushtasp
To have a son such as Asfandiyar !
How blest is he who getteth one like thee :
He addeth to the glory of the world ! "
He spake and grasped the other's hand until
The prince's face became as red as blood,
Till blood and water oozed out from his nails,
And he was frowning, though he laughed and said :
" Famed Rustam ! drink today. In fight tomorrow
Thou wilt have pain and think no more of feasting.
Or ever I shall saddle my black steed,
And place the royal helm upon my head,
I will unhorse thee with my spear : thereafter
Thou wilt not seek for battle and revenge.
Then will I bind thy hands, bear thee before v. 1676
The Shah, and say : ' I saw no fault in him,'
Will intercede for thee and urge all pleas,
Will set thee free from sorrow, pain, and travail,
And thou shalt have instead both good and treasure."
Then Rustam, smiling at Asfandiyar,
Said : " Thou shalt have enough of combating.
Where hast thou seen the fights of warriors ?
Where hast thou felt the wind of massive maces ?
If such then be the aspect of the sky
Love will be veiled between tAvo men at least ;
We shall have war instead of ruddy wine,
Use lasso, bow, and strategy, require
The roar of drum instead of voice of harp,
And greet each other with the sword and mace.
Then shalt thou, glorious Asfandiyar !
Behold the rush and pulsing of the fight.
Tomorrow when I come upon the field,
VOL. v. o
210 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUS1
And in the battle man opposeth man,
I will unhorse thee with a firm embrace,
And carry thee away to glorious- Zal,
Then seat thee on the famous ivory throne,
And crown thee with the heart- rejoicing crown,
Which I myself received from Kai Kubad,
And may his soul rejoice in Paradise !
I will unlock my treasury fulfilled
With precious things and lay nay hoards before thee,
Pat all thy troops past want and raise to heaven
Thy crown, then seek the presence of the Shah
In state rejoicing, boldly set the crown
Upon thy head as thanks to Shah Gushtasp,
Then gird me as I have been girt erewhile
Before the Kaians, renovate my heart
With joy, and make the Garden's surface weedless.
Men's bodies will not keep their souls within
When thou art Shah and I am paladin."
How Rustam drank Wine ivitli Asfandiydr
v. 1677 Asfandiyar replied : " More talk is useless.
My belly craveth, half the day is over,
And we have had much talk of combating.
Bring ye the table and what food ye have,
But summon nobody that talketh much ! "
Now when the board was spread, and Rustam ate,
They were astonied at his appetite.
Asfandiyar and all the other heroes
Set lambs in front of him on every side.
He ate them all, whereat the prince and people
Were lost in wonder. Then the prince commanded :-
" Bring cups and ruddy wine for him, and we
Will note how he will hold forth in his cups,
And prate of Kai Kaiis. "
The drawer brought
A goblet filled with wine of ancient vintage,
And Rustam drank it to the king of kings ;
He drained that golden fountain dusty-dry.
The young cup-bearer brought the cup again
The same with royal wine replenished
And matchless Rustam whispered to the boy :
" We want no water on the table here.
Why dost thou mingle water in the cup,
And weaken this old wine ? "
Thus to the server : " Bring a bowlful neat."
He had the wine brought, summoned minstrelsy,
And gazed astound on Rustam.
At departure, v. 1678
When noble Rustam was all flushed with wine,
Asfandiyar said thus to him : " Live happy
While time shall last. May both the wine and meat
Agree with thee, and right be thy soul's provand."
To him said Rustam : " Prince ! may wisdom ever
Be thine adrnonisher. What wine soe'er
I drink with thee is good and nourisheth
My prudent soul. If thou wilt ban this strife,
Wilt magnify thy majesty and wisdom,
Wilt leave the plain and come to mine abode,
Wilt for a season be my joyous guest,
I will accomplish all that I have said,
And set before thee wisdom as a guide.
Pause for a while and strive not after ill ;
Show courage and regain thy common sense."
Asfandiyar, the hero, thus rejoined :
" Sow not a seed that ne'er will grow. Tomorrow
Thou shalt behold the accomplishment of heroes
What time I gird my girdle for the fray.
Moreover do not glorify thyself;
Go home and fit thee for tomorrow's work.
Thou shalt perceive that in the ranks of war
212 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAVSI
I am the same as in my revelry.
Attack me not upon the battlefield ;
Hear mine advice ; go not about to fight.
Thou shalt see prowess greater than my words ;
Let it not prove a cause of grief to me.
Accept of all the counsel that I give :
Submit to fetters at the Shah's command
What time we quit Zabul and seek Iran,
And come before the monarch of the brave."
Then grief made Rustam ponder, and the world
Was like a wood before his eyes. He thought :
V. 1679 " For me to give my hands up to his bonds,
Or rise up in my might and injure him,
Are courses both inglorious and bad,
Both novel and ill precedents. Moreover,
My name will suffer from his bonds while I
By slaying him shall end but ill myself,
And all that tell the tale throughout the world
Will never let my blame grow obsolete,
Thus saying : ' Rustam 'scaped not from a youth
Who went forth to Zabul and bound his hands.'
Then all my fame will turn to infamy,
I shall be smirched and be in evil odour ;
While if he shall be slain upon the field
My face will pale in presence of all kings,
And men will say : ' He slew the youthful prince
For speaking harshly.' I shall be accursed,
When I am dead, and called ' old infidel.'
Again, if I shall perish by his hand
Zabulistan will lose both hue and scent,
Zal's seed will perish and no Zabuli
Gain fame thenceforth. Still men at least shall quote
Good words from me when I have passed away,
And if I left but one good word untried,
Past doubting, wisdom's self would take my life."
Then to that haught man thus he spake : " Concern
Hath made my visage wan. Why speak so much
Of bonds ? I fear that thou wilt suffer hurt
Therefrom unless the will of heaven be other :
The swift sky's purpose is above surmise.
Thine are divs' counsels, thou wilt not receive
Wise words. Thou art a man of simple heart V. 1680
And versed not in the world. Know that thy hurt
Is aimed at secretly, for while Gushtasp
Hath crown and throne he will not grow aweary
Of life and fortune, but will keep thee running
About the world and make thee face all dangers.
He hath examined all the earth, and made
An ax of wisdom and a bill of wit,
To find a chief that will not quail to fight thee,
That thou mayst perish by that hand, and he
Still may retain the crown and lofty throne.
Shall imprecations be upon the crown,
And by that token shalt thou couch in dust ?
Wilt thou expose my soul to obloquy ?
Why wilt thou not consider in thy heart ?
Thou art the source of trouble to thyself
Though injured not at heart by any foe.
Act not, prince ! act not so boyishly,
Delight not so in ill, our hearts aggrieve not,
Nor bring calamity on both our souls ;
Have some respect for God and for my face,
And act not as a traitor to thyself.
There is no need at all for thee to fight,
To struggle or contend or strive against me.
'Tis Destiny that hath been driving thee
With this thy host to perish by my hand,
While I shall leave an ill name in the world.
Oh ! may Gushtasp's own end be also ill ! "
When proud Asfandiyar had heard these words
He thus returned reply : " noble Rustam !
Mark well the saying of a sage of yore,
214 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
What time he married wisdom to his soul :
' An aged deceiver is a fool indeed
Howe'er successful and possessed of rede.'
Thou practisest upon me so to keep
The collar from thy neck, and wouldst that all
v 1 68 1 Who hear this should believe thy specious words,
Call me a man whose purpose isimalign,
Call thee a wise man and beneficent,
And say thus : ' Rustam came in all good will,
With invitations, and held out great hopes,
But still the chief rejected what he said,
And would consent to nothing but a fight ;
He treated Rustam's wishes with contempt,
And kept his own tongue charged with bitterness.
Know that I will not dist>bey the Shah,
Though 'twere to win the crown and diadem.
My good and evil in this world depend
On him ; he is my Hell and Paradise.
May that which thou hast eaten nourish thee,
And may" it work destruction to thy foes.
Go home in safety, tell what thou hast heard,
Prepare for fight, and bandy not more talk.
Come forth at dawn, use every ruse of battle,
And make an end. Tomorrow thou shalt see
The world turn black before thee on the field,
Know how the heroes fight, and what a day
Of battle and contention really is."
Then Rustarn said : " O seeker after fame !
Since such a wish as this hath come to thee,
Upon swift Rakhsh will I perform the part
Of host and physic thee with club and mace.
Thou hast heard people saying in thy land,
And grown self-confident because of it :
' The swords of warriors on the battlefield
Will ne'er avail against Asfandiyar.'
Tomorrow thou shalt see my pointed spear,
GUSHTASP 21 5
As well as somewhat of my horsemanship, ,
And afterward thou wilt not seek to fight
Upon the battlefield with men renowned."
The valiant youth with laughter on his lips v. 1682
A laughter that humiliated Rustam
Replied : " O thou that seekest after fame !
Thou hast been angered quickly by our talk.
Tomorrow, when thou comest on the field,
Thou wilt be more informed about the doings
Of men that are men. I am not a mountain,
Nor is my steed. I shall not be attended,
And, saving for the name of God, shall have
No help from blow of shaft and scimitar.
Thy mother, should thy head go down the blast
Through mace of mine, will weep for pain of heart,
And, if thou art not slain upon the field
Of battle, I will bind and carry thee
Bound to the Shah that such a slave as thou
May seek not fight with him as thou dost now."
How Rustam returned to his Palace
As Rustam went forth from the tent- enclosure
He stood before the entry for awhile,
And thus addressed the tent : " house of hope !
Blest were the days that saw Jamshkl within thee.
Great Avert thou in the time of Kai Kaiis,
And in the days of favoured Kai Khusrau ;
But now the door of Grace is shut upon thee,
For one unworthy sitteth on thy throne."
Asfandiyar, the hero, heard the words,
Strode forth to noble Rustam, and spake thus :
" Why art thou angry with the tent-enclosure,
Thou well-advised ? Well might a man of sense
Bestow upon Zabulistan the name
216 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
. Of ' Babblestead.' Why need a guest abuse
His host because the guest is weary of him ?
v. 1683 Time was," he went on to the tent-enclosure,
' When thou hast held Jamshid in thine embrace,
Who left the way of God and forfeited
Good days on earth and jocund Paradise. 1
The day too was when thou for Shah Kaiis
Didst serve as veil and shelter for the troops,
Kaiis who sought to know God's mysteries,
And hankered to investigate the stars ! 2
The earth was all convulsed on his account,
And filled with depredation, sword, and arrow.
Gushtasp is now thine owner, and Jamasp
Is standing in his presence. At his side
Is seated on one hand Zarduhsht who brought
The Zandavasta out of Paradise ;
Upon the other Bishiitan, the brave
And good, not seeking this world's weal and woe ;
In front is glorious Asfandiyar,
The man in whom the wheel of fortune joyeth,
In whom the hearts of good men live ; the bad
Turn slaves through terror of his scimitar."
The valiant cavalier passed through the gate.
Asfandiyar looked after him and, when
He had departed, said to Bishiitan :
" I must admit his manliness and prowess.
I have not looked on such a horse and horseman,
And know not how this combat will result.
A mighty elephant upon Mount Gang
Is he if he doth come forth armed to battle.
His Grace and comeliness surpass his height,
Yet will he see, I fear, a fall tomorrow.
The Glory of his countenance inflameth
My heart, but still I will not sever it
v. 1684 From our just Shah's behest. When Rustam cometh
1 See Vol. i. pp. 134, 139. 2 See Vol. ii. p. 102 seq.
Upon the field tomorrow I will dim
Said Bishutan : " List to my words :
I say to thee, my brother ! do not so.
I said to thee before, I say again,
And will not purge my heart of what is right,
Aggrieve not any, for a noble man
Will not submit to injury and wrong.
Take rest tonight and at tomorrow's dawn
Go unattended to his palace, there
Let us enjoy some days of happiness,
And answer every question that he raiseth.
Among the mighty and among the mean
No good is done that is not done by him.
He will not turn away from thy commands,
For I perceive that he is true to thee.
Why struggle so in vengeance and in wrath ?
Wash vengeance from thy heart, ire from thine eyes."
Asfandiyar returned this answer : " Thorns
Are growing in the corner of the Rose-bed." 1
He said moreover : " Surely these thy words
Become not a professor of the Faith !
If thou art minister of all Iran,
The heart, the ears, and eyes of valiant men,
Canst thou approve a course however wise
That bringeth injury upon the Shah ?
Then all my cares and toils have turned to wind,
And all the doctrine of Zarduhsht is wrong,
Which teacheth us that those who disobey
The Shah's commands shall have their place in Hell.
Thou bid'st me oft : ' Be disobedient,
Reject thou the commandment of Gushtdsp.'
Thou sayest it, but how can I convert
Yea into nay through any words of thine ?
If thou hast fears about my person I
1 Of the court, i.e. my own people arc turning against me.
2iS THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Now will relieve thee of them. No one dieth
V. 1685 Save at his fated time, and wholly then
One that hath made no name. Tomorrow thou
Shalt see my dealings on the battlefield
With this brave Crocodile."
Said Bishutan :
c< Thou talk'st so much of fight, O chief! because
The foul Iblis x hath ceased to wish thee ill
Since thou cam'st hither with the sword and mace.
Thou hast given the Div an entry to thy heart,
And hearkenest not to me, thy counsellor.
I see thy heart obscured, thy head fulfilled
With strife, and rend my clothes. Oh ! how can I
Relieve my heart of terror once for all ?
Of two such men, such warriors and brave Lions,
How can I know which body will go under ? "
Still vapouring though full of misery
The noble prince returned him no reply.
How Zdl counselled Rustavi
Now Rustam coming to his palace saw
No remedy but fight. Zawara came
And found him wan and gloomy. Rustam said :
" Go 2 bring mine Indian sword, cuirass, and helm
Of battle, bring my bow and massive bards,
My lasso, mighty rnace, and tiger-skin."
Zawara bade the treasurer produce
What Rustam named, who, seeing his fighting-gear,
Cried with a sigh and with dejected head :
" O war-cuirass ! thou hast had rest awhile
From fight ; but now a fight confronteth thee.
Prove strong and lucky wear for me at all times.
1 Cf. Vol. i. p. 70. - Reading with C and P.
Oh ! what a battlefield is this, for roaring
Two Lions, valiant both, will meet in battle !
And how now will Asfandiyar proceed,
And show what sport amid the blast of war ? "
When Zal heard Rustam's words the old man's brain v. 1686
Grew anxious, and he said : " Famed paladin !
What words are these that make me dark of soul ?
Since first thou mounted'st on the battle-saddle
Thou hast been single-hearted and sincere ;
It hath not irked thee to obey the Shahs.
I fear me that thy day is near its close,
And that thy star is falling into sleep,
That this will overthrow the race of Zal,
And cast our wives and children to the dust.
If thou art slain in battle by the hand
Of such a youth as is Asfandiyar,
Zabulistan will have no land or water
Left, and our eminence will be engulfed ;
While if mishap through this befalleth him
Not e'en thy fame exalted will be left thee,
For they that tell hereof will shatter it,
And say : ' 'Twas he that slew the youthful prince
For having spoken to him scurvily.'
Now either stand before him as his liege,
Or, if thou wilt not do so, quit thy home.
Seek some obscure retreat unknown to him
That no one in the world may hear thy name,
For such an evil act would gloom thy soul.
Beware then of this monarch of the world,
Buy back again thy words with toil and treasure,
Prefer brocade of Chin to battle-ax,
Prepare gifts also for his troops, and use
Thy riches to redeem thyself from him.
As soon as he departeth from the Hirmund
Mount lofty Rakhsh and, feeling no misgivings,
Attend Asfandiyar upon his journey
220 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
That thou mayst see the Shah's face once again.
How shall he act ill when he seeth thee ?
Will wrong become the monarch of Iran ? "
V. 1687 " O ancient hero ! " Rustam answered him,
" Take not such things so lightly. Now have I
Been long a man and known much good and ill.
I reached the divs within Mazandaran, x
I fought the horsemen of Hamavaran, 2
I fought Kamiis too 3 and the Khan of Chin, 4
Although earth trembled underneath his steed.
Now if I flee Asfandiyar do thou
Resign the flowers and palace of Sistan.
With God, the Fosterer, to aid shall I
Quail at Gushtasp and at Asfandiyar ?
Old as I am yet on the day of battle
I will bring down the orbed moon's head to dust.
What are a hundred mighty elephants,
Or fields of men, when on the battle-day
I don my tiger-skin ? Thou speak'st of prayers :
I have not spared them and have read to him
Subjection's roll. He doth misprize my words,
And turneth from both wisdom and my counsel ;
But now if he will stoop his head from Saturn,
And give me salutations heartily,
I will not grudge him gems or other treasures,
Or rnace and sparth and coat of mail and sword ;
But all that I can say hath no effect,
And in our talk we merely clutch the wind.
Tomorrow, if he is resolved to fight,
Have not thy heart in pain about his life,
Because I will not grasp my trenchant sword,
But with my lasso take his noble head ;
I will not wheel about upon the field ;
He shall not feel my sparth or spear-thrust ; I
1 Vol. ii. p. 57 KIIJ. 2 Id. 95 xn/.
3 Id. Hi. 1 88. 4 /'/. 230.
Will cut off his retreat, clutch him amain
About the waist, and hug him from the saddle,
Bestow on him the kingship of Gushtasp,
Will bring and set him on our splendid throne, V. 1688
And afterward fling wide the treasury's door.
When he hath been my guest three days and when,
Upon the fourth, the Lustre of the world
Hath doffed the robe of lapis lazuli,
And when the Cup of Topaz showeth, forthwith
In company with him will I regird
My self, set face toward Gushtasp, will set
The prince upon the famous ivory throne,
Will crown him with the heart-delighting crown,
Gird mine own loins before him as a slave,
And only seek to carry out his will.
Thou knowest, thou rememberest my brave deeds
Performed before the throne of Kai Kubad,
Yet now thou biddest me to skulk away,
Or yield me unto bonds if I am bidden ! "
Zal smiled to hear the words that Kustam spake,
And shook his head awhile in meditation,
Then answered Rustam, saying : " O my son !
These words of thine have neither head nor tail,
And only lunatics on hearing thee
Could give assent to thy distempered speech.
Thou art Kubad when seated on a mountain
In dudgeon, lacking throne, crown, wealth, and treasure.
Oppose not then the Shah, a chief and one
With rede and ancient treasures, or one like
Asfandiydr, whose name Faghfiir of Chin
Inscribeth on his signet. ' I will take,'
Thou sayest, ' from the saddle to my breast
Asfandiyar and bring him to Zal's palace ' !
No man advanced in years should speak like that ;
Haunt not the portal of thine evil star.
Now have I told thee what my counsel is,
222 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
As thou dost know, leader of the people ! "
He spake, stooped to the earth, praised the Almighty,
V. 1689 And said : " Thou Judge supreme ! avert from us
The ills of fortune ! "
Thus he made request
Until the sun rose o'er the mountain-crest.
How Riisfam fought with Asfandiydr
When day came Rustam donned his coat of mail
With his protecting tiger-skin withal,
He tied his lasso to the saddle-straps,
He mounted on his elephantine steed,
And, having bidden Zawara come, held talk
At large about the troops, and said : " Depart,
Be marshal of the host, and take thy station
On yonder sand-hills."
So Zawara went,
And mustered all the troops on the parade
To lead them to the field. When matchless Rustam
Came from his palace, spear in hand, they all
Blessed him, and said : " May charger, sparth, and saddle
Ne'er lack thee."
Rustam followed by Zawara,
His second in the state, went to the Hirmund :
The soldiers vaunted but his soul was sad.
His brother and the troops both halted there,
But he advanced toward the Iranian host,
First saying to Zawara privily :
" E'en at this present I would stay from battle
The hands of that beguiling reprobate,
And make a pathway for his soul to light,
But still I fear that we shall come to blows,
And after that I know not what will be.
Remain thou here and keep the troops in hand ;
I go to see what fortune will bwiig forth.
If I shall find him wroth then by that token
I shall not call chiefs from Zabulistan,
But shall engage with him in single combat ;
I would not have one of the army injured.
Victorious fortune always favoureth V. 1690
The man whose heart is on the side of justice. "
He passed the river, mounted on a height,
And marvelled at the process of the world ;
He called and said : " O brave Asfandiyar !
Thine opposite hath come ; prepare thyself."
Asfandiyar, when he had heard the words
Which that old, battle-seeking Lion spake,
Laughed and replied : " Behold I made me ready
Or ever I arose from sleep."
To bring helm, breastplate, spear, and ox-head mace.
These brought, he clothed his shining breast and donned
His Kaian casque, then bade his sable steed
Be saddled and led forth, which when he saw
He in the might and puissance that he had
Stood on the ground the butt-end of his spear,
And vaulted to the saddle as a leopard
Will leap upon the back of onager
And madden it. The soldiers marvelled at him,
And called down blessings on their noble chief,
Who went and, drawing nigh to peerless Rustam,
Saw him upon his charger unattended,
And spake thus from his steed to Bishutan :
" I want no friend or mate in fighting him,
For since he is alone I too will go
Alone and mount upon yon lofty height."
They both went forth to battle in such wise
That thou hadst said : " The Avorld hath done with
As they drew near, the old man and the young,
224 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Both noble Lions and boith paladins,
Their steeds neighed; thou hadst said :" The field is rent!'
V. 1691 And Rustam shouted : " Happy, prosperous prince !
Be not so wroth and fierce, but hear for once
A wise man's words : if thou desirest fight
And bloodshed, and such stir and strife, permit
That I lead forth the horsemen of Zabul
With hauberks from Kabul upon their breasts,
And do thou likewise bid the Iranians,
That men may know the jewel from the mite.
Let us bring them to battle on the field,
And for our own parts tarry for a while ;
Thus there will both bloodshed and fierce fighting
According to thy wish."
Replied : " Why talk so much to no avail ?
Thou earnest from thy palace at the dawn,
And from this lofty hill didst challenge me.
Why now hast thou befooled me ? In good sooth
Thou hast perceived that thine own fall is near.
Why skould I fight against Zabulistan ?
Why should Iran fight with Kabulistan ?
May no such disposition e'er be mine.
It is not in accordance to my creed
That I shall give Iranians to be slain,
Or crown myself. I go forth first in battle
Albeit to leopard's claws. If thou hast need
Of helpers send for them ; such help not me.
God will help me in fight and fortune smile
Upon mine undertaking. Thou dost challenge,
And I am willing ; let us fight it out
Between ourselves unhelped, and we shall then
See if the charger of Asfandiyar
Will go toward the stable riderless,
Or if the charger of the challenger
Will turn toward Rustam's halls without its lord."
GUSHTASP 22 5
The combatants agreed that none should aid.
Long while they fought together with their spears. v - 1692
And from their breastplates poured down blood amain.
Thus they continued till the spear-points brake,
And they were forced to use their scimitars ;
They grew more instant, wheeled to left and right,
And, when their stout swords shivered with the
Reached out and, drawing sparth from saddle, showered
Blows as stones shower a-down a precipice.
Wroth as two lions raging they belaboured
Each other. When the hafts brake, and their hands
Were weaponless, they clutched their leathern girdles
While both their speedy chargers strove to fly.
Asfandiyar grasped Rustam's belt, and Rustam
Asfandiyar's. Those two exalted heroes,
Both men of elephant-body, tugged amain,
Yet neither Lion budged. Both cavaliers
Were all distraught, both steeds fordone, with fight. 1
Within their mouths the blood and dust were blent
In foam, on man and horse the mail was rent.
How the Sons of Atfandiydr were slain l>y Zawdra
When Rustam, son of Zal, had tarried long,
Because the heroes fought no little while,
Zawara led his troops across the river
An army seared of heart and keen for strife.
He cried to the Iranians : " Where is Rustam ? v. 1693
Why should we hold our peace on such a day ?
It was to fight with Rustam that ye came,
Came to the gullet of the Crocodile.
1 Reading with P.
VOL. V. p
226 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Ye would bind Rustam's hands ! No sitting still
For us on such a field ! "
He cursed and spake
Unseemly words. A famous cavalier,
Son of Asfandiyar, was full of wrath
Thereat. He was a youth hight Niish Azar,
A leader of the host and masterful.
This noble raged against the Sigzian , T
And loosed his lips to utter foul abuse.
" Fool of a Sigzian ! " said he, " know'st thou not
That every one that cherisheth the Faith
Rejecteth all self-seeking manfully,
And liveth on the bidding of the Shahs ?
Asfandiyar, the hero, ordered us
Not to engage in battle with you dogs.
Who then will disobey his hest and counsels,
And w r ho be bold to break his fealty ?
But if ye will commit this wickedness,
And take upon you to provoke a fight,
Ye shall behold for once what warriors are,
AVhen armed with swords and spears and massive
Zawara gave his troops command : " Lay on,
And crown yon chieftains with a crown of blood."
Forth to the front he went, the din of war
Rose, and they slew Iranians numberless,
While Nush Azar, on seeing this, made ready,
Bestrode his noble dun and, Indian sword
In hand, advanced. Upon the other side
A warrior came the refuge of the host,
V. 1694 A chief. That famous one was named Aiwa
A dashing cavalier and masterful.
Him Nush Azar espied, drew sword, and smote
His foeman's head, who came from steed to dust.
awara spurred his warhorse, neared, and cried
1 See Vol. ii. p. 100, note.
To Nush Azar : " Him hast thou slain and now
Stand fast thyself ! I do not call Aiwa
With his spear he smote the head
Of Nush Azar, who tumbled to the ground.
The day turned 'gainst his host when he was slain.
His youthful brother Mihr-i-Nush, a swordsman,
In tears, with troubled l heart, in dudgeon spurred
His elephantine steed and from the centre
Advanced before the lines with lips a-foam
Through anguish, while for his part Faramarz,
Like maddened elephant, came, Indian sword
In hand, and closed with noble Mihr-i-Nush
While both hosts shouted. Both antagonists
Were noble youths a prince and paladin ;
They were as fierce as lions combative,
And with their swords belaboured one another.
Though Mihr-i-Nush was active on the field
He had not strength to fight with Faramarz.
The young prince raised his sword and hoped to lay
His famous foeman's head upon the dust,
But struck the blow upon his own steed's neck
So that it came down headlong to the ground,
And Faramarz dispatched him thus unhorsed ; v. 1695
The battlefield was reddened with his blood.
Now when Bahman beheld his brothers slain,
And all the soil beneath them turned to mire
With gore, he came up to Asfandiyar,
When he was in the hottest of the fight,
And said to him : " ardent sire ! a host
Of Sigzians hath come forth to strive with us !
Thy two sons Nush Azar and Mihr-i-Nush
Have yielded wretchedly their lives to them.
Thou fightest here while we are in distress,
Our youths and princes shrouded by the dust.
1 Reading with P.
228 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Eternal shame will rest upon our race
Through what these fools have done."
The shrewd chiefs heart
Was full of rage, his lips were full of sighs,
His eyes of tears. " offspring of the Div ! "
He said to Rustam, " wherefore hast thou left
The common path of right ? Didst thou not say :
' I will not bring the army to the fight ' ?
Thou hast no sense of honour and of shame.
Hast thou no reverence for me or God ?
Dost thou not dread His Day of Reckoning ?
Dost thou not know that they who break their pledge
Will have no worship with their fellow-men ?
Two Sigzians have slaughtered my two sons,
And still they turn not from their blind misdoings."
When Rustam heard it he was sorely troubled
And, trembling like the branches of a tree,
Swore by the Shah's own life and head, by sun,
And by the scimitar and battlefield :
" I never gave commandment for this fight,
Nor do I praise the doer of this thing.
Now will I bind my brother's hands, who showed
The way to ill, and bring too Faramarz
In manacles before the pious Shah.
Slay them in vengeance for thy noble sons,
And be not wroth for this insensate act ! "
Asfandiyar replied : " For me to shed
A snake's blood for a peacock's is not well
V. 1696 Or seemly, and it hath no precedent
With mighty Shahs. Thou villain ! guard thyself
Because thy time hath come, and I will mix
Thy thighs and Rakhsh's body with mine arrows,
As milk is mixed with water, that no slave
Henceforth may dare to shed his master's blood.
If thou survivest I will bind thy hands,
And carry thee forthwith before the Shah ;
But if them diest by mine arrow-points
Take it in vengeance for my noble sons."
Then Rustam : " What availeth all this talk
Unless it be to make our glory less ?
And now to God, to every good the Guide,
Turn thee for shelter and in Him confide."
How Rustam fled to the Heights
They took their bows and shafts of poplar wood ;
The sun's face lost its lustre ; x but, while Rustam
And Rakhsh both suffered injury whenever v. 1697
A shaft was loosened from the prince's hand,
The shafts of Rustam injured not the prince,
And noble Rustam, in bewilderment
At such a contest, said : " The warrior,
Asfandiyar, hath got a form of brass I" 2
When Rakhsh was growing weak beneath those
And neither horse nor warrior were whole,
The rider lighted wind-like from his steed,
And set his noble face toward the heights,
While wounded Rakhsh went on his homeward way,
And so became a stranger to his lord.
The blood was pouring down from Rustam's body,
That Mount Bistiin was weak and all a-tremble.
Asfandiyar laughed out at seeing it,
And cried : " famous Rustam ! why hath strength
Departed from the maddened Elephant ?
Why is the iron Mountain pierced by arrows ?
Oh ! whither have thy mace and manhood gone,
Thy Grace divine and eminence in war ?
Why hast thou fled away and scaled the heights
1 Six couplets omitted. 2 See p. 19.
2 3 o THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Because thou heard'st a mighty Lion's voice ?
Art thou not he that caused the divs to wail,
And singed wild beasts with flashes from his sword ?
Why hath the elephant of war turned fox,
And grown thus impotent in fight ? "
Perceived the step of glossy Rakhsh, who came
From far all wounded, and the world grew dark
Before his eyes. He went forth to the scene
Of strife, lamenting, and beheld the form
Of elephantine Rustam wounded thus,
With all the wounds undressed, and said to him :
" Up, mount my steed, and I will don for thee
The breastplate of revenge."
He answered : " Go
To Zal and say : ' The glory of Sam's race
V. 1698 Is gone. Look to the remedy therefor,
And for these grievous wounds. If I survive
Tonight the arrows of Asfandiyar
It will, I wot, O Zal ! be even so
As if my mother gave me birth today ! '
When thou hast gone let Rakhsh be all thy care,
And I will follow though I tarry long."
Zawara turned away intent on Rakhsh.
Asfandiyar abode awhile, then cried :
" Famed Rustam ! wherefore standest all this time
Upon the heights ? Who will direct thy steps ?
Fling down thy bow, put off thy tiger-skin,
And loose the girdle from thy loins. Repent,
And yield thy hands to bondage ; so shalt thou
Receive from this time forth no hurt from me.
I will conduct thee wounded to the Shah,
And not impute thine acts to thee as crimes ;
But if thou wilt fight on then make thy will,
Appointing somebody to be the marchlord,
And ask God's pardon for thine own ill-doing ;
It may be that He will forgive thy faults,
And guide thee when thou quit'st this Wayside Inn."
But Rustam made reply : " It is too late,
Our hands are shortened both for good and ill ;
Go back to thine own troops, for none is fain
To fight when it is night, and as for me
I will return to mine own palace now,
Refresh myself and slumber for a while,
Bind all my wounds and call some of my kin
Zawara, Fararnarz, Zal, and the others
Of name and now I will perform thy hest,
For loyalty to thee is righteousness."
Asfandiyar, the brazen-bodied, said : v. 1699
" Old, self-willed reprobate ! thou art a man,
A great and strong one, knowing many shifts,
And charms and counsels. I have marked thy false-
All through, and long to see thine overthrow,
But still I give thee quarter for this night ;
Thou shalt go home ; but dally not with guile.
Do as I bid and never bandy words
With me again."
Then Rustam answered him :
" I will make shift to charm my wounds away."
He left the presence of Asfandiyar,
Who watched to see how Rustam would proceed.
Sore wounded as he was he crossed the river ;
Those arrow-wounds enforced him to dispatch.
When he had crossed the riverjlike a boat
He prayed to God for succour for his body,
And said : " O Thou, the just and holy Judge !
If I shall perish by these wounds of mine
What noble will avenge me, who take up
My rede, my courage, and my precedents ? "
Asfandiyar was gazing after him,
And, having seen him reach the farther bank,
232 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Exclaimed : " They say that he is not a man !
He is a mighty, raging Elephant ! "
Then added in amaze : " Almighty Judge !
It was Thy will to make him of this sort,
Who art the Author both of earth and time."
He went his way, and from his tent-enclosure
Rose wailings. Bishutan came out lamenting
For gallant Niish Azar and Mihr-i-Nush.
The prince's camp-enclosure was all dust,
And every noble had his raiment rent.
."1700 Asfandiyar, alighting from his steed,
Clasped to his breast the heads of those two slain,
And said : " Alas ye two young warriors !
Where have your souls gone from these forms of yours ? "
Then said he unto Bishutan : " Arise,
And weep no more the slain. I see no good
In pouring blood. We should not cling to life.
We all are born to die, both old and young,
And when we pass may wisdom succour us."
On teaken litters holding golden coffins
He sent those corpses to the Shah, his sire,
The master of the crown, and with this message :
" This branch of thy design hath borne its fruit.
Thou didst launch forth the boat upon the water
By seeking for the servitude of Rustam.
When thou behold'st the bier of Nush Azar
And Mihr-i-Nush be less intent on wrong.
The bull Asfandiyar is in his hide :
I know not what the future may bring forth."
He sat upon his throne in grief and mourning,
And pondered Rustam's words. Then spake he thus
To Bishutan : " The Lion cowereth
Before the brave man's grip. Today when I
Saw Rustam like an elephant in stature
And mien I offered praise to holy God,
The Author of our hopes and of our fears,
Who in His providence had formed him thus.
Praise be to Him, the Maker of the world !
What actions once were Rustam's, he that used
To drop his fish-hook in the sea of Chin
And land the crocodile, and with his breath
Suck in the leopard on the waste ! l Yet I
Have wounded him with arrows till the ground
Hath come to be a puddle with his blood.
He left the field afoot, he scaled the heights,
And armed and armoured hurried to the river.
He made the passage, wounded as he was,
With all his body full of arrow-heads ; V. 1701
But still methinketh, when he reacheth home,
His soul will quit it and to Saturn roam."
1 The same collocation of consonants means "breath" and "tail"
in Persian. Mohl renders " qui a saisi sur la plaine la queue des
leopards." Rustam, however, seems to be compared to a dragon
drawing in its prey with its breath. Cf. p. 127 for a similar passage,
where Mohl translates " Les chevaux cherchaient a se soustraire a
1'attaque du dragon ; mais il aspira avec son souffle et les engloutit
ainsi que le chariot," and where the same expression is used of
Asfandiystr himself in the preceding couplet: "He drew his breath."
Similarly in Gurgsar's account of the same dragon (p. 126), Mohl trans-
lates "qui attire avec son haleine le poisson de la mer." When,
however, Asfandiystr subsequently speaks of his adventure with this
dragon to Gurgs,ir (p. 128), Mohl translates: "0 homme vil de corps
et sans valeur, regarde ce vaillant dragon qui enveloppait ses victimes
avec sa queue," and in the passage referring to the dragon of Tiis
(p. 203): " il attirait avec sa queue 1'elephant." Again, in the account
of Gushtftsp's encounter with a dragon (vol iv. p. 346), he translates :
" Quand le dragon vit sa haute stature, il essaya de 1'attirer vers lui
avec sa queue." Mohl therefore wavers. The mode of defence adopted
by the two heroes a long sword in one case and a chariot bristling
with sword-blades in the other seems intended to counteract what
appears to be somewhat a characteristic of the eastern dragon. " From
Candahar is reported a Mussulman legend, which relates that in pagan
times the king of Candahar found himself compelled to promise a young
girl every day to a dragon. Accordingly a maiden mounted on a camel
was daily sent to the monster. As soon as the camel arrived within
a certain distance of the cavern where the dragon dwelt, the latter
inhaled its breath with such force that its prey was inevitably drawn
into its throat." HLP, iii. 56.
234 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
How Rustam took Counsel with his Kin
Now Rustam for his part regained his palace
Where Zal beheld him in his grievous plight.
Zawara too and Fararnarz shed tears,
And were consumed by sorrow for his wounds.
Riidaba, when she heard the others' cries,
Began to pluck her hair and tear her face.
Zawara came and, loosing Rustam 's girdle, 1
Removed his armour and the tiger-skin,
While all the skilful gathered at the door,
But Rustam bade to take them first to Rakhsh.
Shrewd Zal plucked his own hair and laid his cheeks
On Rustam's wounds, and cried : " That I should live
Hoar-headed to behold my dear son thus ! "
Then Rustam said : " What booteth to bewail ?
That which hath happened is by Heaven's decree.
The matter now confronting me is harder,
More fearful to my soul, for ne'er have I
Beheld the equal of Asfandiyar,
The brazen-bodied, for courageousness
In time of battle. I have roamed the world,
And wotted both of sights and mysteries.
I took the White Div by the waist and hurled him
Down to the ground as 'twere a willow-branch. 2
v. 1702 My poplar shafts were wont to pierce an anvil,
And scorn a shield. I often hit with them
The armour of Asfandiyar, but they
Proved thorns 'gainst stone ! Again, the pards on
My sword would skulk beneath the rocks and yet
It will not cleave the breastplate on his breast,
Or e'en a bit of silk upon his head !
1 Reading with P. - Vol. ii. p. 60.
However oft too I excuse myself,
That I may warm that stony heart of his,
He only seeketh to disgrace me more
By words and actions full of arrogance.
Thank God ! night came, and when he could not see
I 'scaped this Dragon's claws. I know not how
To seek release. Mine only course, methinketh,
Tomorrow will be to abandon Rakhsh,
And fare to where the prince will find me not.
Let him strew heads within Zabulistan :
He will grow weary of the work in time,
Though not soon sick of ill."
Zal said : " Alas !
My son ! give ear and, talking done, grow calm.
There is a way from all contingencies
On earth save death which is itself a way.
I know of one resource ; use it, for I
Herein will summon the Simurgh to aid.
If for the future she will be my guide
Our lands and borders will be saved for us ;
Else by Asfandiyar that brave knave's hand
Will utter ruin come upon our land."
Ho >c the Simurgh succoured Rustam
When both were set on this bold project Z.il, v. 1703
The well-beloved, went to a lofty height,
And carried from the palace censers three
Containing fire. With him went three brave sages.
Now when the wizard reached the top he drew
Forth from brocade a plume of the Simurgh
And, having raised a flame within a censer,
Consumed therein a portion of the feather. 1
Whenas the first watch of the night had passed
1 Cf. Vol. i. pp. 246, 320.
236 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Thou wouldst have said : " The face of air is darkened ! "
And gazing from the eminence Zal saw it
Filled with the fluttering plumes of the Simurgh.
Just then the bird, surveying from the air
And seeing fire ablaze with Zal before it
Set seared and sad, swooped down upon the dust.
Beholding the Simurgh he praised her greatly,
And did obeisance, filling up the censers
With incense in her presence and surcharging
His cheeks with his heart's blood. Said the Simurgh :
" What was't, king ! that made thee need these
fumes ? "
Zal answered : " May the ills that miscreants
Have brought upon me fall upon my foes.
The body of the lion-hearted Rustam
Hath been bewounded, and my care for him
Hath fettered me. In short his injuries
Raise fears about his life ; none hath beheld
A man so stricken ; thou wouldst say withal
That Rakhsh is dying, he is writhing so
With anguish from the shafts. Asfandiyar
Hath come against our land and knocketh only
Upon the door of war. He asketh not
For land or crown or throne, but he would have
The tree yield root and fruit ! "
V. 1704 Said the Simurgh :
" paladin ! be not distressed hereat,
But let me presently see Rakhsh and him,
The exalted chief who meteth out the world."
Then Zal sent one to Rustam with these words :
" Make shift, I prithee, to bestir thyself,
And give, moreover, orders that they bring
Rakhsh instantly to the Simurgh."
Came to the height to that sagacious bird
She said : " mighty, raging Elephant !
By hand of whom hast thou grown thus distressed ?
Why didst thou seek to fight Asfandiyar ?
Why kindle thine own breast ? "
Zal said to her :
" O queen of love ! since thou hast shown to us
Thy holy face, say where shall I take refuge
If Rustam be not healed ? They will lay waste
Sistan, will turn it to a lair for leopards
And lions, and our race will be uprooted.
Now in what manner shall we deal with Rustam ? "
The bird surveyed and sought to heal the wounds,
Sucked them and, drawing forth eight arrow-heads,
Stroked with her feathers on the wounded parts,
And Rustam was restored to might and Grace.
She said : " Bind up thy hurts and for a week
Shun danger, moisten one of these my feathers
With milk and stroke therewith inside the wounds."
She in like manner having called for Rakhsh
Employed her beak on him to make him whole,
And drew out from his neck six arrow-heads
All that there were. Rakhsh neighed. The crown-
Laughed for delight.
" O elephantine one ! " y, j 705
Said the Simurgh, " thou art most famed of folk.
Why didst thou seek to fight Asfandiyar,
The brazen- bodied and illustrious ? "
He made reply : " He talked of binding me,
Else I had not been vexed, but I prefer
Death to disgrace if in my present straits
I shun the fight."
She said : " 'Tis no disgrace
To stoop to dust before Asfandiyar,
Because he is a warrior and a prince,
A holy man who hath the Grace of God.
If thou wilt make a covenant with me,
238 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Be penitent for having sought the fight,
And seek not triumph o'er Asfandiyar,
The work of war or moment of revenge,
But make submission to him on the morrow,
And proffer soul and body for his ransom,
Then if his time be coming to an end
No doubt he will regard not thine excuses.
For such an issue I will furnish thee,
And sunward raise thy head."
When Rustam heard
He joyed and put away all thought of strife;
He said : " I will not disobey thy words
Although the air rain swords upon my head."
Said the Simurgh to him : " I will declare
In love to thee the secret of the sky :
Whoe'er shall shed that hero's blood will be
Himself pursued by fortune. Furthermore
Throughout his life he will abide in travail,
Find no escape therefrom, and lose his treasures,
Be luckless in this world and afterward
In pain and anguish. If thou art content
With this, and present triumph o'er thy foe,
v. 1706 I will reveal to thee this night a wonder,
And bar for thee the lip from evil words."
'' I am content," he said to her, " and now
Say what thou wilt. We leave the world behind
As our memorial and pass away,
And there is nothing left of any man
Save the report of him. If I shall die
With fair fame all is well with me, but fame
I must have for the body is for death." *
" Go and mount Rakhsh," she said, " and choose a
A bright one."
When he heard he girt his loins
1 Rustam's speech is inserted from C. Both V and P omit it.
And, mounting, fared until he reached the sea, 1
And saw the air all dark with the Simurgh.
When Rustam had arrived beside the waters
That noble bird descended, and he saw,
Sprung from the soil and with its head in air,
A tamarisk, and on it perched that fowl
Imperious. She showed him a dry path,
The scent of rnusk exhaling from her breath,
Then bidding him come near to her she stroked
The feathers of her wing upon his head.
" Choose out the straightest, longest, slenderest bough,"
She said to him, " because this tamarisk
Is fatal to Asfandiyar ; so hold not
This wood of small account. Let it be straightened
Before the fire, choose good, old arrow-heads,
And fit it with three feathers and two points.
Now have I shown thee how to work him woe."
When Rustam had cut off the branch he went
Back from the sea toward his hall and hold
With the Simurgh still acting as his guide, v. 1707
And, as she kept above his head, she said :
" Now when Asfandiyar shall seek to fight thee
Petition him, ask him to do thee right,
And knock not at the door of loss. Perchance
Soft words may turn him, and he may recall
Old times, for thou hast lived so long in toil
And hardship for the great. If he reject
All that thou canst advance, and if he treat thee
As one of little worth, string up thy bow,
And set thereon this shaft of tamarisk,
1 Of Chin, according to C ; or the legend may owe somewhat to
Zoroastrian mythology (see Vol. i. p. 235) ; or the lake of Sistan may
be intended. Asfandiy.ir's fate lay in Sistan, and it seems fitting that
both the fatal shaft and the user of it should come from that neigh-
bourhood. The tamarisk, with its long, slender branches, grows there,
and is the only shrub that aspires to be called a tree in that other,
wise treeless region.
240 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
This fosterling of bane. Aim at his eyes,
Straight, with both hands as one that worshippeth
The tamarisk, and Destiny will bear
The arrow thither straight. He will be blinded,
And fortune rage at him."
Then the Simurgh,
Embracing Zal as woof embraceth warp
In bidding him farewell, took flight content,
While Rustam, when he saw her in the air,
Took order to prepare a goodly fire,
And straightened out thereby the tamarisk wood.
He fitted arrow-heads upon the shaft,
And fixed the feathers to the finished haft.
HO/I- Rustam ivent l>ad; to Ji'/ht Asfandiyar
When dawn brake from the heights, and dark night's
Arched, Rustam armed himself and much invoked
v. 1708 The Maker. When he reached the famous host,
For war and vengeance on Asfandiyar,
The hero, good at need, cried in reproach :
" O lion-heart ! how long wilt slumber thus,
For Rustam hath already saddled Rakhsh ?
Arouse thee from thy pleasant sleep and close
In fight with Rustam eager for the fray."
Now when Asfandiyar heard Rustarn's voice
All earthly weapons seemed of no avail,
And thus he said to Bishiitan : " The Lion
Adventureth not against a sorcerer.
I did not think that Rustam would bear home
His coat of mail, his tiger-skin, and casque,
While as for Rakhsh, his mount, its breast was hidden
By arrow-heads ! Now I have heard that Zal,
The devotee of sorcerers, extendeth
E'en to the sun his practices, surpasseth
All warlocks in his wrath, and sorteth not
Bishiitan replied in tears :
" Be care and wrath thy foe's. What hath come o'er
That thou art wan to-day ? Thou must have passed
A sleepless night ! What in the world can ail
These heroes that they must increase such toils ?
Whose fortune hath gone halt I know not I
In that it ever bringeth feud on feud ! "
Asfandiyar, the hero, donned his mail,
Advanced toward famous Rustam and, on seeing
His face, exclaimed : " Now may thine honour perish !
Perchance thou hast forgot, thou Sigzian !
Thy foeman's bow and breast ? Thou hast been healed
By Zal's enchantments ; otherwise the charnel
Had sought for thine embrace. But thou hast gone,
Hast used unholy arts, and hastenest thus
To fight with me. Today will I so maul thee V. 1709
That Zal shall see thee living never more."
" Lion never satiate of fight ! "
Said Rustam, " reverence holy God, the World-lord,
And fling not heart and wisdom to the abyss.
I have not come today for fighting's sake,
But for excuse, for honour, and for fame.
Thy whole contention with me is unjust,
And thou art closing both the eyes of wisdom.
By just Zarduhsht and by the good religion,
By Nush Azar, the Fire, and Grace divine,
By sun, by moon, and by the Zandavasta,
I prithee turn thy heart from mischiefs path.
Keep not in memory the words that passed,
Though they would cause a man to burst his skin.
Come then and see the place of mine abode,
For thou hast lost all power upon my life.
VOL. v. Q
242 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
I will unlock the door of ancient treasures,
Which I have gotten me in my long day,
And load them on mine own beasts. Give thou them
All to thy treasurer to drive before him.
Moreover I will travel by thy side
And, if thou biddest, go before the Shah.
Then if he slayeth me I am content,
Content too if he biddeth me be bound.
Consider what the wise man said of old :
' May none be wedded to a luckless star.'
I will try all expedients in the hope
That fortune may distaste thee with this strife."
Asfandiyar replied : " I am not one
To use deceit in time of war or fear.
V. 1710 Thou pratest much of hall and house, much lavest
The face of peace. If still thou wilt live on
First wear my chains."
Then Rustam loosed again
His tongue, and said: "0 prince! renounce injustice.
Blast not my name, degrade not thine own soul,
For ill alone can come of this contention.
A thousand royal jewels will I give thee.
As well as crown with armlet and with earrings ;
Will give to thee a thousand sweet-lipped youths
To minister to thee by day and night ;
Will give a thousand damsels of Khallukh
To be the glorious graces of thy crown ;
I will unbar for thee the treasury
Of Sam, the son of Nariman, and Ziil,
O peerless one ! amass thee all their wealth,
And from Kabulistan bring men withal
To do thy will and chase thy foes in fight.
Then like a bond-slave will I go before thee,
Go to the presence of the wreakful Shah ;
But, O my prince ! put vengeance from thy heart,
Make not thyself an ambush for the Div.
Thou hast another power than that of bonds ;
Thou art my monarch and thou servest God.
Doth ill become thee, for thy bonds would shame me
For ever ? "
But Asfandiyar replied :
" How long wilt thou talk idly ? ' Quit,' thou sayest,
' God's path and what the veteran Shah commandeth.'
But he that goeth from the Shah's behest
Defraudeth God. Choose either fight or bond,
And cease to utter words that are but fond."
How Rustam shot Asfandiyar in the Eyes with an Arrow
When Rustam knew that humbleness availed not V. 1711
Before Asfandiyar he strung his bow,
And* set therein the shaft of tamarisk
With baneful points, and said : " O Lord of sun
And moon, who makest knowledge, Grace, and strength
To wax ! Thou seest my mind pure in intent,
My soul, and self control, for much I toil
To turn Asfandiyar from strife. Thou knowest
That his contention is unjust, and how V. 1712
His traffic with me is all fight and prowess ;
So visit not my crime with retribution,
Maker of the moon and Mercury ! "
Asfandiyar perceived him tarrying long
From strife, and said to him : " famous Rustam !
Thy soul is satiate of fight, but now
Thou shalt behold the arrows of Gushtasp,
Luhrasp's own arrow-heads and lion-heart."
Then Rustarn quickly fitted to his bow
The tamarisk-shaft as the Simurgh had bidden ;
He struck Asfandiyar full in the eyes,
And all the world grew dark before that chief;
244 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
The straight-stemmed Cypress bent, intelligence
And Grace abandoned him. The pious prince
Fell prone, his bow of Chach dropped from his hands.
He clutched his black steed by the mane and crest ;
The battlefield was reddened with his blood.
Said Rustam : " Thou hast brought this evil seed
To fruit ! Thou art the man who said'st : ' My form
Is brazen, and I dash high heaven to earth.'
Yet through one arrow hast thou turned from strife,
And fallen swooning on thy noble charger.
Moreover now thy head will come to dust,
And thy fond mother's heart will burn for thee."
v. 1713 Meanwhile the famous prince had tumbled headlong
Down from his black steed's back and lay awhile
Till he recovered consciousness, sat up
Amid the dust, and4istened. Then he seized
The arrow by its end and drew it out,
Drew it out soaked in blood from point to feather. "
When presently the tidings reached Bahman :
" The Grace divine of empire is obscured,"
He went to Bishiitan and said : " Our war
Hath wedded woe, the mighty Elephant's body
Hath come to dust, and this distress hath turned
The world to an abyss for us."
Ran from the army to the paladin.
They saw the warrior with his breast all blood,
And with a gory arrow in his hand.
Then Bishutan cast dust upon his head
And rent his raiment, uttering loud cries ;
Bahman rolled in the dust and rubbed his cheeks
Upon the yet warm blood.
Said Bishutan :
" What chief or noble knoweth this world's secrets
Since an Asfandiyar, who for the Faith
So bravely drew the scimitar of vengeance,
Who purged the world of foul idolatry,
And never set his hand to work injustice,
Hath perished in the heyday of his youth ?
The head that wore the crown hath come to dust,
While o'er the bad man's head, who bringeth anguish
Upon the world and harroweth the souls
Of noble men, unnumbered seasons pass,
Because he seeth not mischance in war."
The two youths took his head upon their breasts,
And wiped away the gore, while Bishiitan,
With cheeks all tears of blood and heart all anguish,
Made lamentation over him, and said :
" Alack, O warrior Asfandiyar,
The world-lord and the progeny of kings !
Who tore this warrior-mountain from its place ?
Who overthrew this furious Lion ? Who drew
The tusks redoubted of this Elephant, V. 1714
And flung him to the waters of the Nile ?
Is our race blasted by the evil eye,
For evil surely is for those that do it ?
Where are thy courage, thine intelligence,
Thine usages, thy strength, thy star, thy Faith ?
Where is thy splendid equipage in war ?
Where is thy gracious voice at festivals ?
What time thou purged'st all the world of foes
Thou feared'st not the lion or the div,
And now, when thou shouldst profit by the work,
I see thee bite the dust ! "
Made answer wisely : " Shrewd and prosperous man !
Distract not thou thyself before me thus,
For sky and moon allotted me this fate.
Dust is the dead man's couch ; bewail not then
So grievously my slaughter. Where are now
Hushang, Jamshid, and Faridun ? They came
From wind and vanished in a breath ! Thus too
246 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Have mine own ancestors, pure-born, elect,
And high and holy, gone and left their room
To us. None stayeth in this Wayside Inn.
In this world have I toiled exceedingly
In public and in private to establish
The way of God and wisdom as the guide
Thereto, but when through me the enterprise
Had grown illustrious, and when the hands
Of Ahriman were barred from wickedness,
V. 1715 Fate stretched its lion's claws and brought me down
As though an^onager ! And now my hope
Is that in Paradise my heart and soul
May reap what they have sown. The son of Zal
Hath slain me not by prowess. Mark what I
Have in my hand a shaft of tamarisk !
That wood hath closed my lifetime by the practice
Of the Simurgh and of resourceful Rustam,
While Zal himself, the adept in grammarye,
Performed the sorceries."
Spake of that matter Rustam writhed and wept
For agony and, coming to the prince,
Stood pierced by grief and very sorrowful,
Then spake to Bishutan and said in anguish :
" One should acknowledge prowess in a man.
'Tis as he said ; he did not change from prowess
To guile. In sooth 'twas through some felon div
That fate assigned to me this grievousdot,
For since for prowess' sake I girt rny loins,
And sought to fight with chiefs, I have not seen
Arrayed in hauberk and with war-cuirass
A cavalier like to Asfandiyar.
When, after trial of his bow, his breast,
And grip, I left the battle in despair
I sought a shift in mine extremity
To save my head from him for good and all.
I set his destiny upon nay bow,
And when his day had come I shot the arrow.
Had fortune been with him how could a shaft
Of tamarisk avail me any Avhit ?
We all shall have to leave this darksome earth ;
No caution will prolong our lives one breath.
Good sooth, for this I shall be marked for ill.
And live in story with the tamarisk still ! "
How Asfandiyar told his last Wishes to Riistam
Then thus to Rustam spake Asfandiyar : V. 1716
" My time is at an end. Avoid me not,
Arise and come to me, since all our schemes
Are changed, that thou mayst hear my last requests
Upon my son's behalf my chiefest Pearl.
Use all thine efforts to establish him,
Endowing him with greatness as his guide."
The matchless Rustam. hearkened to his words,
Dismounted, wailing, and approached on foot.
He poured down tears of blood for very shame,
And muttered to himself lugubriously.
When Zal gat tidings of that battlefield
He set forth from his palace, like the wind.
Zawara too and Farainarz went forth,
Like madmen, to, 'the indicated spot.
A wail ascended from that scene of strife :
" The faces of the sun and moon are darkened."
Zal spake to Rustam, saying : " my son !
I weep for thee betimes in pain of heart,
For I have heard from readers of the stars,
From archimages, and the men of lore :
' The slayer of Asfandiyar shall be
The prey of fortune, while he liveth see
Both pain and stress, and pass to misery '. ' '
248 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Thus spake Asfandiyar to Rustam, saying :
" Thou art not author of mine evil fortune.
This was my fate ; what was to be hath been ;
None knoweth the secrets of yon azure vault.
Not Rustam or Simurgh or bow and arrow
Have robbed my body of its life in battle,
V. 1717 For that hath been the doing of Gushtasp,
And little blessing hath my soul for him.
He said to me : ' Go and burn up Sistan ;
From this time forth I would have no Nimruz.'
He laboured that the army, crown, and treasure
Should stay with him, and I abide in toil ;
And now do thou with loving heart receive
From me the charge of this my noble son,
Bahman, wise, watchful, and my minister,
And what thou hearest from me bear in mind.
Keep him in gladness in Zabulistan,
Remembering what evil men may say,
Instruct him to array the host and order
The chase, the combat, and the festival,
The revel, minstrelsy, and polo ; make
A great man of him both in deed and word.
Jamasp, once famed, and may he prosper never !
Said that Bahman would keep my name alive,
And be a greater king, and that his seed
Would be illustrious and deserve to reign."
The matchless Rustam, hearing, stood and laid
His right hand on his breast in acquiescence.
" E'en if I die I will not fail herein,"
He said, " but bring thy words to pass, will set
Bahman upon the famous ivory throne,
And crown him with the heart-illuming crown/'
Asfandiyar, on hearing Rustam's words,
Replied to him : " ancient paladin !
Know this, and God Himself will bear me witness
Who is my leader to the good religion,
That in despite of all thy noble acts,
And of thy head exalted by brave deeds,
Thy fame now hath been turned to infamy,
And earth grown clamorous for me. Herefrom
Crooked grew thy spirit's lot; so willed the Maker." v - I7lS
Then spake he thus to Bishiitan : " A shroud
Is all I need of this world. When I quit
This Wayside Inn take order for the host,
And lead it home. When thou hast reached f ran
Say to my sire : ' Since thou hast gained thine end
Dissemble not ; the age is all thine own ;
Thy name is written now on every signet.
I had some hope of better things from thee,
Though such a crime befitted thy dark soul.
Reformed by me and by the sword of justice
The world was purged of miscreants' villainies,
And, with the good Faith stablished in Iran,
Both majesty and kingship called for me ;
But thou didst speak me fair before the nobles,
And privily dispatch me to be slain.
Now thou hast gained thy heart's desire herein ;
Take order then and sit with heart at ease,
And, since thou art secure, ban death itself,
And hold high revel in thy royal halls.
The throne is thine, the stress and toil are mine ;
Thine is the crown and mine are bier and shroud.
What said the rustic minstrel old and tried ?
" Death followeth hard upon the arrow-point."
Trust not in treasure, crown, and throne. My soul
Will have its eyes on thy career, and when
Thou comest, and we go before the Judge
Together, we will plead and hear His sentence.'
When thou hast left Gushtasp say to my mother :
' This time 'twas Death that challenged me to fight,
And mail is only wind before his arrows,
For they would penetrate a mount of steel.
250 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
O loving mother ! follow me with speed ;
Grieve not for my sake nor aggrieve thy soul.
Show not thy face unveiled before the folk,
Or lift the winding-sheet to gaze on mine,
For such a sight will but increase thy woe,
And men of wisdom will commend thee not.'
v. 1719 Say likewise to my sisters and my wife,
Those wise and noble dames who shared with me
My private hours : ' Farewell for evermore !
Ill hath befall'n me through my father's crown ;
To him my death hath been the key of treasures.
Behold I have sent Bishiitan to him
To shame his gloomy soul.' "
He spake, then gasped
" This wrong hath come upon me from Gushtasp."
With that his pure soul parted from his body,
Which lay shaft-stricken on the darksome dust,
While Rustain, with his head and face besmirched
With dust, rent all his raiment o'er the prince,
And cried : " Alack !. valiant cavalier,
Whose grandsire was a warrior Shah, whose sire
A king ! I had a good name in the w r orld,
But through Gushtasp mine end is infamous."
Long while he wept and then addressed the slain :-
" monarch peerless, matchless >in the world !
Thy soul hath passed to Paradise above,
And may thy foeman reap what he hath sown."
Zawara said to him : '"Make not thyself
Dependent on the mercy of this prince.
Hast thou not heard this adage from the sage,
Who quoteth from the sayings of old times :
' If thou shalt take a lion's whelp to rear
'Twill grow ferocious when its teeth appear,
And, soon being set on prey and waxen tall,
Will fall upon its feeder first of all ' ?
Both sides will be perturbed by evil wrath,
Whence first the ill will come upon Iran,
Since such a monarch as Asfandiyar
Was slain; then thou wilt see thine ownjill day,
Zabulistan will suffer from Bahman,
The veterans of Kabulistan will writhe.
Mark this, that, when he cometh to be king,
Forthwith he will avenge Asfandiyar."
To him said Rustaui : " No one, bad or good, v. 1720
Can strive with heaven. So will I choose_my course
That wisdom, seeing, will restore my fame.
Fate will avenge if he doth wickedly,
But do not thou provoke the evil eye."
How Bishutan bare the Coffin of Asfandiyar to Gushtdsp
Then'Rustam made a goodly iron coffin ;
He draped the outside with brocade of Chin,
And smeared with pitch the inside, sprinkling it
With musk and spicery. He made withal
The winding-sheet of gold-inwoven brocade,
While all that noble company lamented.
When he had shrouded that resplendent form,
And crowned it with a turquoise coronet,
They sealed the narrow coffin and the Tree
So fruitful and so royal was no more.
Then Rustam chose him forty camels, each
Clad in a housing of brocade of Chin. ,
One of the camels bore the prince's coffin
With camels right and left, and guards behind
With hair and faces rent. One theme alone
Possessed their tongues and souls Asfandiyar.
Before the cavalcade went Bishutan.
Asfandiyar's black charger ]had been docked,
Both mane and tail, its saddle was reversed,
252 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And from it there were hung his battle-mace,
His famous helm withal, surtout and quiver
And head-piece. They set forward, but Bahman
Stayed at Zabul and wept with tears of blood.
Him matchless Rustam carried to the palace,
And tendered as his life.
News reached Gushtasp :
" The famous prince's head hath been o'erthrown ! "
v. 1721 He rent his robes, his crowned head came to dust,
A bitter wail rose from Iran, the world
Rang with Asfandiyar. Throughout the realm,
Where'er the tidings came, the nobles doffed
Their crowns. Gushtasp exclaimed : " pure of Faith !
Time and the earth will not behold thy like,
For ever since the days of Minuchihr
There hath not come a chief resembling thee
Who fouled the sword and fulled the Faith, and kept
The world on its foundations."
In their wrath
The nobles of f ran put off all awe
For Shah Gushtasp, and cried : " Thou luckless one !
To save thy throne thou sentest to Zabul,
For slaughter there, the great Asfandiyar
That thou inightst don the crown of all the world.
May thy head shame to wear the crown of Shahs,
Hot-foot thy star desert thee ! "
In a body
They left the palace, and the monarch's crown
And star were in the dust.
Now when the mother
And sisters of Asfandiyar had heard,
They came forth from the palace with their daughters,
Unveiled, with dust-fouled feet, and raiment rent.
When Bishutan came weeping on f his way,
And after him the coffin and black steed,
The women hung on him, wept tears of blood,
And cried : " Undo this narrow coffin's lid,
Let us too see the body of the slain."
He stood among the women, full of grief,
Mid groans and sobs and beatings of the cheeks.
Then said he to the smiths : " Bring sharp files hither,
For this is i Resurrection Day to me."
He oped the covering of the narrow coffin,
And gave fresh cause for weeping. When the mother
And sisters of Asfandiyar beheld
His visage steeped in musk, and sable beard,
The hearts of those chaste ladies crisp of lock V. 1722
Filled to o'erflowing, and they swooned away.
Revived, they prayed to glorious Suriish,
Departed from the pillow of the prince,
And went with wailing to his sable steed,
Whoseineck and head they fondled lovingly,
And Katayiin flung dust thereon. The prince
Had ridden that charger on the fatal day,
And perished on its back. The mother said :
" O thou of luckless feet ! the Kaian prince
Was slain on thee. Whom wilt thou bear to battle
Henceforth and yield up to the Crocodile ? "
They clasped its neck and strewed its head with dust,
The host's cries reached the clouds, and Bishutan
Approached the palace. Coming to the throne
He kissed it not, nor did the Shah obeisance,
But cried : " O chief of chiefs ! the sign hath come
Of thine undoing. Herein thou hast done ill
To thine own self by robbing kings of breath.
Both Grace and wisdom have abandoned thee,
And thou wilt suffer chastisement divine.
Thy. main support is shattered, famous Shah !
And henceforth thou wilt grasp but wind alone.
To keep thy throne thou giv'st thy son to slaughter,
And may thine eye behold not crown and fortune.
The world is full of foes and evil men,
254 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Thy crown will not endure eternally,
Abuse will be thy portion in this world,
And inquisition at the Judgment Day."
This said, he turned his face toward Jamasp,
And cried : " O impious wretch and ill of rede !
Thou never speakest aught but lying words,
And thou hast made thy fame by i knavery.
v. 1723 Thou art the cause of feud between the Kaians,
And settest them the one against the other.
Thou canst not teach them aught but wickedness,
To break away from good and take to ill.
In this world thou hast sown one seed, and thou
Wilt reap the fruits in public and in private.
A magnate hath been slaughtered through thy words
Thou. said st : ' The lifetime of the great is over.'
Thou didst instruct the . Shah in evil ways,
Old ill-adviser and malevolent !
Thou saidst : ' Asfandiyar the hero's life
Is lying in the grasp of famous Rustam.' "
This said, he loosed his tongue and weeping told
The counsel and last wishes of the dead,
And told too how the prince had given Bahman
To Rustam's keeping. Bishiitan told all.
The Shah, on hearing those last words, repented
About the matter of Asfandiyar.
The nobles having gone forth from the palace,
Humai and Bih Afrid approached their sire,
And in his presence tore their cheeks and plucked
Their hair in sorrow-for their brother, saying :
" famous monarch ! heed'st thou not at all
Asfandiyar's decease, who was the first
To venge Zarir and take the Onager
Out of the Lion's claws, exacted vengeance
Upon the Turkmans and restored thy sway ?
But thou didst bind him at a slanderer's words
With heavy yoke and iron bars and lasso.
While he was in his bonds Luhrasp was slain,
And all the army's fortune overthrown.
When from Khallukh Arjasp arrived at Balkh
Our lives were rendered bitter by distress.
Us, who had ne'er appeared unveiled, he bore
Uncovered from the palace to the street,
Quenched Nush Azar established byZarduhsht, 1
And laid his hand upon the sovereignty.
Thou sawest what thy son achieved by valour ; v. 1724
He made thy foes breath, vapour, flying dust,
Restored us to thee from the Brazen Hold,
And guarded both thine army and thy realm ;
But thou>didst send him to Zabul and give him
No lack of counsel and of parting words
With the intent that he should perish there
To win the crown. The world was grieved and mourned
It was not the Simurgh or Zal or Rustam
That slew him ; it was thou, so do not weep !
May thine own hoary beard cry shame upon thee,
Who, merely in the hope of reigning on,
Hast slain thy son. There hath been many a world-
Before thee, worthy of the royal throne :
They gave not child nor any of their kin,
Or their allies or household, to be slain."
Thereat the Shah spake thus to Bishiitan :
" Rise and fling water on my daughters' fire."
Then Bishiitan departed from the palace,
And took'the ladies, saying to his mother:
" Why mourn him sleeping well and happily,
Tired of the land and of the lord thereof ?
Why is thy heart in grief on his account,
For now his conversation is in Heaven ? "
The mother took her son's rede and therewith
1 See p. 92 and note.
256 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Resigned her to the justice of the Lord.
For one year afterward in every dwelling
Were wailing and lament throughout Iran ;
Both morn and eve the folk mourned bitterly
The tamarisk arrow and Zal's sorcery.
How Rustam sent Bahman back to frdn
V. 1725 Bahman stayed in Zabulistan, enjoying
The hunting-field and wine among the roses,
While Rustam taught that enemy of his
To ride, to quaff, and play the monarch's part,
In all things holding him above a son,
And, night and day, embracing him -with smiles.
Now when performance was allied to promise,
And when Gushtasp had no door of revenge
Still open, Rustam wrote in deep distress
Of all the matter of Asfandiyar.
The letter first called blessings down on those
Who take excuses and forego revenge,
Then " God is witness " he went on to say,
" And Bishutan herein hath been before me,
How much I pleaded with Asfandiyar
That so he might abandon thoughts of fight.
I offered l him my treasure and my realm,
But he preferred all trouble for himself.
His fate was such that when it stood revealed
My heart was filled with pain and love withal.
Heaven turned above us to the destined end,
And Destiny regardeth none. Bahman,
The atheling, is with me now and he
Outshineth even mine own Jupiter.
I have instructed him in kingly parts,
1 Reading with P.
And paid the debt of thy son's last request
With wisdom. If the Shah will undertake
To pardon me, and to forget the past,
All soul and body that I have are his,
Both crown and treasure and both brain and skin."
Whenas this reached the monarch of the world v. 1726
Ho was perturbed in presence of his lords,
And Bishiitan came forth to testify,
Repeating all the words that Rustam used,
His grief, his counsel, and his last appeal,
And goodly offer of his realm and treasure.
The famous Shah was reconciled to Rustam,
And ceased thenceforth to inflame his heart with sorrow.
He wrote forthwith a letter in response,
He set a tree within the garth of greatness,
And said thus : " From the circle of high heaven
What time calamity is imminent
Can any keep it back by circumspection
Though much inclined to wisdom ? Bishutan
Hath told me what thy real intentions were,
And by thy goodness thou hast touched my heart ;
But who escapeth from the turning sky ?
A wise man dwelleth not upon the past ;
Thou art as ever thou hast been or better ;
Thou art the lord of Hind and of Kannuj.
Ask whatsoever thou desirest more
By way of throne and signet, sword and casque."
As bidden by Gushtasp the messenger
Conveyed that answer quickly. It rejoiced
The famous paladin who felt his heart
Released from care.
Meanwhile young prince Bahman
Grew into lofty stature ; he was wise,
Instructed, masterful, and shone with more
Than royal Grace and state. Jamasp, aware
That both for good and ill the sovereignty
VOL. v. R
258 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Would come upon Bahman, said to Gushtasp :
" O Shah most worshipful ! regard Bahman.
He hath the teaching that his father wished,
And hath arrived at man's estate with lustre ;
V. 1727 But he hath tarried long abroad, and none
Hath read to him a letter from thyself.
Thou shouldest write to him a letter like
A tree within the garth of Paradise.
What other memory is left to thee
To banish sorrow for Asfandiyar ? "
This thing seemed good to Shah Gushtasp who gave
Command to glorious Jamasp, and said :
" Indite me now a letter to Bahman,
And one to glory-loving Rustam, saying :
' Thank God, O paladin of paladins !
That thou hast made us glad and cleared our mind.
Our grandson, who is dearer than our life,
Is more renowned for wisdom than Jamasp,
And hath acquired with thee both skill and counsel,
Send of thy favour home.' "
That to Bahman
Ran thus : " When thou hast read this quit Zabul,
For we desire to see thee ; so make ready,
And tarry not."
Shrewd Rustam, when the scribe
Had read the letter to him, was rejoiced.
Of what he had within his treasury
Surtouts and daggers made of watered steel,
Bards, bows and arrows, sparths and Indian hangers,
Fresh aloes, camphor, musk, and ambergris,
Gold, silver, jewelry, brocaded stuffs,
With raiment in the piece, slaves of ripe age
And unripe, golden girdles, silvern bridles,
And two gold cups a-brim with precious stones,
All these he gave Bahman, and they that bore them
Accounted for them to his treasurer.
The matchless Rustam journeyed with Bahrnan
Two stages, then dispatched him to the Shah.
The face of Shah Gushtasp was dim with tears
What time he gazed upon his grandson's face.
He said : " Thou art Asfandiyar himself, V. 1728
Thou art like no one in the world but him."
The Shah bestowed on him the name Ardshir,
On seeing what great courage he possessed. 1
He was a stalwart warrior, strong of hand,
A wise man, well-instructed, and devout,
And with his fingers dressed beside his legs
His fists extended lower than his knees. 2
The Shah awhile made proof of him and marked
His bearing. On the field, at feast, and chase
He proved a warrior like Asfandiyar,
And never tried the patience of Gushtasp,
Who ever gazed upon him with emotion,
And said : " The World-lord gave him unto me,
Gave him to me because I was in trouble.
May my Bahman live evermore since I
Have lost my noble, brazen-bodied son."
The conflicts of Asfandiyar are o'er ;
May our Shah's head live on for evermore,
His heart from travail ever be at rest,
And may the age conform to his behest,
Glad be his heart, his crown uplifted high,
And round his foe's neck may his lasso lie.
1 Ardshir is a shortened form of Artakhshathra, i.e. " great king,"
but in native etymology was explained to mean "angry lion."
2 See p. 281.
THE STORY OF RUSTAM AND SHAGHAD
The poet tells how he came to hear the story of the death of
Rustam, which is as follows : Zal had by a female slave a son
named Shaghad and, as his horoscope was pronounced to be an
unfavourable one by the astrologers, sent him to be educated at
Kabul. There he married the king of Kabul's daughter, in con-
sequence of which event the king anticipated that Rustam would
remit the yearly tribute due from Kabul, but as this did not prove
to be the case, the king and Shaghad plot together to bring about
the death of Rustam, who perishes accordingly with his brother
Zawiira. They are avenged by Rustam's son Faramarz. The
Part concludes with the death of Gushtasp and the succession
of Bahman as Shah.
One might gather from Firdausi's account of the provenance of
this story that he received it personally from the authority whom
he calls Azad Sarv, i.e. Noble Cypress. This, however, does not
seem to be what the poet meant by his statement. He tells us
that Azad Sarv shed lustre on Sahl, son of Mahan, who was no
doubt his patron, and that, after Sahl's death, we may presume,
he occupied a similar position in relation to Sahl's son Ahmad. 1
Ahmad was sometime lord of Marv, and died A.D. 91 9-920, 2 about
twenty years before Firdausi was born. Chronology therefore
renders it highly improbable, though not impossible, that Firdausi
and Azad Sarv ever met. It is worth noting that the name of
the king of Yaman, whose daughters married the sons of Faridiin,
was Sarv, 3 which is clearly fictitious ; also that when Niishirwan,
whose reign will appear in a later volume of this translation, had
on one occasion an unpleasant dream, and dispatched agents to
various regions to find an interpreter, one of them was named
1 pp. 263, 261 2 NIN, 15. 3 See Vol. i. p. 178.
Azad Sarv, who went to Marv and was the means of introducing
Buzurjmihr, the future chief minister, to the notice of the Shah.
It is not at all unlikely that Firdausi, having on the present
occasion to refer to a tradition emanating from Marv, used Sarv,
as a convenient rhyme word. 1 The poet's meaning is that, instead
of following on this occasion his usual authority the modern
Persian prose version of the Bastan-numa 2 he went elsewhere
for his account. In the Bastan-nama, probably, Rustam remained
alive till the next reign, and then was slain with all his house by
Bahman. 3 Tabari tells us that Bahman, urged on by his mother,
invaded Sistan to avenge on Rustam and his kin the death of
Asfandiyar. Bahman killed Fanimarz, Zal, and Zawdra, but Rustam
himself was already dead. 4 Mas'iidi says that Bahman made war
on Rustam, and killed him and his father Zal. 5 With two or more
versions of Rustam's death before him, Firdausi evidently chose
the most romantic. It was better for the great hero to perish by
treachery than in the stricken field against such a puny antagonist
as Bahman. 6 Rustam and Zavvara therefore are disposed of finally
during the reign of Gushtasp and before Bahman's expedition to
Sistan takes place.
We have had already several instances of the enmity between
brothers so characteristic of Oriental life. We have seen how
Purmaya and Kaianush attempted the life of Faridun, 7 how Salm
and Tur slew Iraj, 8 and we have probably another example in the
case of Gurazm and Asfandiyar. 9 Now we have the fatal enmity
of Shaghad against Rustam. It is only fair to add, however, that
there are signal instances of brothers dwelling together in unity
e.g. Rustam and Zawara, 10 Gushtasp and Zarir, 11 and Asfandiyar
and Bishtitan. 12
The tale of Rustam's slaying I present V. 1729
In mine own words but based on document.
There was an ancient man, hight Azad Sarv,
Who erst lived with Ahmad, Sahl's son, at Marv.
1 Vol. i. p. 74. 2 Id. p. 66 seq., but cf. NIN, 15. 3 Id.
4 ZT, i. 507. '>- MM, ii. 127. 6 Cf. p. 186.
7 Vol. i. p. 160. 8 Id. 199. 9 p. 78, and cf. p. 12 ; JZ, 117.
10 Vol. ii. pp. no, 115. u Vol. iv. pp. 321, 362, and p. 65.
12 Parts II. and III.
262 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
A paladin in form and face was he,
And storied in the royal legendry.
His head was full of speech, his heart of lore,
His tongue of phrases of the days of yore.
From Sam, the son of Nariman, he drew
His line and many a fight of Rustam's knew.
What I received from him I will rehearse,
And interweave it, word with word, in verse.
If in this Wayside Inn I still shall bide,
With mind and wisdom acting as my guide,
I will complete this story of the past,
And then on earth my record too will last.
In his name then who hath made earth his own
Mahmud, that glory of the crown and throne,
Lord of Iran, Turan, and Hind, through whom
The world hath grown to be like silk of Rum !
He lavisheth his treasures which will be
Replenished by his fame and policy,
And he is mighty and in future ages
Will live upon the lips of all the sages.
The world is full of his memorials
Wars, bounties, huntings, lore and festivals
But they among mankind are blest the most,
Who look upon his crown, his court, and host.
Mine ears and feet begin to fail at length ;
Old age and want have robbed me of my strength ;
v. 1730 Misfortune hath so fettered me that I
Mourn stress of years and evil destiny ;
Yet am I ever instant in the praise
Of our just world-lord all my nights and days,
And all the folk are one with me in that,
Though faithless and malign, for since he sat
Upon the royal throne he hath subdued
The hand of evil and the gate of feud,
Restraining him that doth presumptuously,
However overweening he may be,
While bountifully largessing the sage
That heedeth the prescriptions of his age.
I raise him in this world a monument,
Which, while men live, shall be still evident
In this my story of the Shahs of old,
Of bygone horsemen and the great and bold,
Compact of feast and fight, of ancient lore
And rede, of many a gest of days of yore,
Of knowledge, Faith, of scruple and advice,
And guidance furthermore to Paradise.
Of all the things that earn our monarch's praise,
The things of chiefest profit in his days,
This best will serve to keep his memory rife,
And live as part and parcel of his life,
And I am hoping -to live too till I
Receive his gold that, when I come to die,
I too may leave my monument with things
Drawn from the treasury of the king of kings.
And now I turn back to the words of Sarv,
The Light of Sahl, son of Mahan, at Marv.
How Ruxtam went to Kabul on behalf of his
Thus saith the ancient sage, that storied man
Of parts and eloquence : Behind Zal's curtains
There dwelt a slave a harpist and reciter
And this handmaiden bore to him a son
As radiant as the moon, a horseman Sam
In form and aspect, and a cause of joy v. 1731
To all that noble house. The astrologers
And men of science chosen cavaliers
Both from Kabul and from Kashmir, alike
The worshippers of God and of the Fire
Went with their Human tables in their hands,
264 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And each one took the aspect of the sky
As to its favour toward the little child.
The gazers found a portent in the stars,
And looked at one another. Then they said
To Zal, the son of Sam, the cavalier :
" O thou remembered by the stars of heaven !
We have explored the secret of the sky :
Tis unpropitious to this little child,
For when this pretty infant shall grow up,
And reach the days of strength and hardihood,
He will destroy the family of Sam,
The son of Narirnan, and wreck their sway.
Through him Sistan will be fulfilled with uproar,
Iran embroiled, and all folks' days embittered,
But afterward his tarriance will be brief."
Zal, son of Sam, was grieved thereat, invoked
The Judge of all, and prayed : " Guide of men,
Sustainer of the turning sky, my Refuge
And Stay in everything, who showest me
What rede to follow and what way to go,
And madest heaven and the stars withal,
Have we misdoubted of such excellence ?
Be ours contentment, rest, and happiness."
The chieftain gave his son the name of Shaghad.
He kept the child till he was weaned and grew
Observant, full of charm, and talkative ;
Then, when the boy was growing strong of limb,
Dispatched him to the monarch of Kabul.
Now when Shaghad became a lofty Cypress
In height, a horseman puissant with the lasso
y . 1732 And mace, that potentate took note of him,
Esteemed him fit for royal crown and throne,
Rejoiced to look on him and on account
Of his high birth bestowed on him a daughter,
And with that noble daughter sent besides
Fit presents from the spacious treasury,
And guarded him, as he were some fresh apple,
That ill might not befall him from the stars.
The nobles of f ran and Hindustan
Had much to say of Rustam, for he took
An ox-skin full of money from Kabul
Each year as tribute, 1 wherefore when the king
Had made Shaghad his son-in-law he thought
That Rustam of Zabul would heed no more
The money from that time ; so when 'twas due,
And taken as before, Kabulistan
Was deeply moved. His brother's conduct vexed
Shaghad who spake not of it publicly,
But told the king in private : " I am weary
Of this world's doings. I can not respect
A brother who hath no regard for me.
Not recking whether he be wise or mad,
An elder brother or an alien,
Let us concert a plan of snaring him ,
And win us in the world a name thereby."
They plotted till they soared above the moon
In their imaginations. Hear the sage :
" The evil that men do they live to rue."
One night until the sun rose o'er the mountains
Sleep came not to the twain, and thus they said :
" We will destroy his glory in the world,
And fill the heart and eyes of Zal with tears."
Shaghad said to the monarch of Kabul :
" If we would do full justice to our scheme
Prepare a festival, invite the nobles,
And call for wine and harp and minstrelsy.
1 MohFs view is that the tribute was merely a nominal one an empty
ox-skin, worth one drachm but in the latter part of the poem at all
events ox-skins of coin frequently are mentioned in connexion with the
payment of tribute, and it seems on the whole more likely that this par-
ticular ox-skin resembled the others and was not an empty one. Mohl's
"tie la valeur d'un dirhem" is hardly justified by the original, which
rather means " in the matter of the money," i.e. of the tribute.
266 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
While wo are in our cups speak coldly to me,
And then insult me. I, dishonoured thus,
v. 1733 Will set forth for Zabulistan, complain
About the monarch of Kabulistan
Before my brother and before my sire,
And call thee both discourteous and ill-natured.
Then Rustam will be wroth on mine account,
And come to our famed city. Then do thou
Select upon his route a hunting-ground,
And there dig divers pitfalls large enough
To take both him and Rakhsh, and plant long swords,
With spears and blades of steel with double edges,
The handles downward and the points erect,
About the bottoms of the pits. Of these
It will be better to make ten than five
If thou desirest to be freed from care. ,
Employ a hundred cunning workmen, dig
The pits, and keep the secret from the wind ;
Then make the surface good and hold thy peace."
The monarch went, put prudence from his mind,
And made a feast as that insensate said,
Invited great and small throughout Kabul,
And seated them before a well-spread board.
When they had eaten they prepared for revel,
And called for wine and harp and minstrelsy.
Now when folks' heads were flown with royal wine
Shaghad designedly grew insolent,
And spake thus to the monarch of Kabul :
" I am exalted over all the folk ;
With Rustam for my brother, Zal for father,
What nobler strain can any one possess ? "
The king seemed wroth and said : " Why do I keep
This matter so long hidden ? Thou art not
By race from Sam, the son of Nariinan,
And neither Rustam's brother nor his kin.
Zal, son of Sam, hath never mentioned thee ;
How then shall such an one be called thy brother ?
Thou art slave-born, a menial at his gate,
And Rustam's mother would not own thy claim."
Shaghad, as angered at the monarch's words, V. 1734
Departed in a passion to Zabul
With certain of Kabul in company,
Revenge at heart and sighs upon his lips.
He reached his glorious father's court, his heart
All machination and his head all vengeance.
Zal at the instant that he saw his son,
So tall and stately, with such Grace divine
And thews received him kindly, questioned him,
And sent him on to Rustam presently.
That paladin rejoiced at seeing him,
To see him sage and of an ardent soul,
And said to him : " The seed of Sam, the Lion,
Produceth only strong and valiant men.
How do things stand betwixt Kabul and thee ?
What doth he say of Rustam of Zabul ? "
Shaghad replied : " Nay, speak not of the king.
He used to treat me kindly and to bless me
Whene'er he saw me ; now he seeketh a quarrel
Against me in his cups and holdeth high
His head o'er all. He humbled me in public,
And showed his evil bent. He said to me :
' How long shall we submit to pay this tribute ?
Are we unable to resist Sistan ?
Henceforth I will not mention Rustam ; I
Am equal to him both in strength and parts.'
He further said : ' Thou art no son of Zal,
Or if thou art so he himself is naught.'
My heart was pained because of those chiefs present,
And so with pallid cheeks I left Kabul."
When Rustam heard it he was wroth, and said :
"No matter lieth hidden for all time.
Have no more thought of him or of his realm,
268 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And may his crown and sovereignty both perish.
1 will destroy him for his words and wring
His heart and eyes, will seat thee on his throne
In joy, and lay in dust his head and fortune."
He entertained Shaghad for many days,
Assigned a stately palace for his use,
And from his army chose the fittest men
Those famed in battle bidding them prepare
To leave Zabul and occupy Kabul.
When all was ready, and the paladin
Freed from anxiety, Shaghad approached
That man of war, and said : " Think not of fighting
The monarch of Kabul. Were I to limn
Thy name on water merely none would rest
Or slumber there, for who would venture forth
To strive with thee, -or who abide thy coming ?
Sure am I that the monarch is repentant,
That he would fain atone for my departure,
And even now is sending from Kabul
Picked-chiefs in numbers to apologise."
Then Rustam answered him : " That is the way.
Against Kabul I need no host of men ;
Zawara with a. hundred cavalry
And infantry of name wall do for me."
How the King of Kabul dug Pits in the Hunting-ground
and how Rustam and Zawara fell therein
Now when ill-starred Shaghad had left Kabul
The monarch hurried to the hunting-ground,
And took a hundred sappers, men of note
Among the troops. They honeycombed the chase
With pits, arranging them beneath the rides,
And in them set haft-downward hunting-spears,
Swords, double-headed darts, and scimitars,
And made a shift to mask the openings
That neither man nor eye of beast might see them.
When Rustam had set forward in all haste
Shaghad dispatched a rapid post to say :
" The elephantine hero hath come forth v. 1736
Without an army. Come to him and ask
To be forgiven."
The monarch of Kabul,
Pleas on his tongue and poison in his soul,
Came from the city and, on seeing Rustam,
Alighted from his steed, advanced a-foot,
Took off the Indian turban that he wore,
And clasped his naked head between his hands,
Drew off his boots and in his deep abasement
Made his eyelashes drip with his heart's blood.
He laid his cheeks upon the dusty ground,
Excusing his behaviour to Shaghad,
And saying : " If thy slave was drunk or crazy,
And seemed rebellious in his senselessness,
Vouchsafe to pardon this offence of mine,
And let me be anew as once I was."
Bare-footed, dust on head, his heart all guile,
He went before the chief, who pardoned him
His fault, increased his standing, bade him cover
His head and feet, mount saddle, and proceed.
There was hard by the city of Kabul
A pleasant, fertile spot with wood and water,
And there they willingly encamped. The king
Provided provand lavishly and furnished
A pleasant banquet-house, brought wine, called minstrels,
And placed the chiefs on royal thrones. Thereafter
He spake to Rustam thus : " When thou wouldst hunt
I have a district where on plain and hill
Game throngeth. Wild sheep, onager, gazelle
Fill all the waste. One with a speedy steed
270 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Will capture there gazelle and onager ;
One should not overlook that pleasant place."
Now Rustam grew excited at his talk
Of watered plain, of onager, and game,
For, when one's fate approacheth, anything
Will lead the heart wrong and pervert the mind,
v. 1737 This whirling world of ours behaveth thus,
And will not make its secrets known to us.
The crocodile in water, pard on land,
And battle-braving Lion deft of hand,
Are in death's clutch no less than ant and fly ;
To tarry here transcendeth subtlety.
He bade to saddle the steeds and fill the waste
With hawks and falcons, cased his royal bow,
And rode out to the plain, he and Shaghad.
Zawara too was of the company,
And many another of their noble friends.
The retinue were scattered in the chase,
But all to quarters where no pits were digged,
While Rustam and Zawara took the path
Among the pits because Fate willed it so.
Rakhsh sniffed fresh earth, spun like a ball, and shied,
Suspicious of the smell, and tore the ground
To pieces with his iron shoes. Howbeit
That fleet steed picked his steps right warily
So as to make his way between two pits ;
But Rustam's heart was filled with wrath at Rakhsh,
And fortune veiled discretion from his eyes.
He raised his hunting-whip and in his dudgeon
Lashed Rakhsh though lightly and thus flurried him
Just as, environed by the pits, he sought
To 'scape Fate's clutch. Two of his feet went through
He had no purchase ; all below was spear
And sword ; no pluck availed ; escape was none ;
And so the haunches of the mighty Rakhsh,
And Rustam's legs and bosom, were impaled ;
Yet in his manhood he uplifted him,
And from the bottom bravely gained the brim.
Hmo Rustam sleio Shaghad and died
When Rustam wounded as he was looked forth,
And saw the hostile visage of Shaghad,
He recognised the author of the plot, v. 1738
And that the traitor was his foe, and said :
" O man of black and evil destiny !
Thine action hath laid waste a prosperous land ;
But thou shalt yet repent thee of this thing,
Writhe for this wrong, and never see old age."
The vile Shaghad replied : " The wheel of heaven
Hath dealt with thee aright. For what a while
Hast thou engaged in bloodshed, strife, and pillage
On all sides ! Now thy life shall end, and thou
Shalt perish in the toils of Ahriman."
With that the monarch of Kabul came up
Upon his way toward the chase, beheld
The elephantine warrior thus wounded,
With all his wounds unbound, and said to him :
" thou illustrious leader of the host !
What hath befallen thee on the hunting-field ?
I will depart forthwith, bring hither leeches,
And weep in tears of blood on thine account ;
No need to weep though if thou art made whole."
But matchless Rustam answered : " Crafty villain !
The time for leech is passed. Weep no blood-drops
For me. Though thou liv'st long the end will come ;
None can evade the sky. My Grace divine
Surpasseth not Jainshid's, and he was sawn
Asunder by a foe, 1 or Faridun's,
1 Vol. i. p. 140.
272 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Or Kai Kubiid's those mighty, high-born Shahs
And when had come the time of Siyawush
Gurwi, the son of Zira, cut his throat. 1
Kings of i ran and Lions in the light
Were they, and they have gone. We have outstayed
And loitered like great lions on our way ;
V. 1739 But Faramarz my son mine Eye will come
And will require my vengeance at thy hands."
He said to foul Shaghad : " Since such an ill
Hath come on me uncase my bow for me,
And let it serve as mine interpreter.
String it and lay it by me with two arrows.
It is not fit that lions on the prowl,
And coming on the plain in quest of quarry,
Shall see me fallen here and sorely wounded,
For evil will betide me, and my bow
Will stay their rending me alive. My time
Is come, I lay my body in the dust."
Shaghad drew near, uncased the bow, and strung it.
He drew it once, then laid it down by Rustam,
And laughed exulting at his brother's death.
The matchless hero clutched it lustily,
Though tortured by the anguish of his wounds,
What while Shaghad in terror at those arrows
Made haste to shield himself behind a tree
An ancient plane still boughed and leaved but hollow
And there behind it skulked the miscreant.
When Rustam saw this he put forth his hands,
Sore wounded as he was, and loosed a shaft.
He pinned his brother and the tree together,
And gladdened in the article of death.
Shaghad, when he was stricken, cried out " Ah ! "
But Rustam had not left him time to suffer,
And cried: "Now God be praised, and I have known Him
L Vol. ii. 321.
Through all my years, that even when my soul
Hath reached iny lips day hath not turned to night
O'er my revenge, but He hath given me strength
Before my death to wreak me on this traitor."
He spake, his soul departed from his body, v. 1740
And all the folk bewailed him bitterly.
Within another pit Zawara died ;
Remained no horseman high or low, beside ?
How Zdl received News of tlie Slaying of Rustam and
Zaivdra, and how Fardmnrz brought their Coffins and set
them in the Charnel-house
One of those noble cavaliers escaped,
And made his way on horseback and a-foot.
When he had reached Zabulistan 'he said : -
" The mighty Elephant is with -the -dust,
So are Zawara and the escort too,
And not another horseman hath escaped ! "
Rose from Zabulistan a cry against
The foe and monarch of Kabulistan,
Zal scattered dust upon his shoulders, tore
His breast and face, and cried : " Alas ! alas !
Thou elephantine hero ! would that I
Were in my winding-sheet ! Zawara too,
That noble warrior, that valiant Dragon,
That famous Lion ! Luckless, cursed Shaghad
Hath dug up by the roots that royal Tree.
Who could imagine that a wretched Fox
Would meditate revenge in yonder land
Upon a Lion ? Who can call to mind
Such a misfortune, who could bear to hear
From his instructor that a Lion like Rustam
Had died in dust and through a Fox's words ?
VOL. v. s
274 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Why died I not before them wretchedly ?
Why am I left as their memorial ?
v. 1741 Why need I life and fame now that the seed
Of me, the son of Sam, hath been uprooted ?
O chieftain ! lion-taker ! hero ! lord !
man of valour and world-conqueror ! "
He sent an army under Faramarz
Against the monarch of Kabul forthwith,
To gather those slain bodies from the dust,
And give the world good cause for sorrowing.
When Faramarz arrived before Kabul
He found no man of name within the city.
They all had fled, the people were in tears,
And seared with grief for world-subduing Rustam.
Then Faramarz went to the hunting-ground
The plain wherein the pitfalls had been dug.
He ordered that a stretcher should be brought,
And to lay out thereon that noble Tree,
Unloosed that belt which marked a paladin,
And stripped the body of its royal raiment.
Then first of all they laved in tepid water
The bosom, neck, and beard right tenderly,
Burned musk and ambergris before the corpse,
And sewed up all the gashes of its wounds,
Poured o'er the head rose-water and disposed
The purest camphor over all the form.
Then, when they had arrayed it in brocade,
They requisitioned roses, musk, -and wine.
The man who sewed the shroud shed tears of blood
On combing out that beard of camphor hue.
Two stretchers scarce sufficed to hold the body ;
Was it a man's trunk or a shady tree's ?
v. 1742 They fashioned out of teak a goodly coffin
With 'golden nails and ivory ornaments.
The apertures were all sealed up with pitch,
Which they o'erlaid with musk and spicery.
They drew Zawara's body from the pit,
Washed it, sewed up the gashes that they found,
And placed it in a shroud made of brocade.
They sought about to find an elmtree-trunk,
And skilful carpenters went forth and cut
Some mighty planks therefrom. They drew the body
Of Rakhsh out of the pit that steed whose like
None had beheld on earth a two days' task,
And then they hoised it on an elephant.
Kabulistan up to Zabulistan
Was like a place of public lamentation,
And men and women stood there in such throngs
That none had room to move, and so they passed
The coffins on from hand to hand and thought,
Such were their multitudes, the travail wind.
They reached Zabul in two days and a night,
And neither bier was seen to touch the ground.
The death of Rustam filled the age with wailing ;
Thou wouldst have said : " The very waste is moved ! "
They made the charnel-house within a garden,
And raised the summit of it to the clouds.
They set two golden thrones there face to face ;
It was the blessed hero's place of rest.
Then all of those who were his servitors,
The free by birth and honest-hearted slaves,
When they had mingled musk and roses poured
Out at the elephantine hero's feet,
And every one exclaimed : " O famous man !
Why need'st thou gifts of musk and ambergris ?
Thou hast no part in sovereignty and feast, v. 1743
No longer toilest in the bat tie- tide,
No longer lavishest thy gold and treasure.
In sooth such things are worthless in thy sight.
Be happy now in jocund Paradise,
For God compacted thee of manliness
276 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Having closed the enamel's door
They left him there. That famed, exalted Lion
Had passed away. Beside the door they made
A tomb for Rakhsh as of a horse upstanding.
What wouldst thou with this Wayside Inn this gain
Of treasure first but in the end of pain ?
Serve God or Ahriman yet still thou must,
Though made of iron, crumble into dust,
Yet lean to good while here thou shalt abide,
Elsewhere perchance thou wilt be satisfied.
How Fardmarz led an Army to avenge Rustam and
slew the King of Kabul
When Faramarz had made an end of mourning
He led his whole host onward to the plains,
And having opened Rustam's dwelling-place
Provided pay and outfit for the troops.
At dawn the noise of clarions arose,
Of kettledrums withal and Indian bells.
Kabul-ward from Zabul he led a host
That veiled the sun. The ruler of Kabul
Heard of those chieftains of Zabulistan,
And massed his scattered troops. The earth grew iron,
Air azure-dim. He marched 'gainst Faramarz,
And light departed from the sun and moon.
When those two hosts confronted, and the world
Rang with the shouting of the warriors,
Within the woods the lions lost their way
Frayed by the throng of steeds, the dust of troops.
A wind arose, the azure dust-clouds whirled,
And earth seemed one with heaven. Faramarz
v. 1744 Came forth and charged the centre of the foe,
The world was darkened by the horsemen's dust,
The monarch of Kabul was taken captive,
And all his mighty armament dispersed.
The warriors of Zabulistan like wolves
Attacked the enemy on every side,
Pursuing those that fled away, and slaying
So many warriors and haughty chiefs
Of Sind and Hind, that all the field turned mire,
And all the troops of Hind and Sind were scattered
They gave up land and home, abandoning
Both wife and child. The monarch of Kabul,
All bathed in -blood, was flung within the tower
Upon an elephant, and Fararnarz
Led on his army to the hunting-ground
Whereon the pits were dug. He bare with him
The foe in chains and two score more withal
Kin to the king and idol-worshippers.
He tore the monarch's back to strips until
The bones showed bare, then hung him, foul with dust,
His mouth all blood, head-downward in a pit,
And burned his forty kin ; then sought Shaghad,
There made a conflagration mountain-high,
And burned him with the plane l and ground beneath.
The troops returning to Zabulistan
Took all the ashes of Kabul to Zal.
When Faramarz had cut the tyrant off
He made a Zabuli king in Kabul,
Where no one of the royal stock remained
That had not read the patent of his sword.
He came back from Kabul all seared and smarting
The brightness of his days was overcast.
Zabulistan and Bust lamented loudly, v. 1745
And no one wore a robe unrent. The folk
All came to welcome Faramarz again
With bosoms lacerate and 'full of pain.
1 See p. 272.
278 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
How Ruddba lost her Wits through Mourning for Rustam
For one year there was mourning in Sistan,
And all the folk were clad in black and blue.
Upon a day Riidaba said to Zal :
" Lament and wail because of Rustam's death,
For surely since the sun hath lit. the. world
No man hath seen a darker day than this."
" foolish woman ! " Zal replied to her,
" The pain of fasting passeth that of grief."
Riidaba was enraged and swore an oath :
" Henceforth my body shall not sleep or eat.
It may be that my soul will see again
The soul of Rustam midst yon company."
She fasted for a week that she might hold
Communion with his soul. Her eye grew. dim
Through abstinence, her noble body pined.
For fear of harm slaves followed her about.
Ere that week ended she had lost, her wits,
And in her frenzy sorrow turned to feasting.
She went forth to the kitchen in the night,
And saw a serpent lying dead in water.
With trembling eagerness she seized its head,
And was about to eat. The attendants snatched it,
And clasping her withdrew her from that place
Of unclean hands, bare her to her apartments,
And, having set her in her wonted seat,
Brought forth a trencher and set food thereon.
She ate of all till she was satisfied,
And then they spread soft garments under her.
She slept and rested from her care and trouble,
From grief at death and sorrows of possession,
v. 1746 As soon as she awoke she asked for food,
And they provided her abundantly.
When sense returned to her she said to Zal :
" That word of thine consorted well with wisdom ;
Grief at a death and feast and festival
Are one to him that eateth not nor sleepeth.
Our son hath gone and we shall follow him.
Trust we the Maker's justice."
Her treasures on the poor, and prayed to God :
" O Thou who art above both name and place !
Cleanse from all fault the soul of matchless Rustam,
Assign him Paradise for his abode,
And joyance of the fruits that here he sowed."
How Gushtdsp gave the Kingdom to Bahman and died
Since matchless Rustam's life hath ceased to-be
I will present another history.
When fortune's face grew louring to Gushtasp
He called Jamasp before the throne, and said :
" Time hath inspired in me so much remorse
About the matter of Asfandiyar
That all my days are passed unjoyously,
And I am troubled by the vengeful stars.
Now after me Bahman will be the Shah,
With Bishiitan as confidant. Reject not
Bahman' s behests, but serve him loyally,
And be his guide in every circumstance,
For he is worthy of the crown and throne."
The Shah then gave Bahman the treasury-key,
And, sighing deeply, said : " My work is over ;
The floods have overtopped me. I have sat
As Shah for six score years and never seen
My peer ; and now do thou bestir thyself,
Be just to every one and, being just,
28o THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Exempt from grief. Make glad and keep the wise
Near thee, but make the world dark to thy foes,
And follow right for that ne'er causeth loss.
V. 1747 I who have undergone much pain and travail
Resign to thee throne, diadem, and treasure."
He spake, his lifetime ended, and his past
Bare l no more fruit. They made a charnel-house
Of ebony and ivory, and hung
His crown above his throne. He had his share
Of treasure and of toil, and, after joying
In sweet and antidote, found bane at last.
If such is life whence do its pleasures spring ?
Death equaleth the beggar and the king.
Enjoy thy having, shun ill-enterprise,
And hearken to the sayings of the wise.
My fellow-travellers have gone w r hile I
Remain and tell at large of days gone by.
Each traveller hath reached his place of rest,
And, if he sought the good, achieved his quest.
Let virtue, virtue only, grasp thy hand
That thou mayst list to those that understand.
The doings of Bahman I now essay,
And will recount thee things long passed away.
1 Reading with P.
BAHMAN, SON OF ASFANDIYAH
HE REIGNED NINETY-NINE YEARS
Bahman, on ascending the throne, announces his purpose of
taking vengeance on the family of Rustam for the death of
Asfandiyar. He marches against Zabulistan, takes Zal and
Faramarz prisoners, pardons the former but executes the latter.
He then returns home, marries his own daughter Hurnai, arranges
the succession to the throne, and dies.
Originally Bahman appears to have had no connexion with the
historical Artaxerxes Longimanus (B.C. 464-424), with whom he
has been identified by various writers. Artaxerxes, however, was
a familiar name in its Persian form in Sasanian times owing to
the fact that another Artaxerxes had overthrown the Parthian,
and founded a native Iranian, dynasty. The compilers of the
Bastan-mima, who seem to have become acquainted through some
Syriac writer, who drew his material from a Greek chronographer,
with the first Artaxerxes, readily identified him with Bahman '
the only traditional Iranian ruler available. Luhrdsp and Gush-
tasp on one side, and Darab and Dara on the other, \\ ere alike
out of the question, while Hurmii was a woman. Accordingly
Bahman received the name and distinguishing title of the Achse-
menid, and became known as Ardshir a form of Artaxerxes and
as Dirazdast a translation of the Greek Ma*cpo^eip. The expres-
sion " of the long hand " or " the long handed " is well illustrated
by a passage in Tennyson's " Princess."
" But my good father thought a king a king ;
He cared not for the affection of the house ;
1 NIN, 12.
282 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
He held his sceptre like a pedant's wand
To lash offence, and with long arms and hands
Reach'd out, and picked offenders from the mass
In time, as so often happens, the metaphor was taken literally,
and we find Firdausi saying of Bahman :
" And with his fingers dressed beside his legs
His fists extended lower than his knees." l
How Artaxerxes obtained his title expressive of far-reaching
power does not seem to be known. He may have assumed it
himself, or received it from his subjects or from the Greeks. The
earliest mention of it is by the Greek writer Dinon, or Deinon, 2
in the days of Alexander the Great. The view which identifies
Bahman with Artaxerxes Longimanus has been supplemented by
the further identification of Artabanus with Rustam and Xerxes
with Asfandiyar. 3 If this is accepted we may trace in the con-
tention of Bustam with Asfandiyar, the former's patronage of
Bahman, Bahman's accession to the throne and his subsequent
vengeance on the race of Zal, a poetical version of the palace
conspiracy whereby Artabanus, the captain of the guard, leagued
with Artaxerxes, slew the latter's father Xerxes, and placed
Artaxerxes on the throne only to be destroyed himself shortly
afterward with all his house by the Shah whom he had set up.
If, however, the view expressed at the beginning of this note is
correct, and it is substantially Professor Noldeke's, that the title
of the*Long-handed was derived through the Syriac from Greek
sources and bestowed on a wholly mythical personality, we may
conclude that other events of the reign of the Long-handed were
borrowed from the same foreign source and reflected back in the
like manner, in which case of course the above identifications are
historically valueless. In the translation we always speak of
Bahman, not Ardshir.
5. We have here one of the fictitious genealogies by which
it was striven to connect the Sasanian with the Kaitinian dynasty.
Another will be found in the next volume in the portion dealing
with the Ashkiinian dynasty. 4
1 p. 259. 2 NIN, 12, note.
3 See MHP, i. 528 seq. Cf. too JZ, 133, 160.
4 See too Vol. ii. p. 3.
How Bahman sought Revenge for the Death of
Whenas Bahman sat on his grandsire's throne
He girt his girdle round him, oped his hands,
BestoAved a donative upon the troops,
And granted many a march and many a province.
He held a conclave of the men of wisdom,
The great men, and the officers of state,
And thus he said : " Ye all, both old and young,
Whoever hath an understanding mind,
Wot of the slaying of Asfancliyar,
Of fortune's changes both for good and ill,
Of Rustam's deeds while yet he lived and those
Of Zal, the sorcerer, that ancient man.
Now Faramarz in public and in private
Desireth naught but vengeance on ourselves,
While my head acheth and my heart is full,
And I too think of nothing but revenge :
Two warriors Niish Azar and Mihr-i-Niish
Have given up their lives so wretchedly \ l
By that same token too Asfandiyar
A man without a peer in all the world-
Was slaughtered in Zabulistan. The beasts v. 1749
Of prey and chase went wild with grief for him.
Yea, for the slaughter of Asfandiyar
The pictures in the palace weep for woe,
And for the blood of those our noble ones,
Our youths and gallant cavaliers withal.
No man that springeth from pure stock will leave
His finest jewel lying in the ditch,
But will come forward, like Shah Faridiin
(And while such men exist all will be well)
1 See pp. 226, 227.
284 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Who made Zahhak, in that he slew Jarashid,
To cease among the warriors of the world.
For vengeance Minuchihr led from Arnul
A mighty host 'gainst Tiir and valiant Salm,
Invaded Chin, took vengeance for his grandsire,
And levelled earth up to the hills with'slain. 1
When Kai Khusrau escaped Afrasiyab
He made the world run river-like with blood.
My sire avenged the slaying of Luhrasp,
And like achievements should be told of me.
In vengeance for his father, Faramarz
Exalted to the shining sun his head,
Marched on Kabul, required revenge for Rustam,
And levelled to the dust its fields and fells.
No man could recognise the land for blood :
They made the horses trample on the slain.
More call have I to take revenge who urge
My steed against the elephant and lion,
Because thou wilt not see amongst earth's heroes
Another horseman like Asfandiyar.
What are your views ? What answer do ye give
In this regard ? Strive to advise me well."
Thereat the assembled loyal lieges cried :
" Thy slaves are we and have fulfilled our hearts
With love toward thee. Thou art more- instructed
Than we about the past and mightier.
Do whatsoe'er thou wilt so long as fame
And Grace divine accrue to thee thereby.
No one will disobey thee ; who will dare ? "
V. 1750 Bahman, thus answered by his host, grew keener
For vengeance and made ready to invade
Sistan. This settled, the assembly rose.
At dawn the drums beat and the sky grew ebon
With dust of troops whereof there marched along
Sword- wielding horsemen five score thousand strong.
1 Vol. i. p. 215 aeq.
How Bdhman put Zdl in Bonds
Now when Bahman.was drawing nigh the Hirmund
He choose him out an envoy, one of rank,
Entrusted to him various messages,
And sent him on to Zal, the>son*of Sam,
To say : " My lot is bitter in the world
Through what hath happened to Asfandiyar,
And through the vengeance owing for Nush Zad x
And Nush Azar two loved and high-born princes.
I mean to ease my heart of this old grudge,
And make the rivers of Zabul run blood."
The messenger arrived and gave the message
To Zal, whose heart grew wed to pain and grief,
And he returned this answer : " If the Shah
Is thus concerned about Asfandiyar,
Then let him. know that what was was to be,
And that the matter filled my heart with anguish.
Thou wast thyself exposed to good and ill,
And hadst from me all profit and no loss.
Now Rustam swerved not from thy sire's commands,
But, as thou sawest, bare a loyal heart.
Thy sire, that great and noble prince, was fey,
And thereupon waxed over-bold. The lion
And dragon of the wood can not escape
The clutch of Fate. Thou must have heard, good sooth,
What deeds of valour Sam, the cavalier,
Accomplished in the past, and thus persevered
Down to the days of Rustam, who then drew
The trenchant scimitar and wrought with valour
Before thine ancestors in times of strife. 2
Withal he was the humblest of thy nurses v - 1751
As well as of the mightiest of thy host.
1 Nush Zd seems to be variant of Mihr-i-Niish. 2 Eeading with P.
286 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Now miserably hath he passed away,
And all Zabulistan is full of tumult.
If now thou wilt -forbear to war with us,
Wilt think upon our case considerately,
Wilt come and, putting vengeance from thy heart,
Enchant our land \vith lovingkindliness,
I will present to thee upon thy coming
Sam's wealth, brocade, dinars, his golden girdles,
And golden harness, for thou art the Shah ;
The nobles are thy flock."
He gave the envoy
A steed, dinars, and many other gifts.
Now when the noble envoy reached Bahman,
He told what he had heard and seen with Zal.
Bahman, the fortune-favoured, when he heard,
Rejected the excuse, was very wroth,
And reached the city with an aching heart,
With vengeful thoughts and sighs upon his lips.
Then Zal, the son of Sam the cavalier,
Attended meanly by two horsemen, went
To meet Bahman and, coming to the presence,
Alighted from his roadster, did obeisance,
And spake thus, saying : " Wise and prudent Shah !
Deign to regard us with the eye of wisdom.
By all the services that we have paid,
And by our care for thee when thou wast young,
Forgive us, speak no more about the past,
Be great and seek not vengeance for the slain."
Enraged with Zal, whose hopes w r ere foiled, Bahman
Put him forthwith in fetters, heeding not
What minister or treasurer might say.
Then from the halls of Zal, the son of Sam
The cavalier, they loaded up the camels
v. 1752 With money and with jewels in the rough,
With thrones and tapestries, whate'er there was,
With golden tissue and with golden crowns,
With silvern tissue and with belts and earrings.
They took the Arab horses trapped with gold,
The Indian scimitars with golden sheaths,
The prisoners and sacks of drachms, of musk,
And camphor, and the treasures more or less
That Rustam had collected by his toil
From Shahs and chiefs. Bahman delivered all
Zabulistan to pillaging and then
Gave crowns and purses to his mighty men.
How Faramarz fought -with Bahman and was put to Death
At Bust, upon the frontier, Faramarz,
In dudgeon for his grandsire, steeped his hands
In vengeance, gathered troops, marched 'gainst Bahman,
And oft recalled the wars of matchless Rustam.
When news of this had reached the monarch's ears
He raged upon the throne of king of kings,
Packed up the baggage, called the troops to horse,
Marched to the burial-place of Rustam's race,
And tarried there two weeks. Then with the din
Of trumpets and of Indian bells the mountains
Shook to their cores, heaven bathed the world in pitch,
And from that pitch the arrows showered like hail,
While at the clash of ax and twang of bow
The earth out-quaked the sky. Three days and nights
Upon that field steel swords and maces rained,
And clouds of dust collected overhead.
Upon the fourth day there arose a storm :
Thou wouldst have said : " The day and night arc one."
The blast was in the face of Faramarz. v. I753
The world-lord joyed and, following up the dust
With trenchant sword, brought Doomsday on the foe.
The men of Bust, the warriors of Zabul,
The gallant swordsmen of Kabulistan.
288 THE SHAHNAMA \OF FIRDAUSI
Had not a horseman left upon the field,
No chief was left of all those men of name,
For one by one they turned their backs in flight,
And shamefully deserted Faramarz.
The battlefield was heaped up mountain-like
By slain struck down pell mell from both the hosts.
Albeit with a paltry band of heroes
Right bravely Faramarz still faced the foe,
Himself a lion and a lion's whelp,
With all his body hacked by scimitars,
Until at length that noble warrior
Was ta'en by brave Ardshi'r who carried him
Before Bahman. That vengeful monarch gazed
Upon him for a while but would not spare,
V. 1754 Bade rear a gibbet and hung Faramarz
Alive thereon, his elephantine form
Head-downward. Then in wreak, with arrow-rain,
Bahman, 1 that famous Kaian, had him slain.
How Bahman released Zdl and returned to /ran 2
Now noble Bishutan, the minister,
Was sorely troubled by this butchery,
And rising in the world-lord's presence said :
" Just monarch ! if revengement was thy due,
And 'twas thy heart's desire, that wish of thine
Is perfected in loss. Cease to enjoin
Raid, slaughter, turmoil, strife. Approve them not,
Refrain thyself, fear God, and think of us.
Consider well the turns of fortune's wheel,
How it exalteth this man to the clouds,
And putteth that man into sorry plight.
Thy sire, that world-lord and the army's Lustre,
Did he not go Nimruz-ward for a bier,
1 Ardshir in the original. See p. 282. 2 Eeading with C and P.
And did not Rustam too when at Kabul
Go to the chase and perish in a pit ?
While thou dost live, O king of pure descent !
Vex not a man of birth, for if the son
Of Sam, the son of Nariman, shall cry
Against his bondage to the great All-giver,
Thou wilt be pinched, successful as thou art,
When he appealeth to the Omnipotent.
To Rustam, warder of the Kaian throne,
Who used to gird his loins for every toil,
Thou wast indebted for this crown and not
To Shah Gushtdsp or to Asfandiyar.
Trace downward from the days of Kai Kubad
To those of Kai Khusrau of holy rede ;
All owed their greatness to his .^cimitar,
And held the mightiest his inferiors.
If thou art wise release Zal from his bonds,
And turn thy heart back from the evil way."
The Shah repented of those deeds of his
When he had heard the words of Bishiitan.
A proclamation issued from his court : v. 1755
" Ye paladins, ye just and upright men !
Make preparations for returning home,
And keep from pillage and from massacre."
He bade them to release the feet of Zal
From bonds and give him much good counselling.
They built a charnel-house to hold the slain,
Such was the rede of righteous Bishutan.
When Zal returned from prison to his palace
His noble spouse wept o'er him bitterly,
And cried : " Alack thou brave, heroic Rustam,
Thou scion of the hero Nariman !
When yet thou wast alive who recognised
Gushtasp as Shah ? But now thy hoards are sacked,
Zal hath been captive, and thy son slain vilely
By showers of arrows ! Oh ! may none e'er see
VOL. v. T
290 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Another day like this, and may the earth
Be void of offspring from Asfandiyar."
Now tidings of this matter reached Bahman,
As well as glorious Bishutan, who grieved
For her ; his cheeks grew wan at her complainings.
He spake thus to Bahman : " O youthful Shah,
As 'twere a new moon in the midst of heaven !
At daybreak lead thy host forth from this land,
For matters here are grave and troublesome.
May evil eyes be distant from thy crown,
And may thy whole time be a festival.
The king of kings should stay not long beneath
The roof of Zal, the son of Sam the hero."
Whenas the hills became like sandarach,
And when the sound of drums rose from the courtgate,
The monarch led the army from Zabul
Toward Iran the country of the brave.
He rested, sat rejoicing on the throne,
And ruled the world by precedent and justice.
Great was the largess that the poor received,
And many men rejoiced in him or grieved.
How Bahman married his own daughter Humai and
appointed his Successor
Bahman l possessed one lion-taking son,
On whom he had bestowed the name Sasan ;
V. 1756 He had withal a daughter named Humai,
Considerate, accomplished, and discreet.
They used to call her by the name Chihrzad. 2
Her father's greatest joy was seeing her.
He took her for his wife, which in the Faith
1 See p. 288, note.
2 The name may mean "Born of the seed " or if = Chihr Azdd, "Of
noble seed" or "Of noble mien."
That thou call'st olden was a goodly deed.
Humai, that heart-refreshing shining Moon,
In course of time grew pregnant by the Shah.
Now when six months had passed she 'gan to ail,
And he, at seeing this, fell sick himself,
And, prostrated with suffering, summoned her.
He summoned too the nobles and the > magnates,
And, seating them where great men use to sit,
Thus said : " This chaste Humai hath had small joy
Of this world, and I leave her crown, high throne,
The host, the treasure, and preeminence.
She shall be my successor in the world,
She and the babe withal that she shall bear,
For, whether it shall prove a son or daughter,
It shall succeed to crown and throne and girdle."
Sasan, on hearing this, was all astound :
His heart was darkened by his father's words,
And, like a pard, in three days and two nights
He journeyed from Iran abroad in shame,
And reached in haste the town of Nishapiir
In dudgeon and an alien from his sire.
He asked a lady of high rank in marriage,
But kept himself down level with the dust,
Withheld the secret of his Kaian birth,
And spake to no one of his quality.
His chaste wife bare to -him a holy son,
Whose steps were happy and whose birth was blest,
A son to whom he gave the name Sasan, v. 1757
And died anon. Whenas the child grew up,
And saw his home a prey to poverty,
He tended for the king of Nishapiir
The herds that roamed at will o'er plain and mountain,
And was for long the herdsman of the king :
His dwelling was on height and wilderness.
Now turn I to Huinai to tell her case
When she, Bahman deceased, assumed his place.
SHE REIGNED THIRTY-TWO YEARS
Humai, in order to keep the throne for herself, casts away her
son, when an infant, in an ark on the Euphrates. The babe is
found by a launderer, adopted by him and his wife, and named
Danib. Darab's kingly qualities early assort themselves, and, re-
fusing to follow his foster-father's trade, he enters the Persian
army. A portent calls the general's attention to him. He dis-
plays great valour in war against the Rumans, and is recognised
by Humai, who owns him as her son and resigns the throne in his
The goddess of love, worshipped in many lands and under many
names, had one of her oldest seats at Ascalon. 1 Beside her dove-
haunted temple was a lake, abounding in fish, to which at stated
times the image of the goddess a woman to the waist and a fish
below was borne in procession. Her local name was Derketo.
The cult of the goddess gave rise to a legend that Derketo origi-
nally was a girl who, as the result of a love-affair with a Syrian
youth, gave birth to a daughter whom she exposed to perish
among rocks in a desert, threw herself into the lake, and was
changed into a fish. Her abandoned babe was cared for and fed
by the doves till about one year old, when it was found by the
herdsmen of Simmas, the keeper of the flocks of Ninus, king of
Assyria. Simmas, who was childless, brought up the babe as his
own, and gave her the name of Semiramis. In after years Onnes,
the viceroy of Syria under king Ninus and his chief counsellor,
saw, fell in love with, and married her. She bore him two sons,
Hyapates and Hydaspes. Then Ninus himself became infatuated
1 Herodotus, Book I. c. 105.
with her, Onnes hung himself, and Semiramis became queen. By
Ninus she had a son named Ninyas. When Ninus died he left
her the throne. Her career as supreme ruler was magnificent
rather than moral. She governed all Asia as far eastward as
the Indus, and was the reputed builder of Babylon, its hanging
gardens, and the temple of Bel. In fact all great achievements
of building or engineering in those parts were attributed to her.
After a reign of forty-two years, and at the age of sixty-two, she
resigned the throne to her son Ninyas, and either made away with
herself by suicide or else turned into a dove and flew oft' in com-
pany with a flock of those birds. Such in brief is a legend that
was much in vogue in the days when Ktesias was court physician
in Persia between the years B.C. 417 and B.c 398. He recorded it
in his Persica, Diodorus epitomised it in his Bibliotheca, Books I.
and II., and through his epitome it has come down to us. The
legend has been given here because it seems not unlikely that in
Humai we have a reminiscence of Semiramis. The two legends
certainly have much in common. We have two queens, both of
whom, after the death of their husbands and by their express
sanction, oust to employ a convenient phrase the rightful heir ;
both of them have a foundling story connected with them, and both
in the end resign their thrones to their sons. Both too are repre-
sented in legend as having been great builders ; Hunuii is credited,
though not in the Shahnama, with the edifices whose ruins still
exist in the neighbourhood of Istakhr (Persepolis) in Pars. 1
Moreover Mas'udi tells us that Humai's mother was a Jewess, i.e.
a Syrian. 2 Two attempts seem to have been made to connect
Humai with the old legendary line of kings, and both charac-
teristically Persian. In one she is the daughter of Gushtasp
and marries her brother Asfandiyar ; in the other she is the
daughter of Bahman and marries her father. The foundling
legend is transferred from her to her son Danib. Several such
legends are in existence. The oldest probably is that of Sargon I.
of Agani, an ancient Babylonian king. " My mother," he says,
" placed me in an ark of bulrushes : with bitumen my door she
closed up : she threw me into the river, 3 which did not enter into
the ark to me. The river carried me : to the dwelling of AKKI
the water-carrier it brought me. AKKI the water-carrier in his
goodness of heart lifted me up from the river. AKKI tile water-
carrier brought me up as his o\vn son." 4 Similarly Romulus and
Remus, the twin sons of the Vestal Silvia, were set afloat on the
1 ZT, i. 510, NT, p. 8 and note, MM, iv. 76.
- MM, ii. 123. 3 The Euphrates.
4 RP, v. 3.
294 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Tiber in a trough, and afterward brought up by a shepherd and
his wife. 1 There is too the case of Moses and of others.
Humai appears in the Zandavasta as "the holy Huma." 2 She
is the earliest of the three queens or female Shahs that, according
to the partly legendary, partly historical, dynastic scheme of the
Shiihnama, ruled in ancient times over Iran. She is also by far
the most important of the three. The other two Purandukht
and Azarmdukht reigned in succession for six and four months
respectively during part of the troublous period (A.D. 628-633)
that intervened between the deposition of Khusrau Parwiz and
the accession of Yazdagird III.
How Humdi cast away her son Ddrdb on the River
Fardt in an Ark
v. 1758 Bahman died of his malady and ceased
To be concerned about the crown and throne.
Humai came, set the crown upon her head,
And ordered things anew, admitted all
The army to her court and, opening
The portal of her treasures, gave dinars.
In rede and justice she excelled her sire :
The whole world prospered through her equity.
She said : " Be this crown glorious, our foes' hearts
Uprooted, our profession every good,
And may none see distress and care through us.
I will enrich all mendicants and those
Who earn their own subsistence by their toil,
And harass not the great possessed of treasure."
Whenas the time of her delivery came
She kept it from the people and the host,
V. 1759 Because she loved the throne of sovereignty,
And found it profit to possess the world.
She bare a son in secret, kept it close,
And had the little Treasure hid away,
Procured for nurse a woman of free birth,
1 Livy, Book I. c. 4. 2 DZA, ii. 224.
Pure, full of modesty, and other virtues,
And privily made o'er to her the babe,
That Shoot so nourishing and full of promise,
And, when they asked Humai about her son,
She used to say : " The noble child is dead."
Moreover she assumed the royal crown,
And held the throne in triumph and in joy.
She sent her hosts where'er were hostile chiefs,
And was apprised of everything that passed
For good or evil in the world around.
She only sought for what was just and good,
And ordered all the world aright ; her justice
Safeguarded it ; it spake of her alone.
Thus eight months passed away, but when the boy
Began to favour the departed Shah
She ordered that a skilful carpenter
Should choose material for fine joinery,
And make a goodly ark of seasoned wood.
They smeared it with a coat of pitch and musk,
And lined it softly with brocade of Rum,
Bedaubing it without with lime and wax.
She placed within a pillow for a bed,
And filled it full of pearls of splendid water.
They poured in quantities of ruddy gold,
Mixed with cornelians and emeralds.
They bound one jewel, such as kings might wear,
Upon the arm of that unweaned child
And, when the little one was fast asleep,
His nurse, so deft of hand, went wailingly,
Disposed him tenderly inside the ark,
Enwrapped him warmly in fine silk of Chin,
And then they made the cover water-tight
With lime, pitch, wax, and musk. When midnight came
They carried forth the ark, without a word, v. 1760
And, hasting from Humai, set it adrift
Upon the stream of the Farat. Two men
296 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Ran after it to notice how the suckling
Fared on the stream. The ark went like a boat,
And those that watched had to bestir themselves.
Now when the morning rose above the mountains
The ark brought up beside a watercourse,
Where was a laundering-place ; the workers there
Had made with stones the channel's inlet narrow.
A launderer beheld the little ark,
Ran up, and drew it from the laundering-place.
When he had oped the ark, and had removed
The coverings, he stood in wonderment,
Wrapped it in heaps of clothes and hurried off,
All eager expectation and delight,
Whereat a watcher ran to tell the mother
Of ark and launderer. Said that shrewd queen :
" Thou must keep hidden that which thou hast seen."
How the Launderer brought up Dardb
Now when the launderer came back from the stream
At that untimely hour his wife exclaimed :
" Is this thy husbandry to bring the clothes
Half dried ? Whoe'er will pay thee for such work ? "
The launderer, heart-withered then by grief
Because his own. bright little one was dead,
For whom his wife was all disconsolate
With lacerated cheeks and darkened soul,
Replied : " Cheer up ! Henceforth for thee to wail
Will be but scurvy, for if my good wife
Can keep a secret I will tell a thing :
Upon the watercourse, against the stone
Whereon I beat the clothes and rinse them out
When I have finished cleaning them, I spied
An ark, and hidden in it was a babe
A little one that thou wilt love at sight V. 1761
As soon as ever I uncover it.
Tis true that we have had one of our own,
Though for a little while and he is dead,
But now thou hast one unawares a son
All furnished with dinars and jewelry !"
With that he set the clothes upon the ground,
And lifted up the cover of the ark.
The launderer's wife beheld and in her wonder
Exclaimed : " God bless it ! " for she saw a cheek
Aglow amid the silk Bahman's own image !
His pillow was all pearls of finest water,
With emeralds and cornelians for his footstool ;
Upon his left hand there were red dinars,
And on his right hand jewels in profusion.
The woman suckled him immediately,
Rejoicing over that entrancing babe,
Whose beauty and whose wealth consoled her heart.
The launderer said to her : " We must be ever
Prepared to give our lives up for this child,
Because he is the son of some great man,
May be a king himself."
The launderer's wife
Cared for the child as it had been her kin,
As it had been her very son indeed,
And on the third day named the babe Darab,
Because they found his cradle in the stream. 1
It happened that one day the careful wife
Was talking to her lord of many things,
And said to him : " How wilt thou use these gems ?
Let wisdom be thy counsellor therein."
" Good wife ! " the launderer answered, " hoarded jewels
1 Bar <ib = in water. According to Tabari (ZT. i. 509) Humai, hear-
ing that her son had been found by a miller, sent for the latter, inquired
about the babe, and said, "Ddr," i.e. "Take him." Hence the form
"Diiru." Both forms occur in the text, and both etymologies are of
course worthless. The ancient form of the word was " Djlrayavahush."
298 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
And dust are one to me. Tis best for us
To quit this city, move out to the plains,
Relieved from straits and hardship, and reside
Within some city, where folk know us not,
Content and affluent."
At morn he packed,
Departed, and forgot those fields and fells.
They bore Darab with them and carried naught
Beside except the gold and jewelry.
v. 1762 They journeyed from the place for three score leagues,
They made their home within another city,
And there within that alien city lived
Like wealthy folk. A famous magnate dwelt
Therein, and unto him the launderer sent
One of the jewels, taking in return
Apparel, gold, and silver. Thus he did
Until he had exchanged them nearly all,
And there remained one ruby in the house
Of what the ark had held for good or ill.
One day the wife, who was the manager,
Said to her master : " We need work no longer.
Since thou hast made thy fortune give up trade."
He answered her : " Good wife and guide ! thou
Of trade. Well, what is better ? Trade is ever
The first concern. Tend well Darab and mark
What time will yet produce for thee through him."
They cherished him so dearly that he felt
No ill from any blast. When heaven had wheeled
Above him for some years he grew to be
A youth of stature and of Grace divine,
And wrestled with his playmates in the street,
Where none could match him as to bulk and strength,
Yea, all combined against him and were worsted !
The launderer grumbled at these escapades,
Which made the outlook gloomy for the shop,
And said : " Now beat these clothes upon the stone ;
Tis no disgrace to thee to learn a craft,"
And when Darab, as usual, left the work,
And ran away, the launderer used to weep
In tears of blood and wasted nearly all
His time in searching countryside and city,
And coming on the boy with bow in hand,
His breast extended and his thumbstall on,
Would seize the bow and cry indignantly :
" O thou destructive and pugnacious Wolf !
Why dost thou hanker after bow and arrows ?
Why art thou set on evil while so young ? "
Thereat Darab would answer : " my father ! V. 1763
Thou turn'st the brightness of my life to gloom.
Provide me first of all with men of lore,
That I may get by heart the Zandavasta,
And then command my toils for trade and stream,
But do. not yet require this drudgery."
The launderer, having often rated him,
At last consigned him to the care of teachers.
He learned accomplishments, grew masterful,
And wholly past fault-finding and reproach.
" My father," said he to his foster-sire,
" This laundry business is not fit for me ;
Be not at all concerned on mine account,
But bring me up to be a cavalier."
The launderer thereupon selected one
Of good repute and skilled in horsemanship,
And long committed to his charge the youth,
Who learnt from him whate'er was requisite
The way to handle rein and lance and buckler,
And wheel his charger on the battlefield,
To play at polo, shoot with bow and arrow,
And outwit foes, till he attained such might
That leopards would not close with him in fight.
300 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
How Ddrdb questioned the Launderer's Wife about his
Parentage, and how he fought against the Humans
One day Darab said to the launderer :
" Albeit that I never mention it
Affection stirreth not in me for thee,
Nor is my face like thine. I feel astounded
Whene'er thou call'st me son and seatest me
Beside thee in the shop."
The launderer said :
" What words are these ? Alack for all the pains
Bestowed on thee ! If thou out-classest me
Seek for thy sire ; thy mother hath thy secret."
It happened that the launderer one day
Went from the house and hastened to the stream.
V. 1764 Darab made fast the door and then approached
The good wife, took in hand his scimitar,
And said to her : " Attempt not to deceive me,
And to obscure the issue ; speak the truth
In answer to my questions. How am I
Related to you both and wherefore dwelling
Thus with a launderer ? "
In fright the woman
Begged for her life and called on God for succour.
She said : " Seek not my blood, and I will tell thee
All as thou biddest."
She recounted all,
With neither reticence nor subterfuge,
About the ark, the infant yet unweaned,
About the golden coins and royal jewels,
And said : " We were but simple working-folk
Quite unrelated to the quality.
What wealth we have is all derived from thine ;
Through thee we rose from low to high estate.
We are but slaves and thine is to command :
What wilt thou ? We are thine both soul and body."
Darab stood in amaze on hearing this,
Plunged in profound surmise. He said to her :
" Doth anything remain of all that wealth,
Or hath the launderer spent the whole of it ?
Is there enough still left to buy a horse
In this our day of lowliness and want ? "
The woman said : " There is and more than that,
And there are money, land, and fruitful gardens."
She gave him all the money that she had,
And showed to him the precious uncut gem.
He spent the money on a noble steed,
A lasso, mace, and saddle of low price.
There was a prudent marchlord, one of weight,
A magnate well approved and well advised,
To whom Darab betook himself with soul
O'ercloudcd and perturbed. The marchlord held him
In highest estimation ; no disaster
Befell him any whit.
Now as it chanced
An army marched from Rum to levy war
Upon that prosperous land, that frontier-chief
Was slain in battle and his army worsted. v. 1765
In those days when the tidings reached Humai :
" The Human hath set foot upon our border,"
There lived a warrior hight Rashnawad
A captain of the host and sprung from such.
She ordered : " Let him lead a host toward Ruin,
And waste the country with the scimitar."
To that end Rashnawad assembled troops,
Assigned the mustering place and gave out rations ;
Darab heard, joyed, went, and enrolled his name.
When many troops had gathered, and the muster
Had been completed, glorious Humai,
Accompanied by well affected 'chiefs,
302 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Came from the palace to review the host,
To count the numbers, and go through the names
Upon the registers. She tarried long
On that broad plain while many troops marched past,
And when she spied Darab, his Grace divine,
His bearing, and the steel mace on his shoulder,
When thou hadst said : " He filleth all the plain,
And earth is subject to his prancing steed,"
When too she marked his breast and lovesorne face,
The mother's milk stirred in her, and she asked :
" Whence is this cavalier who is possessed
Of such great limbs and is so tall and straight ?
Me seemeth that he is a man of name,
Discreet and yet a warlike cavalier,
A gallant heart, illustrious and mighty ;
But his equipment is not worthy of him."
When narrowly she had surveyed Darab,
And had approved of all that host, she chose
A favourable season by the stars
Upon the captain of the host's behalf,
As was the fitting course. What time the leaders
Were of one mind they led the army forth
And left Humai. She sent out watchful spies
To keep her well informed and certified
v. 1766 About the army's case for good and ill,
And cut short all surmises of mishaps.
Thus stage by stage the army marched on Rum ;
Its flying dust-clouds filled the heavens with gloom.
How Raxlmawdd learned the Case of Darab
It happened that one day a mighty tempest,
With thunderings and lightnings, rain and turmoil,
Brake o'er the host and troubled Rashnawad ;
The earth was flooded and the welkin roared ;
Men everywhere were fleeing from the downpour,
And making for some shelter on the waste.
Diirab, like others, was discomfited,
And sought to escape the storm. He looked around,
Beheld a heap of ruins, and observed
A lofty vault, though old and ruinous,
One that had borne the brunt of wind and weather,
Still standing in their midst. He slept perforce
Therein for he was all alone and friendless.
The general was going on his rounds,
And passing by the vault, when from the waste
A voice fell on his ear and made him quail
For his own life ; it was a voice that said :
" ruined vault ! be very circumspect !
Be careful of the monarch of Iran.
He hadlnot any shelter, friend, or mate,
And so he came and slumbered under thee."
Thought Rashnawad : " 'Tis thunder on the blast."
Then from the desert came the voice again :
" O vault ! " it said, " close not the eye of wisdom,
For 'neath thee is the son of Shah Bahman.
Fear not the rain and keep these words in mind."
A third time that same voice came to his ear ; v. 1767
His heart was strangely straitened at the sound.
He asked a counsellor : " What thing is this ?
Some one must needs go thither. Ascertain
Who is reposing there in such concern
They went and saw a youth
Of prudent aspect and heroic mien,
His charger and his garments wet and worn,
And he was couching on the darksome dust.
They told the general, whose heart was stirred,
And he commanded : " Summon him forthwith,
And make him hear."
They cried : " AAvake, thou sleeper !
304 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
Arouse thee from thy slumber on the dust."
He mounted, and at once the vault fell in !
The leader of the army of the Shah,
On witnessing a portent such as that,
And having scanned Darab from head to foot,
Went with him quickly to the camp-enclosure,
Exclaiming : " just Judge, the only. God !
None hath beheld this wonder heretofore,
Or heard of such from the experienced chiefs."
Then garments were supplied at his behest,
And a pavilion got in readiness.
They made a fire huge as a hill and burned
Much aloe- wood and musk and ambergris.
Whenas the sun rose o'er the mountain-tops
The general made all ready for the march.
He bade an archimage his chief adviser
To bring a change of raiment, Arab steed
With golden trappings, mail, and gold-sheathed sword.
These he presented to Darab, and asked :
" lion-hearted man and warrior !
Who art thou ? Of what country and what race ?
Twere well that thou shouldst tell me all the truth."
Darab, on hearing this, narrated all,
Disclosing every secret of his past ;
v. 1768 Just as the good wife had acquainted him,
So told he everything to Rashnawad,
About the ark, the ruby on his arm,
The money and brocade that lay beside him,
And of his rest and slumber in the vault.
Then Rashnawad dispatched a man forthwith,
And to that messenger he said : " Bring hither,
As swift as wind, both Mars and Venus, bring
The launderer, his wife, and signet-ring."
How Ddrdb fought against the Host of Rum
This said, he broke up camp and marched on Rum.
He made Darab the leader of the scouts,
And issued to them lances tipped with steel.
The scouts drew near to Rum, and from that side
The warden of those inarches came to meet them.
All unawares they countered. Battle's dust
Arose forthwith. They mixed in fight and shed
Blood like a river. When Darab beheld
That warrior-host he came like flying dust,
And slew so many of the troops of Rum
That thou hadst said: "The world hath grasped its
He went forth like a lion, under him
A Dragon, in his hand a Crocodile.
Thus fared he till he reached the Rumans' camp,
And rushed upon it like an angry lion.
Earth seemed a sea of Riirnan blood ; wherever
His falchion led him went the atheling.
Returning from his triumph o'er the Rumans
He came to Rashnawad, the noble leader,
And had from him much praise : " May our Shah's host
Ne'er lack thee. When we quit the land of Rum,
And when the host is home, thou shalt receive
Such favours from the Shah that thou wilt be
The richer both by treasure and a crown."
They spent the night in ordering the troops, v. 1769
And furbishing the weapons of the horsemen ;
Then as the sun rose o'er the gloomy dales,
And earth became as 'twere a lamp agleam,
The two opposing armies met again,
And darkened with their dust the rising sun ;
But when Darab advancing led the charge,
VOL. v. u
306 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
And gave his fleet steed rein, there tarried not
A single man before the Human lines,
While of the warrior-swordsmen few survived.
He came upon the centre like a wolf,
And scattered utterly that great array.
Assailing then the right wing of the foe
He carried off abundant arms and spoil,
And cut in pieces all the troops of Bum :
None of their champions seemed himself at all !
The warriors of Iran came with a rush,
Like lions, in his wake right valiantly,
And slew so many of the Human host
That all the field was puddled into clay.
Darab slew forty of the Christian prelates l
Among the magnates and bare off the Cross. 2
At those great deeds the heart of Rashnawad,
The paladin, swelled with delight. He blessed
And greatly praised Darab, and favoured him
The more while blessing him. Night came, the world
Grew pitch-like, and the host returned from fight.
The general rested in the Humans' camp,
And loosed the girdle from his loins. He spent
The night apportioning the ample spoil,
And all the army was enriched thereby.
He sent Darab a messenger to say :
" O man of lion-heart and good at need !
Consider now what thou wilt please to take,
And of this spoil what is of use to thee :
Whatever doth not please thee give away ;
Thou art more glorious than the lord of Rakhsh.
Darab, on seeing this, was well content,
1 See Vol. i. pp. 373, 378.
2 No doubt the Labarum of the army is meant. The true Cross was
taken at the capture of Jerusalem by Khusrau Parwiz (Chosroes II.),
A.D. 614, and carried off to Persia, whence it was recovered by
Heraclius on the conclusion of peace in A,D. 628, BGDF, ii. 300, v.
And for form's sake retained a spear himself,
Dispatching all the rest to Rashnawad, V. 1770
And said : " Mayst thou be conquering and happy."
Whenas the sun's orb left the darksome west
The sky donned black brocade and when one watch
Had passed, and all the sentinels were set,
Their challenges ascended in a roar
As 'twere of lions loose.
Now when the sun
Took up its golden shield, and when the troops
Awoke, the warriors of Iran girt up
Their loins, were instant to pursue the Riimans,
Made sparks flash from their trenchant scimitars,
And gave up all the cities to the flames.
They sent the dust up both from land and people ;
None e'er recalled to mind those fields and fells.
A miserable wail went up from Rum,
For men abandoned that delightful land,
While Cassar had not wherewithal for vengeance,
And all the faces of his chiefs were wan.
An envoy came to Rashnawad to say :
" If thou, the just, hast not abandoned justice
Our warriors have had enough of war ;
The head of Rum's good fortune is brought low'.
If thou desirest tribute we will do
Thy bidding and will make new terms with thee."
Moreover Cassar sent abundant gifts,
With purses, captives, and all manner of wealth,
And Rashnawad received them as enough,
The money and the jewels in the rough.
How Humdi recognised her Son
Thence they departed homeward joyfully,
Darab, the worshipful, and Rashnawad,
3o8 THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUS1
Who halted when he reached the ruined vault,
Whereunder he had seen Darab asleep.
The launderer, with his goodwife and the jewel,
Were there already, fearful of disgrace.
The general summoned them forthwith ; they prayed
To God for succour and appeared before him.
V. 1771 When Rashnawad beheld the man and wife
He questioned them ; they called the facts to mind,
And told him all the truth about the matter,
About the ark, about the uncut gem,
Their toils, their nurture of the sucking-child,
Their troubles, and the process of events.
Then Rashnawad said to the man and wife :
" Success and gladness be for ever yours,
For none on earth hath seen so strange a thing,
Or even heard of such from archiniages."
Immediately that man of upright mind
Indited an epistle to Humai
About Darab, the storm, his sleeping-place,
His prowess on the battlefield withal,
And also what the launderer had told
About the ark, the infant, and the treasures.
He told about the voice that he had heard,
How he 'was troubled by the sound, and how,
Just when Darab had mounted on his steed,
The vault had fallen in. He told it all,
Dispatched a courier like the blast for speed,
Gave to his charge the ruddy gem, and said :
" See that thou art the waymate of the wind."
Like wind he went and bare Humai the ruby.
He gave the letter and repeated all
The words of Rashnawad. When she had read
The letter, and beheld the gem, she wept ;
She knew that, on the day when she reviewed
The troops, the gracious youth, whom she had marked
Of mighty stature and with cheeks like spring,
Could be none other than her son indeed
A noble and a fruitful Branch of hers.
Humai said weeping to the messenger :
" There hath arrived a master for the world.
I was not free from care, but was concerned
About the question of the sovereignty.
I quailed before the world's Judge, having shown V. 1772
Ingratitude to Him, for He had given me
A son whom I renounced and cast away
Upon the waters of Farat. 'Twas I
That bound this jewel on his arm, misprising
The child because his sire was gone. Now God
Hath given him back to me through Rashnawad,
And with victorious fame."
They showered a treasure
Of gold, and mingled jewels, musk, and wine.
Humai gave largess to the indigent,
And the next se'nnight oped her hoarded drachms.
Where'er she knew there were a Fane of Fire,
The Zandavasta, and the Sada l feast,
There she bestowed her treasure in like wise,
And lavished gifts through all the provinces.
Upon the tenth day, early in the morning,
The general appeared before the Shah,
And with him were the chieftains and her son,
But they concealed the case from every one.
How Humdi seated Ddrab upon the Throne
The Shah let down the curtain of the court,
And for one se'nnight gave no audience.
She caused a golden throne to be prepared,
1 See Vol. i. p. 123.
3io THE SHAHNAMA OF FIRDAUSI
With two seats made of lapis lazuli
And turquoise, with a crown all royal gems,
A pair of armlets, a bejewelled torque,
And an imperial robe of cloth of gold
Wherein were woven divers kinds of jewels.
Before the Shah there sat astrologers
To search the stars to find a lucky day.
So on the Shahrivar of month Bahman,
At dawn, the Shah gave audience to Dardb.
She filled a cup with rubies and another
With ruddy gold, and, when Darab approached
The hall of audience, went afar to meet him,
Did him obeisance, showered on him those jewels
Fit for a king, and wept blood on her breast,
V. 1773 Embraced him, kissed him, and caressed his face,
Then brought and set him on the golden throne,
And scanned him wonderingly. When he was seated
She came, gold crown in hand, kissed him and crowned
Assuring all men that the crown was his.
When he was thus illustrate with the crown
Humai began to proffer her excuses,
And said : " As touching what is past, know this
That all hath turned to wind. 'Twas -brought
By youth, access to treasure, woman's way,
A sire deceased, a Shah without a guide.
If still she wrongeth thee yet let it pass,
For mayst thou have no seat except the throne
He made answer to his mother :
" Thou hast the royal temperament, and 'tis
No wonder if thy heart be moved, but why
Still harpest thou upon a single fault ?
May He that made the world approve of thee,
And anguish fill the hearts of all thy foes.
This story shall be my memorial,
And ne'er grow obsolete upon the roll."
The blest Humai did reverence, and said :
" Thou shall endure as long as crown endureth."
She gave command to the high priest to call
The men of learning out of every province,
And further bade that of the troops all those
Of name, the illustrious Lions wielding swords,
Should homage that famed world-lord as the Shah.
As they called blessings down upon his crown,
And scattered jewels thereupon, Humai
Described what she had done in secrecy,
And all the anguish that her act had caused her.
" Know ye," she added, " that of Shah Bahman
This is the sole memorial on earth.
Ye all must walk according to his bidding, V. 17/4
For he is shepherd, warriors are his flock ;
His are the majesty, the diadem,
And kingship : all must look to him for succour."
Then from the palace rose a shout for gladness
Because they saw a glorious Branch sprout forth ;
The Shah himself was hidden under jewels,
The world was filled with justice and with joy,
And no one recked of sorrow and of care.
Then was it that Humai addressed the chiefs,
And said : " Ye noble and accomplished sages !
I give my son the treasure and the throne
To me a toil of two and thirty years.
Rejoice ye then, submit to his commands,
And breathe but at his bidding."
Joyed in the crown of majesty, and donned
The diadem in peace, the launderer
Came with his wife apace. They said to him :
" Blest be thy sitting on the Kaian throne,
monarch of the world ! and be the hearts
312 THE SHAH NAM A OF FIRDAUSI
Of all thy foes plucked out."
Danib bade bring
Ten purses filled with gold, a goblet rich
With gems, five bales of raiment of all kinds,
And gave them to the folk that had so toiled
For him. " busy launderer ! " he said,
" Be still engrossed in business. It may be
Thou yet mayst light upon another ark,
And on another infant like Darab ! "
They went away invoking with their lips
God's blessing on the monarch of f ran.
Then set the launderer's star ; he sought again
His shop and carried lye upon the plain.
This Index and the Table of Contents at the beginning of the volume are
complementary. References to the latter are in Roman numerals.
ABBREVIATIONS, list of, 3
Abii'l Ka"sim, Firdausi, 89, 119
Achsaraenida, dynasty, 10, 281
AdarbaVl, son of Mahraspand, 16
Afrasiydb, ruler of Tilrdn, 12,
13, 21, 44, 62, 176, 203,
Agani, Sargon I. of, 293
Ahmad, son of Sahl, lord of Marv,
Aliriman, tbe Evil Principle, or
used metaphorically, 17,
33, 3 6 > 45. 5. 90, 99, i3'
122, 123, 125, 147, 177, 198,
206, 246, 271, 276
Ahuna Vairya, sacred formula,
Akem Manau, demon, 17
Akki, foster-father of Sargon I. of
Alburz, mountain, 202
Alexander the Great (Sikandar),
Aiwa, I'ninian hero^ 166, 167
slain by Nush Azar, 226
Amesliaspentas, the, 15 seq.
Ammianus Marcellinus, historian,
Anuil, city, 284
Amulet, given by Zarduhsht to
Andarimdn, Turanian hero, 29
Andariman (Vandaremaini), bro-
ther of Arjasp, 12,46, 141,
commands one wing of the
put to death, 158
Apothegms, 78, 105, 168, 214,
242, 249, 250, 265
Arabs, the, 31
Aras, river, 13, 14
Arasti, uncle of Zarduhsht, 17
Archer, the, constellation, 86
Ardibiliisht, month, 16, 39, 92
Ardshir (Artaxerxes). See Bah-
meaning of, 259 and note
Ardshir, Tranian liero, 1 67, 288
tells Nastur where to find
takes Fara"marz prisoner, 288
Ardshir, son of Gushtasp, v, 26,
his death foretold by Jdmdsp,
Ardshir Papakan, founder of the
Sa'sdnian dynasty, 10
Are<7a-aspa. See Arjitsp.
Aries, constellation, 39, 109, 118,
Arish, Trdnian archer, 12, 62
legend of, 12
1 Perhaps the son of Bizhan. See Vol. iv. 360.
Arjiisp (Are^-aspa), king of
Triian, v, vi, vii, 9, n seq.,
20, 22, 24 seq., 29, 31, 32, 36
seq., 51 seq., 61 seq., 71, 72,
89, 90, 98, 99, 103, 107 seq.,
116, 141, 142, 145 seq., 157,
159, 161, 167, 171, 172, 180,
in receipt of tribute from
hears of Gushtdsp's resolve
not to pay tribute, sum-
mons, and harangues his
sends Bidirafsh and Niim-
khastto Gushtdsp, 37, 40
on receiving Gushtasp's an-
swer calls out the host, 45
gives one wing to Kuhram, 46
the other to Aiidariinaii,
the chief command to
banner to Bidirafsh, 46
vanguard toKhashash, 46
rear to Hushdiv, 46
marches against f ra"n, 46
his defeat foretold by Jdmas]) j
gives one wing to Bidirafsh, 55
the other to Gurgsiir, 56
centre to Ndmkhast, 56
takes the rear himself, 56
gives Kuhram the command
in chief, 56
thrice offers rewards to any
that will fight Zarir, 61, 62
his offer accepted by Bidi-
calls for Bidirafsh to fight
fights with the Iranians, 71
his defeat proclaimed by
hears of AsfandiyaYs im-
prisonment and of Gush-
tdsp's absence in Sistan, 86
Arjiisp, summons his chiefs, 86
sends Situh as spy to I' ran,
on receiving Situh's report
calls out the host, 87
sends Kuhram to attack
marches against Gttshtiisp, 94
commands the centre, 95
defeats Gushtasp and be-
leaguers him on a moun-
Asfandiyar's vow of, and
prayer for, vengeance on,
hears of Asfandiyar's arrival,
proposes to retreat, 108
sends away the spoil of
Balkh, 1 08
his five sons, 108
persuaded by Gurgsdr to re-
main and fight, 108, 109
makes Gurgsar leader of
the host, 109
arrays the host, 109
commands the centre, 109
surveys the battlefield from a
height, 1 10
prepares for flight if needful,
dismayed at AsfandiyaYs
prowess, reproaches Gurg-
hears of Gurgsar's capture
and flees, 1 12
entertains Asfandiy;ir dis-
guised as a merchant, 145
questions Asfandiyar, 146
allows Asfandiyar to enter-
tain the Turkman chiefs,
prepares to attack Bishutan,
bids Kuhram prepare for
sends out Turkhan with
troops to reconnoitre, 151
Arjasp, hears from Knliram
that Asfancliyar has come,
bids the Turkmans march
out in force, 152
his palace attacked by Asfan-
arms himself and encounters
Asfandiyar, 153, 154
beheaded by Asfandiydr, 154
his palace fired, and his
women carried off, by
Asfandiyar, 154, 162
his head thrown from the
ramparts of the Brazen
his sons grieve for, 157
Asfandiyar takes the trea-
sure of, 161
and Rustarn, 282
Artaxerxes Longimanus, 281, 282
and Bahinan, 281, 282
Arzhang, div, 203
Ascalon, city, 292
Asfandiyar (Spewto'-data, Spand-
dat), son of Gushtasp, v, vi,
vii, viii, 9, 10, 12, 19, 20, 22,
24 seq., 29, 30, 32, 41 seq. t
45, 49, 52, 65 seq., 69 seq.,
76 seq. , 90 seq., 97 seq.,
258, 259,261, 279, 281 seq.,
289, 290, 293
his invulnerability, 19
his sisters, vi, 20, 22
carried off by the Turk-
mans, 93, 100, 171
rescued by, 153, 162
lament over, 252 eeq.
his marriage with Humai, 22,
ignored by Firdausi, 22
birth of, 32
answers, in conjunction with
Zarir and Jamasp, Arjdsp's
his triumph over Arjasp
foretold by Jamasp, 52
Asfandiyar, given command of one
addresses his five brothers, 65
hears his father's offer of the
crown and throne to the
avenger of Zarir, 66
slays Bidirafsh, 70
presents the head of Bidirafsh
and the steed of Zarir to
divides the host, 71
attacks with Nastiir and
Nush Azar the Turkmans,
grants quarter to the Turk-
made chief ruler of fran
under Gushtasp and sent
by him to convert the
rests from his labours, 77
makes Farshidward governor
of Khurasan, 77
reports the success of his
administration to Gush-
slandered by Gurazm, 78
recalled to court, 80 seq.
his four sons, 80
resigns his host to Bahman,
arraigned by Giishtdsp, 83
put in bonds, 84
sent to Gumbaddn, 84
solaced by Bahman and
Jamasp advises Gushtasp to
hears of arrival of Jamasp,
his parley with Ja'ma'sp, 99
his eight and thirty brothers,
101, 103, in, 160
bids Jamasp send for black-
breaks his bonds himself, 102,
Asfandiyai, calls for his steed, and
sets off with Jamasp, Bah-
man, and Nush Azar, 103
his vow, 103
laments over Farshidward,
prays that he may avenge
Farshidward on Arjasp,
shrouds Farshidward, 105
sees and addresses the corpse
of Gurazm, 105
passes the Turkman trenches,
and defeats the outpost,
his interview with Gushtasp,
receives the promise of the
crown and undertakes to
deliver Gushtasp, 107
arrays and leads the host,
attacks the Turkmans, no
defeats Kuhram, no
takes Gurgsar prisoner, 1 1 1
defeats Arjasp, 112, 206
grants quarter to the Turk-
distributes the spoil, 114
undertakes to rescue his
sisters from the Turkmans,
prepares to invade Turan,
rivalry in legend between
Rustam and, 116
Haft Khwan of, compared
with Rustam's, 117
quits Balkh and goes, with
Gurgsar as guide, to
offers the kingdom of the
Turkmans to Gurgsar in
return for faithful service,
questions Gurgsar, 120 seq.,
124, 125, 128, 131, 134, 139
Asfandiydr, during his adventures
in the Seven Stages, leaves
Bishutan in command, 122,
124, 126, 129, 132 note, 144
praised by Bishutan and the
host, 123, 125, 131, 133
has a scythed chariot made,
revived by Bishutan after
encountering the dragon,
song of, 129
amulet given to, by Zar-
encourages the Tranians to
prays for deliverance from
the snow, 138
leaves the baggage behind,
reproaches Gurgsar for giv-
ing false information, 139,
offers to make Gurgsar
captain of the Brazen Hold
if he will be a trusty guide,
and the host, guided by
Gurgsar, cross the ford,
his final questioning of
cursed by Gurgsar, 141
slays Gurgsar, 141
surveys the Brazen Hold, 142
captures, questions, and slays
two Turkmans, 142
and Bishutan consult, 143
his stratagem to take the
Brazen Hold, 116, 143
in the disguise of a merchant
interviews Arjasp, 145
assumes the name of Kharrad,
questioned by Arjasp, 146
trades as a merchant in the
Brazen Hold, 147
meets his sisters, 147
Asfandiydr, gives a banquet to
the Turkman chiefs, 149
surprises the Brazen Hold,
provides for his sisters' safety,
attacks the palace of Arjasp,
encounters Arjdsp, 154
beheads Arjasp, 154
fires Arjasp's palace, 154
carries off the women, 154
quits the Brazen Hold and
leaves Sawa in charge, 154
joins Bishutan, 155
pursues Kuhram to the Bra-
zen Hold, 156
encounters and takes Kuh-
rani prisoner, 157
grants no quarter to the
puts to death Aiidariman and
Kuhram, 158 and note
announces his victory to
disposes of the spoil, 161
carries off his sisters, the
womenfolk of Arjasp, and
others from the Brazen
sets fire to, and dismantles,
the Brazen Hold, 162
sends his sons homeward
by different routes, 162
returns himself by the Seven
picks up his left baggage,
hunts while waiting for his
is rejoined by his sons, 163
his welcome on his return to
banquets with Gushtasp, 164
his light with Rustani, Story
of, vii, viii, 166 seq.
recited by Nadr, son of
Harith, at Mecca, 166
Asfandiyar, complains to his
mother of Gushtdsp's treat-
ment of him, 167
counselled by his mother,
hi.s fate foretold by Jamasp,
recounts his deeds before
promised the throne by Gush-
tasp when he has brought
Rustam and his kin in
bonds to court, 173, 174
meets with an ill omen on
starting for Zabulistati, 177
consults with Bislmtan, 178
sends Bahman on an embas-
sage, 179 seq.
his message to Rustam, 179
receives Rustam's answer
from, and is wroth with,
converses of Rustam with
goes attended to meet Rus-
parleys with Rustam, 192 seq.
declines Rustam's invitation
to visit him, 193
invites Rustam to a feast, 195
repents of having invited
counselled by Bishiitan to
keep on friendly terms
with Rustam, 196, 217
does not summon Rustam to
the feast, 197
his wrangle with Rustam,
does not assign Rustam his
proper seat at the feast, 200
remonstrated with by Rus-
bids Bahman resign his own
seat to Rustam, 200
vilifies Ziil and Rustam, 201
recounts his lineage, 205
Asfandiyar, recounts his capture
of a hill-fort, 206
triesa handgrip with Rustam,
challenges Rustam, 209
astonished at Rustam's prow-
ess at the board, 210
declines Rustam's overtures,
calls Ziibulistan " Babble-
parodies Rustam's address to
royal tent-enclosure, 216
arms for fight with Rustam,
refuses Rustam's suggestion
of a general engagement,
informed by Bahman of the
slaying of Nush Azar and
enraged with Rustam, 228
wounds Rustam and Rakhsh,
jeers at Rustam, 229
calls upon Rustam to sur-
returns to camp, laments for
Nush Azar and Mihr-i-
Nush, and sends their
corpses to Gushtasp with a
converses with Bishutan of
the light with Rustam, 232,
the Simurgh instructs Rus-
tam how to overcome, 237
branch of tamarisk fatal to,
239 and note
summoned by Rustam to
tight and becomes despond-
Rustam's final effort for
peace with, 241 seq.
Bahman and Bishutan hear
of the overthrow of, 244
his address to Bishutan, 245
Asfandiyar, Rustam bewails, 246
confides Bahman to Rustam,
foretells evil for Rustam, 248
gives his last charge to Bi-
death of, 250
Rustam laments over, 250
his corpse sent to Gushtasp
by Rustam, 251
his funeral procession con-
ducted by Bishiitan, 251
the lamentations over, 252 seq.
his corpse displayed by Bi-
Rustam writes to Gushtasp
to excuse himself in the
matter of, 256
Xerxes and, 282
Bahman on the vengeance
due for, 283
referred to, 288
Asfandiyar - ndma (Spand - dat-
nama), 26, 27
Ashkanian dynasty, 10, 282
Atossa, wife of Cambyses and
Darius Hystaspis, n
= Hutaosa (?), n
Aurand, father of Luhntsp, 205
Aurva-aspa (Luhrasp), n
Ayas, region, 61, 74, 107
Aziid Sarv, Firdausi's authority
for the Story of Rustam
and Shaghad, 260, 261, 263
Azad Sarv, agent of Nushirwan,
A'zar Afruz, third son of Asfan-
diyar, 8 1
Azarbaijan, province, 16
Azarmdukht, Shah, 294
BABBLESTEAD, nonce name given
to Zdbulistan by Asfan-
hanging gardens of, 293
Badr, battle of, 166
Baghdad, city, 28
Bahman (Ardshir, Artaxerxes),
Shah, vii, viii, 9, 81, 166,
248, 251, 254, 279 seq., 293,
294, 297, 303- 3 10
eldest son of Asfandiyar, 80
Asfandiyar resigns the host
hears of Asfandiy;ir's im-
goes with others to solace
accompanies Asfandiyar from
sent on an embassage, 179
crosses the Hirmund. 182
his coming reported to Zal,
his interview with Zstl, 183
follows Rustani to the hunt-
tries to kill Rustani, 184
his interview with Rustam,
entertained by Rustam, 186
astonished at Ru.stam's appe-
leaves Rustam, 190
gives Rustam's answer to
Asfandiyar's wrath with, 191
resigns his seat at the feast
to Rustam, 200
informs Asfandiyar of the
slaying of Nush Azar and
hears of Asfandiyar's over-
confided to Rustam by Asfan-
Za wa ra warns Rustam against
remains with Rustam, 252,
Bahman, instructed by Rustam
and profits thereby, 256,
Gushtasp advised by Jam asp
to write to, 258
Gushtasp's letter of recall to,
equipped by Rustam for his
welcomed and called Ardshir
by Gushtasp, 259
his long arms, 259
appointed by Gushtasp to
succeed him, 279
his historical position in
Persian legend, 281
and Artaxerxes Longimanus,
how he came to be known
as Ardshir, 281
ascends the throne and har-
angues the chiefs on the
vengeance due for Asfan-
invades Sistan, 284 seq.
sends a hostile message to
rejects Zal's conciliatory over-
sacks ZaTs palace, 286
pillages Zabnlistan, 287
fights, defeats, and executes
Faramarz, 287, 288
Bishutan intercedes for Zal
stops the pillage of Zabul and
releases Zal, 289
quits Zabul by Bishutan's
passes over his son Susan and
nominates Hum.ii and her
issue as successors to the
death of, 294
Bahman (Vohn Manau, Vohu-
man), ameshaspenta, 16
Balaam, prophet, 15
Balkh, city, v, vi, 18, 20, 29, 31,
33, 41, 48, 73, 86, 87, 91,
104, 120, 171, 255
Kuhram sent by Arja"sp to
stormed, 92, 93
its spoil sent away by Arjstsp,
Asfandiyar quits, to invade
Bsir, mountain-range, 30
king of, sends embassy to
Edstan-ndma (Kbudai-ntlma), 24,
Bastavairi (Bastvar, Nastur), 12
Bastvar (Bastavairi, Nastur), 25
Battlestead = Brazen Hold, 121
Battle of tbe Twelve Rukhs, re-
ferred to, 29
Bel, god, 293
temple of, 293
Bibliotheca, of Diodorus, 293
Bid, div, 204
Bidirafsb (Vidrafsh), Turanian
hero, v, 24, 25, 37, 41, 51,
52, 62 set).
goes as envoy to G ushtasp, 37,
returns with Gushtdsp's an-
receives banner from Arjdsp,
given command of one wing, 56
volunteers to fight Zarir, 62
slays Zarir, 63
fights Nastur, 70
slain by Asfandiyar, 70
his head presented to Gush-
Bill Afrid, daughter of Gushtdsp,
taken captive by the Turk-
inans, 93, 94, 100
goes with Huniai to draw
water and meets Asfan-
Bih Afrid, escapes from Arjdsp's
laments over Asfandiydr, 252
reproaches Gushtasp, 254
Bihistun, mountain, n
Bihzad, Gushtasp's steed, 56, 69
Binalud, mountain-range, 29
Bishiitan (Pesho-tanu), brother of
Asfandiyar, vii, viii, 12. 66,
117, 178, 179, 182, 195, 216,
223, 232, 244 seq., 249 seq.,
261, 288 seq.
an immortal, 12, 19
birth of, 32
commands the host during
Asfandiyar's absence in the
Seven Stages, 122, 124, 126,
129, 132710^6, 144, 150
and the host praise Asfandi-
yar, 123, 125, 131, 133
revives Asfandiyar after his
encounter with the dragon,
prays for deliverance from the
and Asfandiyar consult, 143
sees Asfandiyar's signal and
approaches the Brazen
passes himself off as Asfandi-
yar, 143, 151, 152
joined by Asfandiydr, 155
advises Asfandiyar, 179
Asfandiyar holds talk about
Rustani with, 192
advises Asfandiyar to main-
tain friendly relations with
Rustam, 196, 217
has Kustam served with un-
tempered wine, 211
his despair at the situation
between Knstam and As-
laments for Nush A'zar and
Asfandiyar talks of the light
with Rustam to, 232, 240
Bishutan, hears of Asfandiyar's
overthrow and laments for
Rustam bewails Asfandiyitr
Asfandiyar's last cliarge to,
heads Asfandiyar's funeral
displays the corpse of As-
reproaches Gushtasp, 253
consoles Katayun, 255
supports Kustam's overtures
to Gushtasp, 257
intended by Gushtasp to be
Bahman's minister, 279
intercedes for Zdl, 288
his intercession accepted, 289
counsels Bahman to quit
Blstu.ii, mountain, 56, 184
= Rustam, 229
Bizhan, son of Giv, Tranian hero,
Black horse, Gushtstsp's, 18, 28
Div. See Div.
Brar/rok-re'sh, a Karap, 15
the slayer of Zarduhsht, 15
Brazen Hold, the, vi, vii, 116,
117, 119 seq., 135, 141 serf.,
159, 197, 206, 255
route to, 120, 135
described, 121, 135, 141
AsfandiyaYs stratagem for
taking, 116, 143
surprised from within by
Asfandiyar, 152 seq.
captured by Asfandiyar and
left in the charge of Stfwa,
Arjasp's head thrown from
the ramparts of, 157
destroyed by Asfandiyar, 162
Buiti, demon, 17
Burial-place of Rustam, 287
Burial-place of Rustam's race, the
scene of battle between
Bahman and Fnramarz, 287
Bust, fortress and district in Sis-
tan, 173, 277, 287
Buzurjmihr, chief minister of
CAESAR, II, 32, 167
sends embassy to Gushtasp
on hearing of Arjasp's de-
daughter of = Katayun, 205
sues to Raslmawdd for peace,
Cambyses, son of Cyrus, 10, n
Candahar. See Kandahar.
Caspian Sea, 13
Chdch (Tashkaml), city in Turan,
Chigil, city in Turkistan. 54, 86,
monarch of, no
commands the left, no
= Arjasp, 54, 86
Turkman of = Gurgsar, 139
Chin, country (often = Tur;in), 25,
31, 37 seq., 45, 47, 50, 54,
55, 58 seq., 72, 93, 107, 108,
118, 142, 156, 158, 161, 162,
171, 173, 188, 198, 199.203,
205, 208, 284
images of, 35
prince of = Arjasp, 35
king of = Arjasp, 36, 52, 55,
69, 86, 1 08
sea of, 109, 203, 233, 239/^0^
brocade of , 130,. 144, 145, 179,
silk of, 159, 295
Khslii of, 199, 220
Faghfiir of, 22 1
Chionitre, people, 13
Chihrzdd (Hunuii, daughter and
wife of Slulh Bahman), 290
and note. See Humai.
meaning of, 190 note
Contents, Table of, v
Cross, the, captured by Dardb, 306
Cypress of Kishmar, the, 27, 28,
account of, 28, 34, 35
Gushtasp and, 34, 35
DABISTAN, treatise, 28
its account of the Cypress of
Dai, month, 43
Dai pa Mihr, day, 16
Daitya, river, 13
Dakiki, poet, v, vi, 10, 13, 20 aeq.,
account of, 20
and Firdausi, 21 seq., 30, 87,
his work compared with the
Yatkar-i-Zarinln, 24 seq.
Damawand, mountain, 12
Danube, river, n
Dard, Shdh, 281
origin of name, 297 note
Darab, Shah, viii, ix, 281, 292,
293, 297 seq.
foundling legend of, 293 seq.
Tabari's version of, 297
birth of, 294
referred to, 294 seq.
exposed on the Farat, 295
found and adopted by a
launderer, 296 aeq.
his royal birth asserts itself,
youthful escapades of, 298
brought up as a cavalier, 299
feels lack of natural affection
for the launderer, 300
hears of his case from the
launderer's wife, 300
seen by Humai, 302
Darab, and the adventure of the
ruined vault, 303
receives gifts from Rashna-
questioned by Rashnawad,
his prowess against the Rii-
mans, 305, 306
praised and rewarded by
Rashnawad, 305, 306
captures the Cross, 306 and
offered the spoil by Rash-
takes of the spoil one spear,
returns to fran, 307
Rashnawad hears from the
launderer and his wife of
the case of, 308
Rashnawad writes to Humai
recognised by Humai as being
her son, 308
appears with Rashnawad
before Humai, 309 seq.
crowned by Humai and
accepts her excuses, 310
Humai proclaims the acces-
sion of, 311
visited by, and rewards, the
launderer and his wife,
Dareja, river, 14
Darius, Hystaspis, 10, n
his reign and Gushtasp's
his change of religion, n
Darkness, Land of (the Gloom),
Dariin, religious rite, 19
Daryai Rud, river, 14
Deinon, or Dinon, historian, 282
Derketo, goddess, 292
legend of, 292
Diodorus, historian, 293
Bibliothecct of, 293
Dirazdast (Longimanus), 281
Div, demon (Daeva), 32, 58,66,
71, 108, 174, 201, 202, 213,
220, 230, 245
=Ahriman, 35, 81, 180, 188,
189, 194, 195, 196, 218, 228,
a, informs Arjasp of Gush-
tasp's resolve not to pay
While, 117, 176, 203, 207,
Sam and the, 203
Dualism, taught by Urmuzd to
Dughdliovii, mother of Zarduhsht,
Durasrobo, a Karap, 15
EUPHRATES (Farat), river, 292
FAGHFUR, dynastic title of the
princes of Chin and Machin,
Faramarz, son of Rustam, vii,
viii, 173, 174, 182, 183, 198,
231, 260, 261, 272, 274, 276,
277, 281, 283, 284
referred to, 184
and Zawara sent by Rustam
to l)id Zal and Rudaba pre-
pare to receive Asfandiyar,
slays Mihr-i-Nush, 227
goes to Rustam and Asfan-
marches against Kabul, 274,
takes the corpses of Rustam,
Zawara, and Rakhsli from
the pits, and conveys them
to Zabul for burial, 2745^.
fights with the king of Kabul
and puts him and his kin
to death, 276, 277
Fardmarz, makes a Zabuli king
of Kiibul, 277
returns to Zabul, 277
hears of Bahman's invasion
and marches against him,
defeated and executed, 288
Fardt, river (Euphrates), viii, 294,
Darab cast away upon, 295
Faridun, Shah, 32, 34, 160, 180,
196, 204 seq., 245, 260, 261,
flag of = flag of KaVa, 59
Farshidward, brother of Asfandi-
yar, vi, 20, 22, 104, no,
114, 141, 171
governor of Khurdsdn, 77
stationed on the fntnian
mortally wounded by Kuh-
ram, 95, 101, 104
Asfandiyar resolves to avenge,
Asfandiyar laments over, and
prays that he may avenge,
shrouded by Asfandiya"r, 105
Farud, son of Siyjlwush and half
brother of Kai Khusrau, 30
Firdausi, v, vi, 10, 20 seq., 29, 30,
87, 118, 282
and Dakiki, 21 seq., 30, 87,
references of, autobiographi-
cal, 30, 88. 261 seq.
to Bastan-nama, 88
his praise of Mahmud, 30,
89, 118, 119, 262
on the Story of Rustam and
Shaglidd, 260 seq.
Frasdanava, lake or river, 13
Frashokart, son of Guslitilsp, 26
GANG, mountain, 216
Garamik-kart. See Girami.
Gargwi, Tntnian hero, 109
commands the left, 109
Garshdsp, Tranian hero, 202
Gitthas, the, u, 12, 17
Gelani, people, 13. See Gilan.
Genealogies, fictitious, 282, 293
Ghaznin, city in KitbulisMn, 173
Ghul, a sorceress, 117, 128
referred to, 121, 130, 131
Ghundi, a div, 204
Gildn, region in Trail on the
south-western shores of
the Caspian, 13
Girdmi (Garamik-kart), son of
Jamsisp, v, 24 seq., 58
his death foretold by Ja'ma'sp,
worsts Namkhast, 59
rescues Kawa's flag, 59
Girdkuh, stronghold, 30
Giv, rntnian hero, 207, 208
Gloom, the (Land of Darkness),
Glory, the divine. See Grace.
Grace, or Glory, the divine, 14,
15, 32, 34 scq., 39, 45, 52,
Greeks, the, 282
Gudarz, Tnlnian hero, 207, 208
Gulgun, steed of Luhrasp, 64
Gumbadan, stronghold, 29, 30,
86, 152, 171, 177, 206
Asfandiyar imprisoned at, 84
Gurazm (Kavarazem), arelative of
Gushtasp, vi, 12, 22, 53, 99,
envies Asfandiyar, 78
referred to, 97
death of, 97
Asfandiyar addresses the
corpse of, 105
Gurgsar, tribe, 43 and note
Gurgsar, Turanian hero, vi, 117,
120 seq., 124 scq., 128, 131
scq., 146, 233 note
made captain of the host by
Gurgsitr, given command of one
persuades Arjiisp to remain
and fight Asfandiyar, 108,
made leader of the host, 109
taken prisoner by Asfandiydr,
offers to guide Asfandiyar to
the Brazen Hold, 113
goes as guide with Asfandi-
ydr to Turan, 120
offered the kingdom of the
Turkmans by Asfandiyiir in
return for faithful service,
describes the route to the
Brazen Hold, and the Seven
Stages, 120 seq., 124 seq.,
128, 132, 134
his chagrin at Asfandiyar's
successes, 124, 128, 131, 133
reproached by Asfandiydr for
giving false information,
offered the captainship of the
Brazen Hold by Asfandi-
yar in return for trusty
shows the Trail ians a ford,
questioned by Asfandiyar for
the last time, 141
curses Asfandiyar, 141
slain by Asfandiytlr, 141
Gurwi, son of Zira, Tunitiian hero,
Gushtasp (Vista"spa, Vishtasp),
Shah, v, vi, vii, viii, 9 seq.,
1 8 seq., 24 seq., 28, 29, 31 seq.,
47 seq., 61, 63, 68, 74 seq.,
90, 92 seq., 103 seq., 119,
130, 148, 154, 155, 159, 166
seq., 180, 181, 183, 205, 206,
208 seq., 213, 216, 220, 221,
233 note, 243, 248 seq., 279,
281, 289, 293
reign of, 9 se.q.
Gushtiisp, reign of, division of, 9
points of interest in, 9
compared with that of
Darius Hystaspis, 10
legend of Zarduhsht and, 18
the black horse of, 18, 28
sees his place in Paradise, 19
ridge of, 29
succeeds Luhrasp as Shah, 31
his sons, 32
pays yearly tribute to Arjasp,
converted by Zarduhsht, 33
helps to spread the Faith, 34
establishes Mihr Barzin and
other Fire-fanes, 34
and the Cypress of Kishmar,
advised by Zarduhsht not to
pay tribute to Arjjlsp, 35
receives embassage from Ar-
jasp and takes counsel with
his chiefs, 41
sends answer to Arjasp, 43
summons the host, 47
marches against Arjasp, 48
bids Jamasp foretell the issue
of the fight, 48
his distress at Jtlmasp's pro-
encouraged to fight by
gives Zarir the standard and
command of the centre, 55
one wing to Asfandiyar,
other wing to Shidasp, 55
the rear to Nastur, 55
takes up his position on a
height, 55, 56, 63
referred to, 60, 64 seq., 89
hears of the death of Zarir,
wishes to avenge Zarir, 64, 68
dissuaded by Jamasp, 64, 69
offers his daughter Humai to
the avenger of Zarir, 64
Gushtasp, offers his crown and
throne to the avenger of
gives his steed and arms to
sees and laments over Zarir's
bids Nastur lead the host
marries Humai to Asfandiydr,
gives Nastur a command and
bids him invade Turan,
rewards the host, 75
builds a Fire-fane and makes
Jftmdsp its archmage, 75
Mansion of, 75
writes to his governers to an-
nounce the defeat of A rj lisp,
receives embassies and tri-
bute from Ca3sar and from
the kings of Barbaristan,
Hind, and Sind, 75
makes Asfandiyar chief ruler
of Fran and sends him to
convert the world, 76
sends the Zandavasta to each
Gurazm slanders Asfandiyar
sends Ja"mi(sp to recall As-
fandiyar to court, 80
convokes an assembly and
arraigns Asfandiyai, 82 seq.
puts Asfandiyar in bonds, 84
sends Asfandiyar to Gum-
takes the Zandavasta to Sis-
welcomed by Rustam and
the kings revolt from, 85
while in Sistdn hears from his
wife of the storming of
Balkh and the captivity of
his daughters, 93
Gnaht&p, calls together his chiefs
and summons the host, 94
marches from Sistan toward
takes command of the centre,
hasthirty-eightsons slain, and
is worsted, in fight with
Arjasp, 95, 96
takes refuge on a mountain,
consults Jamasp, 96
sends Jamasp to Asfandiyar
with the offer of the crown
in return for help, 97
liis interview with, and pro-
mise to resign the crown to,
commands the centre, 109
makes thanksgiving for vic-
promises to resign the crown
to Asfandiyar when he has
delivered his sisters from
summons troops, rewards As-
fandiy&r, and sends him to
invade Turan, 115
hears of Asfandiyar's success
and writes to him, 160
gives a banquet on Asfandi-
yar's return, 164
consults Jamasp and the as-
trologers on Asfandiyar's
future, i 68
Asfandiyar recounts hisdeeds
before, 170 scq.
promises to resign the throne
to Asfandiyar when he has
brought Rustam and his
kin in bonds to court, 173,
Asfandiyar sends the corpses
of Nush Azar and Mihr-i-
Niish, and a message to,
Asfandiyar's last message to,
Gushtasp, hears of Asfandiydr's
death and laments for him,
the wrath of the nobles with,
reproached by Bishutan, 253
Humai and Bih Afrid,
Rustarn's overtures to, 256
Bishutan testifies inRustam's
favour to, 257
is reconciled, and writes, to
advised by Jamasp to write to
writes to Rustam and Bah-
man to recall the latter,
welcomes and gives Bahman
the name Ardshir, 259
tells Jamasp of his wishes as
to the succession, 279
HAFT KHWAX, 117 and note
of Rustam and Asfandiyar
Hdmavaran, country (Yaman),
174, 207, 208, 220
monarch of, 1 76
Hamawan, mountain, 116
Harith, father of Nadr (q.v.), 166
Hasan Sabbah, The Old Man of
the Mountain, 30
Hazar, Hazaran, Turanian hero,
24, 56, 59
Heraclius, Eastern Roman Em-
peror, 306 note
Hind, Hindustan, 75, 76, 188,
257, 262, 265, 277
kings of, send tribute to
Hiong-Nu, people, 13
Hinmind, river in Sistan, 178,
182, 186, 191, 196, 219,
referred to, 198, 231
Hold, The Brazen. See Brazen
Horse, black, Gushtdsp's. See
Hrazdau, river in Armenia, 13
Hunui. See Humai.
Humai (Huma), daughter of
Gushtasp, 12, 22, 25, ioo
her marriage with Asfandi-
yar, 22, 74
ignored by Firdausi, 22
her hand offered to the aven-
ger of Zarir, 64
taken captive by the Turk-
mans, 93, ioo
goes with Bih A'frid to draw
water and meets Asfandi-
escapes from Arja'sp's palace,
laments over Asfandiyar, 252
reproaches Gushtasp, 254
Humai (Chihrziid), Shdh, viii, ix,
daughter and wife of Bah-
man, 281, 290.965"., 301, 302,
and her issue appointed by
Bahman to succeed him,
and Semiramis, 293
genealogies of, 293
accession of, 294
Darab born of, 294
referred to, 296
hears of Human invasion and
bids Rashnawiid lead forth
the host, 301
reviews the host, 302
affected on seeing Ddrab,
hears from Rashnawad about
recognises that Ddrdb is her
her largess of thanksgiving,
Rashnawdd and Ddrdb appear
before, 309 seq.
Humai, crowns, and excuses her-
self to, Darstb, 310
proclaims Darab, 311
Huns, the, 13
Hiishang, Shah, 180, 245
Hiishdiv, Turanian hero, 46
in charge of the rear, 46
Hutaosa, wife of Gushtasp, 1 1
= Atossa (?), ii
/Zvyaonas (Khyons), people, 13
Hyapates, son of Semiramis, 292
Hydaspes, son of Semiramis, 292
Hystaspes, father of Darius I.,
governor of Paithia, 10
IBLI'S, the Muhammadan Devil,
Indus, river, 293
fraj, son of Faridun, 42, 44, 261
I'ran, v, viii, 12, 20, 21, 25, 29, 35,
I'ranians, the, v, 12, 29, 40, 50, 56,
59, 72, 86, 95, 99, 105, 112,
136, 138, 154, 156, 185, 207,
wish to withdraw from the
Seven Stages, 135
encouraged to persevere by
provoked to combat by Za-
Istakhr (Persepolis), 293
buildings at, attributed to
JAGATAI, mountain-range, 29
Jamasp, minister of Gushtilsp, v,
vi, 12, 22, 24 seq., 48, 58,
80 seq., 169 seq., 206, 216,
248, 257, 258, 279
his omniscience, 19, 48
answers, in conjunction with
Zarir and Asfandiyar, Ar-
jasp's letter, 42
Jtimasp, foretells the death in |
exploits of Nastiir, 50
death of Nivzar, 51
Zarir, 52, 70 note
triumph of Asfandiyar,
defeat of Arja"sp, 52
encourages Gushtasp to fight,
referred to, 59, 102
dissuades Gushtasp from
avenging Zarir, 64, 68
made archmage of Fire-
temple built by Gushtasp,
sent to recall Asfandiyai to
court, 80 seq.
advises Gushtrtsp, when be-
leaguered by Arjasp, to
release Asfandiyar, 97
volunteers to go to Asfan-
reaches Gumbadan in dis-
his interview with Asfandi-
yar, 99 seq.
sends for blacksmiths to
unchain Asfandiyar, 101
sets off with Asfandiyar,
Bahman, and Nush Azar,
foretells Asfandiyar's fate,
reproached by Bishiitan, 254
advises Gushtasp to write
to Bahman, 257
writes by Gushtasp's orders
to recall Bahman, 258
Gushtasp tells his intention
as to the succession to,
Jamshid, Shah, 32,34,38, 47, 180,
202, 215, 216, 245, 271, 284
Jerusalem, 306 note
Jilrun, river (the Oxus), 12, 29,
40, 45, 48, 203
Jupiter, planet, 256
KABiB, small pieces of meat
skewered together, for
Kabul, Kabulistan, viii, 126, 170,
173, 224, 242, 251, 260, 263
seq., 271, 273 seq., 284,
Shaghad sent to be brought
up at, 264
king of, viii, 264, 271
daughter of, marries Sha-
ami Shaghad plot
against Rustam, 265
gives a feast, 266
pretends to quarrel with
his treachery, 268 seq.
grovels before Rustam,
entertains Rustam and
invites him to hunt,
his hypocrisy, 271
Faramarz sent against,
defeated and put to
death with all his kin,
tribute of, question about,
Faramarz makes a Zabuli
king over, 277
Kaian, Kaianian, race and dy-
nasty, v, 7 seq., 10, 47,
49, 52, 54. 57, 59, 60, 67
seq., 73 seq., 79, 86, 91, 97,
122, 168, 203, 210, 223, 253,
254, 282, 288, 289, 291,
Kaidnush, brother of Faridun, 261
Kai Kdus, Shah, 29, 30, 116, 173,
174, 190, 203, 207, 208, 210,
his attempt to fly referred
Rustam's patent from, 203
Kai Khusrau, Shah, 10, 12, 21,
39, 173, 1 88, 203, 204, 208,
215, 284, 289
Rustam's patent from, 203
Kai Kubad, Shah, 174, 180, 188,
189, 202, 205, 210, 221,
Kiimus, Turanian hero, 167, 199,
Kandaha'r, city, 233 note
Kannuj, city in Hindustan, 257
Karap (Karpan), 14, 17
meaning of, 14
Kara su, river, 14
Kariman, the great-great-grand-
father of Rustam, 202
Karpan (Karap), 14
Kdrun, mountain, 112
Kasluin, city and region in Turdn,
Kashmar. See Kishmar.
Kashmir, country, 263
Kaswin, city, 30
Katdyun (Nahid), daughter of
Cresar and wife of Gushtdsp,
vii, ii, 253
her sons, 32
counsels Asfandiya"r, 168, 175
referred to, 205, 249, 252
her ancestry, 205
Asfandiyar's last message to,
laments over Asfandiyar, 252
consoled by Bishutan, 255
Kaus. See Kai Kdus.
Kavdrazem (Gurazm), 12
Kavi (Kavig), 14
Kavig (Kavi), 14, 17
meaning of, 14
Kawa, flag of, 59, 69
rescued by Girami, 59, 69
Khallukh, city in Turan, 42, 44,
55,61, 74, 90, 107, 112, 157,
Khan = Arj asp, 47, 51, 72
of Chin, 199, 220
Kharrad, nonce name assumed by
Asfandiydr, 146, 149
Khaslulsh, Turanian hero, 46, 47
made leader of the van, 46
Khorasan. See Khurasdn.
Khudai-nama (B'sstftn-nama), 24
Khurasa"n, 28, 77
Khurshid, day, 92 note
Khusrau. See Kai Khusrau.
Khusrau Parwiz, Shah, 294, 306
Khydns (//ryaonas), 13, 25
Kishmar, place near Nishapur,
27, 28, 35
Cypress of, 27
account of, 28, 34
Gushtasp and, 34
Ktesias, historian, 293
his account of Semiramis, 293
Persica of, 293
Kuba"d. Sec Kai Kubad.
Kuhram, Turdnian hero, 29
Kuhram, brother or son of Arjdsp,
vii, 29, 46, 58, 89 seq., 106
seq., 112, 141, 159
commands one wing of the
in chief, 56
sent by Arjdsp to attack
his troops storm Balkh, burn
the Fire-temple, and slay
Zarduhsht and the priests,
stationed on the left, 95
mortally wounds Farshid-
appointed by Arjasp to send
away the spoil of Balkh in
the charge of his younger
commands the right, no
defeated by Asfandiydr, no
Knliram, bidden to prepare for
retreats to the Brazen Hold,
mistakes Bishutan for As-
hears the cries of the Iranian
watch from the Brazen
Hold and takes counsel
with Andariman, 155
makes for the Brazen Hold
with his troops, 156
pursued by Asfandiyar, 156
encountered and taken
prisoner by Asfandiyar,
executed, 158 and note
Kundur, Turanian hero, 94, 112
stationed on the right, 94
Kur, river, 13
Kuran, the, 166
LABARUM, the, 306 note
Land of Darkness (the Gloom),
Launderer, a, foster-father of
Dara"b, viii, 292
finds Darab in the Farat, 296
and his wife adopt Darab,
wife of, viii, 296 seq.
informs Da"rab of his case,
quits his home with his wife
and Ddrab and settles else-
becomes wealthy but sticks
to trade, 298
perturbed at Dardb's youth-
ful escapades, 298
brings up Darab to be a
Darab's lack of natural affec-
tion for, 300
and his wife sent for by Rash-
Launderer and his wife inform
Rashnawad of the case of
and his wife visit Ddrdb after
his accession to the throne,
and are dismissed with
presents, 311, 312,
Life, Water of, 30
Longimanus (Dintzdast), 281
Luhrftsp, Shah, v, vi, 10, 20, 21
and note, 26, 29, 36, 38, 64,
66, 68, 80, 86, 87, 90 seq.,
98 seq., 103, 104, 114, 141,
154, 155. 1 S7, 159, 160, 167,
171, 180, 183, 205, 208, 243,
255, 281, 284
resigns the throne to Gush-
tdsp and becomes a devotee,
converted by Zarduhsht, 33
his advice to Gushtasp to
resign the kingship to
opposes Kuhram, 91
slain, 91, 93, 99
AsfandiyaYs vow to avenge, 103
MACHI'N (China), 142, 145
Madofryatf, mountain, 30
Mahan, Truman noble, 260, 263
Mahmud, Sultan, vi, 30, 89, 116,
praise of, 30, 89, 118, 262
Mahraspand, father of Adarbad,
1 6 note
Maidhyo-maungha, cousin and
first convert of Zarduhsht,
Malcolm, Sir John, 30
Mani, heresiarch, 118 and note
Mansion of Gushtasp, Fire-temple,
Mansur I., Samdnid, 21
Marv, city and district, 29, 260,
Mas'tidi, historian, 261, 293
his version of the death of
Mazandara'n, country (Hyrcania),
116, 117, 203, 207, 220
Mecca, 31, 166
Mercury, planet, 243
Mihr Barzin, Fire-temple, 34
established by Gushtiisp, 34
Mihr-i-Nush, second son of As-
fandiyar, 80, 283
slain by Faramarz, 227
his death reported to Asfan-
diyar by Bah man, 227
his corpse sent to Gushtasp,
Mihnib, king of Kabul, 203
daughter of = Riidaba, 203
Miinichihr, Shall, 12, 174,252,284
Mirkhond, historian, 30
Moses, prophet, 294
Mountain, Old Man of the, 30
Muhammad, the Prophet, 166
Mutawakkal, Khalifa, 28
and the Cypress of Kishmar,
NADR, son of Harith, 166
recites the story of Rustam
and Asfandiyar at Mecca,
his fate, 166
Nahid. See Kataytin.
Naishapur. See Nishdpur.
Namkhast, Turanian hero, 24, 26
goes as envoy to Gushtasp,
returns with Gushtdsp's an-
given command of the centre,
worsted by Girdmi, 59
Nariman, great-grandfather of
Rustam, 196, 199, 202, 242,
262, 264, 266, 289
Nasttir (Bastavairi, Bastvar), son
of Zarir, v, 12, 25, 26
his exploits foretold by
given command of the rear,
fights victoriously, 60
goes in search of Zarir, 67
finds Zarir's corpse and la-
ments over it, 67
exhorts Gushtasp to avenge
goes forth with Gnshtdsp's
steed and armour, 69
challenges Bidirafsh, 69
fights with Bidirafsh, 70
attacks, with Asfandiydr and
Nush Aznr, the Tiiranians,
leads the host home, is given
a command and invades
stationed on the Tranian
commands the right, 109
Naubahdr, Fire-temple, 31
Luhrasp retires to, 31
Nile, 176, 188, 191, 245
Nimruz, country, 1 85, 248, 288
Ninus, king, 292, 293
Ninyas, son of Ninus, 293
Nishapur, city in Khurdsan, 28
Nivz;ir, son of Gushtiisp, v, 26
his death foretold by Jilrmisp,
Noldeke, Professor, 20, 21, 282
Note on Pronunciation, 5
Nub II., Sanulnid, 21
Nush Azar, Fire-temple at Balkh,
92 note, 173, 241, 255
burnt by the Turkmans, 93
Nush Azar, yonngest son of
Asfandiyar, 81, 166, 226,
227, 283, 285
1 See Vol. i. p. 396 note.
Niisli Azar, attacks, with Nastur
and Asfandiyilr, the Tura-
nian host, 71
builder of a Fire-temple, 81
with Asfandiyar at Gum-
informs Asfandiyar of Ja-
niitsp's arrival, 98, 99
accompanies Asfamliydr from
slays Turkhan, 151
wrangles with Zawara, 226
slays Aiwa, 226
slain by Zawara, 227
his death reported to Asfandi-
yar by Eahman, 227
his corpse sent to Gushtasp,
Nxishirwdn, Shah, 260
Nush Zdd=Mihr-i-Nush, 285 and
OLD Man of the Mountain, the,
Onnes, minister of Ninus, 292,
Oxus, river (Jihun), 12, 29
PAHLAVf, Texts, 13, 14, 24, 30
language (middle Persian),
Paighu = Turanian, 13, 21 note, 38
note, 41 note, 44 note
Pars, country. 293
Hystaspes, governor of, 10
Parthian dynasty, 281
Pat-klmsrau, brother of Gushtasp,
Persepolis (Istakhr), 293
buildings at, attributed to
Persia, 306 note
Persians, the, 74
Pcrsica, of Ktesias, 293
Pesho-tanu (Bishutan), 12
Pleiades, constellation, no, 131
Pourushaspa, father of Zarduhsht,
14, 15. 17
Pronunciation, Note on, 5
Pulad, a div, 204
Purandukht, Shah, 294
Purmaya, brother of Faridun,
RAI, city and district near Tih-
rdn, 14, 18
Rakhsh, Rustam's steed, 117,
184, 192, 198, 207, 208,
214, 219, 228 scq., 234 set/.,
2.66, 275, 276, 306
referred to, 199
wounded by Asfandiyar, 229
returns home without Rus-
Rustam's thought of aban-
healed by the Sinmrgh, 237
tries to save Rustam, 270
falls into the pit, 270
body of, taken from pit by
tomb of, 276
lord of = Rustam, 306
Ram, the, constellation, 129
Rashnawad, captain of the host
to Humai, ix, 301 seq.
assembles troops, 301
Danib enlists under, 301
his host reviewed by Humai,
marches on Riim, 302
and the adventure of the
ruined vault, 303
gives presents to Dardb, 304
questions Ddrab, 304
sends for the launderer and
his wife, 304
and Darab defeat the Ru-
mans, 305, 306
praises Darab, 305, 306
Rashnawad, offers Dardb the spoil,
grants peace to Cassar, 307
roturns to I'rdn, 307
hears from the launderer and
his wife about the case of
writes to Humai about Diirdb,
appears with Dstrslb before
Humai, 309 scq.
Religion, War of the, 19, 26
its two campaigns, 29
Remus. See Romulus.
Ridge of Gushtasp, 29
Romulus and Remus, foundling
legend of, 293
Rudaba, mother of Rustarn, viii,
182, 184, 190 note, 278
fasts in sorrowfor Rustam, 278
her frenzy, 278
regains her wits, 279
referred to, 190, 289
her lamentation, 289
Riidbar, district, 30
Rukhs, Battle of the Twelve,
referred to, 29
Rum, the Eastern Roman Empire,
ix, 75, 76, 102, 180, 188, 262,
301, 305, 307
brocade of, 295
ravaged by Rashnawad and
Rumans, the, viii, 173,205,292,305
invade I'ran, 301
defeated by Rashnawad and
Darab, 305 seq.
Rustam, Iranian hero, vii, viii, 9,
22, 30, 50, 73, 86, 116 seq,,
165, 1 66, 173 seq., 254 seq.,
265 seq., 278, 279, 281 seq.,
and Zal welcome Gushtasp
to Sistiin, 85
rivalry in legend between
Asfandiydr and, 116
Haft Khwan of, compared
withthatof Asfandiydr, 117
Rustam, Asfandiyar's fight with,
Story of, vii, yiii, 166 seq.
recited by Nadr, son of
Hdrith, at Mecca, 166
referred to, 169, 170, 306
Gushtasp bids Asfandiyar go
Asfandiydr's message to, 179
his life attempted by Bah-
his interview with Bahman,
entertains Bahman, 186
his great appetite, 186, 210
jests with Bahman on his
small appetite, 186
sends Zawaraand Fantmarz to
bid Zal and Rudaba prepare
to receive Asfandiyar, 190
goes to the Hirmund, 191
parleys with Asfandiy.ar, 192
invites Asfandiyar to visit
accepts Asfandiydr's invita-
tion to a feast, 195
tells of his interview with
Asfandiyar to Zal, 196
his indignation at not being
summoned to the feast, 197
sets forth to reproach Asfan-
his wrangle with Asfandiydr,
demands his proper seat at
the feast, 200
and Zal vilified by Asfan-
details his ancestry, 202
recounts Sam's exploits, 202
his own exploits, 203, 207
his patents from Kal Kaiis
and Kai Khusrau, 203
aged six hundred years, 204
tries a handgrip with Asfan-
accepts AsfandiyaVs chal-
Rustani, asks for neat wine,
makes fresh overtures to
Asfandiydr, 211 seq.
addresses the royal tent-
bids Zawdra bring him his
rejects Zal's counsels, 220
arms for battle, 222
gives Zawara charge of the
goes with Zawara to the
instructs Zawdra, 222
crosses the Hirmund and
summons Asfandiyar to
the combat, 223
suggests a general engage-
his distress at death of Nush
A'zar and Mihr-i-Nush, 228
offers to surrender Zawara
and Faramarz to Asfandi-
wounded by Asfandiyar, 229
flees from Asfandiyar, 229
sends Zawara Avith a message
to Zal, 230
parleys with Asfandiyar. 231
recrosses the Hirmund, 23 1
his kin's grief over his
bids the leeches to attend to
Rakhsh first, 234
his despair, 235
advised by Zal, 235
Zal summons the Simurgh to
the aid of, 235 seq.
healed by the Simurgh, 237
instructed by the Simurgh
how to overcome Asfandi-
yar, 237 seq.
cuts the fatal branch of tama-
prepares the arrow, 240
summons Asfandiyar to re-
new the light, 240
JRustam, makes a iinal effort for
peace with Asfandiy.ir, 241
bewails Asfandiyar to Bishu-
Asfandiyar confides Bahman
foretells an evil future
laments Asfandiyar, 250
warned by Zawara against
sends Asfandiyar's corpse to
Bahman remains with, 252,
instructs Bahman, 256
writes to Gushtasp to excuse
himself in the matter of
his overtures to Gushtdsp
supported by Bishutan, 257
Gushtasj) accepts the excuses
of, and writes to, 257
requested by Gushtasp to
send back Bahman, 258
equips Bahman for his jour-
and Shaghad, Story of, viii,
provenance of, 260 seq.
death of, 261, 273, 289
versions of, 261
and the tribute of Kabul,
question of, 265
Shaghad and the king of
Kabul plot against, 265
takes up Shaghad's cause, 267
prepares to occupy Kabul
with a host, 268
persuaded by Shaghad to go
with Zawara and a small
pardons king of Kabul, 269
is entertained by him, 269
goes hunting wit h Zawdra, 270
falls a victim to treachery, 270
Shaghad glories over, 271
Rustam, slays Shaghad, 272
last words of, 272
his corpse taken from the
pit by Faraniarz, 274
his obsequies, 274 seq.
and Artabanus, 282
burial-place of, 287
the scene of the battle
between Bahman and
SADA, feast of, 309
Safid Rud, river, 13, 16
Sa^astdn (Sis tan), 13
Sahl, son of Mahan, I'raniau noble,
260, 261, 263
Salin, eldest son of Faridun, 205,
Sam, grandfather of Rustam, 14,
15, 58, 62, 63, 196, 198 seq.,
242, 262 seq., 266, 267, 274,
285, 286, 289, 290
his exploits against dragon
and div recounted by Rus-
Sanja, a div, 204
Sapad. See Spento-data.
Sapandarmad, anieshaspenta, 18
Sapor II. (Shapur), 13
Sargon I. of Agani, 293
foundling legend of, 293
Sari, city in Mazandaran, 174
Sarv, king of Yaman, 260
= Aziul Sarv, q.v.
Sas<in, son of Bahman, 290
disinherited and flees from
account of, 291
Sasatiian.raceand dynasty, 10, 13,
Saturn, planet, 68, 89, 136, 154,
159, 220, 233
Savalan, mountain in Azarbaijan,
Ssiwa, franiau hero, 154
Sawa, left in charge of the Brazen
Hold by Asfandiytlr, 154
Scythians, the, n
their wars with Darius Hys-
Semiramis, queen, 292, 293
legend of, 292, 293
and Humai, 293
Seven Stages, the, 118, 119, 121,
story of, vi, vii, 116 seq.
Asfandiyar returns from the
Brazen Hold by, 162
Shaghad, sou of Zal, viii, 260, 261,
Story of Rustam and, viii,
provenance of, 260 seq.
birth of, 263
the astrologers' evil prognos-
tic of, 264
sent to be brought up at
marries the daughter of the
king of Kilbul, 264
and the king of Kabul plot
against Rustam, 265 seq.
his pretended quarrel with
the king of Kabul, 266
goes to Zabul, 267
his cause taken up by Rus-
persuades Rustam to go with
Zawara and a small escort
to Kitbul, 268
warns the king of Kabul of
Rustam's coming, 269
glories over Rustam, 271
slain by Rustam, 272
his corpse burnt, 277
Shahnama, 9 s>q., 19, 20, 22 seq.,
27 seq., 293, 294
editions of, 3
Shapur, son of Urmuzd (Sapor
II.), 1 6 note
Shahrivar, day, 310
Shida>p, son of Gushtasp, v, 26,
50, 55. 57, 58
Shiilasp, his death foretold by
given command of one wing,
Shirkhun, a Zabuli, 184
guides Bahnian to Ilustam,
Shiru, son of Gushtilsp, v, 26
Shulak, Gushtasp's steed (Dakiki),
Asfandiyar's steed (Firdausi),
Sigzian, a native of Sigz, 226 and
= Zawara, 226
= Ziiwara and Faramarz, 228
= Rustam, 241
Sikandar (Alexander the Great),
Silvia, vestal, 293
Simmas, chief herdsman of Ninus,
Simnrgh, mythical bird, vii, 117,
132 aeq., 166, 201, 235 seq.,
246, 248, 255
young of, 201
summoned to Rustam's aid
by Zal, 235 seq.
heals Rustani and Rakhsh,
instructs Rustara how to
overcome Asfandiyar, 237
Sind, region and river (Indus), 75,
180, 203, 277
kings of, send tribute to
Sipand. See Spento-data.
Sistan (Sagastan), country, 1 vi,i3,
17, 29, 85, 86, 89, 94, 173,
174, 201, 220, 248, 261, 264,
lake of, 239 note
mourning in, for Rustani, 278
invaded by Bahman, 284 seq.
i See Vol. i.
Situh, Turanian hero, 86, 87
goes as a spy to I'ran and
reports to Arjasp, 86, 87
Siyd/vvush, son of Kai Kaus, 174,
176, 192, 208, 272
Smerdis, the false, n
Song of Asfandiyar, 129
Spand-dat (Spento-data, Asfandi-
yar), 24 seq.
ma), -26, 27
Spendyao?. See Spento-data.
Spen.to-data (Spand-dat, Asfandi-
Spewto-data (Spendyarf, Sipand,
Sapad), mountain, 30, 116,
Spitilma, name of family of which
Zarduhsht was a member,
Stages, the Seven. See Seven
Sudaba, wife of Kai Kaus, 174
referred to, 174
Suhrab, son of Rustam, 204
Surush, angel, 170, 253
TABAEI, historian, 261
his version of the death of
on the etymology of Dtlrab,
Table of Contents, v
Tamarisk, 239, 240, 243, 246, 247,
branch of, fatal to Asfandi-
yar, 239 and note
Taraz, city in Turkistan and dis-
trict in Badakhslian, 157
Tennyson, quoted, 281
Tiber, river, 294
Tihran, city, 14, 18
Tiir, second son of Faridun, 42,
206, 261, 284
Turan, 12, 20 seq., 25, 32, 41, 43,
45, 53, 61 and passim
p. 396 note.
Turanians (Turkmans), the, v, 13,
Turkhan, Turanian hero, 151
sent with troops to recon-
noitre outside the Brazen
slain by Niish Azar, 151
Turkmans (Turanians), the, v, 22,
6l, 72, 90 scq., 98 seq., 104
seq., 108, no, 113, 114, 116,
135, 152, 157, 158, 171, 173.-
army of, surrenders to As-
fandiyar, 72, 113
monarch of = Arjasp, 74
led by Kuhrain, storm Balkh,
burn the Fire-temple, and
slay Zarduhsht and the
priests, 92, 93
take Gushtasp's daughters
kingdom of, offered by As-
fandiyar to Gurgsdr in re-
turn for faithful service, 120
ordered by Arjasp to march
out from the Brazen Hold
in force to attack the in-
vaders under Bishutan,
hear the cries of the Tranian
watch in the Brazen Hold,
refused quarter by Asfandi-
Tus, son of Naudar, 57, 116, 207,
Tus, city in Khurasan, 28, 202
Sam and the dragon of, 202
ULAD, a div, 204 note
Umar Khayyam, 30
Urniuzd, the Good Principle, 15
Vandaremaini (Andarimdn), 13
Venus, planet, 159
Vidrafsh (Bidirafsh), 24, 26
Vishtdsp (Vistdspa, Gushtasp), 24
VistsCspa (Vishtasp, Gushtasp), n
Vohu Manau (Vohuman, Bah-
man), ameshaspenta, 16, 17
Vohuman. See Vohu Manau.
WATER of Life, 30
War of the Religion, the, 19, 26,
its two campaigns, 29
West, Dr. E. W., referred to, 11
White Castle, 30
Div. See Div.
XERXES, king, 282
Asfandiydr and, 282
YAMAN, region in south-western
Ydtkar-i-Zariran, Pahlavi Text,
13, 24, 27 and note
compared with Dakiki's
work, 24 seq.
Yazdagird III., Shall, 294
Zsibul, Zabulistan, country, 1 vii,
85, 86, 167, 169 seq., 173,
175 seq., 181 seq., 193, 194,
212, 215, 219, 223, 224, 235,
248, 251, 252,255, 256,258,
265, 266, 273, 275 seq., 281,
283, 285 seq.
Gushtdsp goes to, 85
Moon of=Rudaba, 190 and
1 See Vol. i. p. 396 note.
Zabul, called " Babblestead " by
Bahman's sojourn in, 252, 256
pillaged by Bahman, 287
Bah man quits, 290
Zabuli, a native of Zabul, 212, 277
a, made king of Kabul. 277
Zahhak, Shah, 12, 180, 203, 204,
Zairi-vairi (Zarir, Zariadres), 12
Zal, father of Rustam, vii, viii,
ii, 14, 15, 58, 86, 169, 173
seq., 182 seq., 196, 197, 200,
204, 210, 212, 219 seq., 230,
231, 234 seq,, 240 seq., 246,
247, 255, 256, 261, 263 seq.,
277 seq., 281, 283, 285, 289,
and Rustam welcome Gush-
tasp to Sistan, 85
hears of Bahmau's approach,
his interview with Bahman,
gives Bahman a guide to con-
duct him to Rustam, 184
and Riidaba bidden by Rus-
tam to prepare to receive
Rustam recounts his inter-
view with Asfandiyar to,
and Rustam vilified by
receives a message from Rus-
tam by Zawdra, 230
grieves over Rustam's
summons the Simtirgh to
Rustam's aid, 235
goes to Rustam and Asfan-
forebodes Rustam's future,
father of Shaghad, 260, 263
sends Shaghad to be brought
up at Kabul, 264
laments for Rustam, 273
Z<il, sends Faramarz against Ka-
bids Riidaba to cease to
mourn for Rustam, 278
receives and replies to Bah-
man's hostile message, 285
goes to meet Bahman, 286
his palace sacked, 286
Bishutan intercedes for, 288
released and returns to his
Zal-i-zar. See Zal
Zandavasta, n seq., 30, 36, 41, 43,
51, 77, 82, 85, 100, 173, 176,
216, 241, 294, 299, 309
sent by Gushtasp to every
burnt by the Turkmans at
Zarathushtra. See Zarduhsht.
Zarduhsht (Zarathushtra, Zoro-
aster), v, vi, 9 seq., 23 seq.,
27, 28, 33 seq., 42, 51, 77,
173, 206, 216, 217, 241, 255
meaning of, 13
legend of, 14 seq.
converts Gushtasp, 33
success of his Evangel, 34
plants the Cypress of Kish-
advises Gushtstsp not to pay
tribute to Arjasp, 35
referred to, 36, 38, 41
slain at Balkh, 92, 93
amulet given to Asfandiyar
Zariadres (Zairi-vairi, Zarir), 26
Zarir (Zairi-vairi, Zariadres), bro-
ther of Gushtasp, v, 12, 13,
24 seq., 37, 41 seq., 49 seq.,
60 seq., 73, 94, 109, 169, 181,
193, 254, 261
Love-story of, 26, 27
Death-story of, 26, 27
converted by Zarduhsht, 33
answers, in conjunction with
Asfandiydr and Jamdsp, Ar-
jasp's letter, 42
Zarir, his death foretold by
receives the standard from
Gushtasp and the command
of the centre, 55
liis prowess, 61 scq.
slain by Bidirafsh, 63
Zarir-ndma, 26, 27
Zartusht Bahrain Pazhdu, author
of the Zartusht-nama, 18
Zartusht-nama, poem, 18
Zawara, brother of Rustam, vii,
viii, 173, 174, 182 seq., 187,
191, 218, 222, 225 scq., 230,
231, 234, 250, 260, 261, 268,
270, 273, 275
referred to, 186, 228
and Faramarz sent by Rustam
to bid Zal and Rudaba pre-
pare to receive Asfandiyar,
brings Rustam's armour, 218
put in charge of the troops, 222
goes with Rustam to the
Zawdra, Rustam's instructions to,
provokes the Frdnians to
slays Niish Azar, 227
goes in quest of Rustam, 230
takes from Rustam a message
for Zdl, 230
grieves over Rustam's wounds,
goes to Rustam and Asfandi-
warns Rustam against Bah-
and a small escort accompany
Rustam to Ka"bul, 268
goes hunting with Rustam, 270
falls a victim to treachery,
death of, 273
his body taken from the pit
by Faramarz and buried,275
Zira, Turanian hero, 272
Zoroaster. See Zarduhsht.
END OF VOL. V.
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